Water Treatment Filtration Lab. discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water filtration system with

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1 Water Treatment Filtration Lab Brandon Lyons P.5 APES Abstract: How could polluted water be remediated so that it could support life when it is discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water filtration system with different types of materials that could very well decontaminate the water system and save the organisms in the ecosystem. The results were very negative as our fish died and the whole system was destroyed and polluted. A conclusion we made was that when watching over water systems people have to be more cautious on what can get in and contaminate the systems, and dirt and charcoal do not filter the water well. Introduction: The reason why we have a shortage of clean water in the U.S. is because we use it for irrigating crops, human use, and control of wastes. In order to have firm control of our in stream and off stream use we create dams to preserve our water. Surface and ground water tables consist of oceans, lakes, and puddles. A large percentage of water being used for farming is 50-65%. Irrigation cropping is management of crops and the farming of use of crops. Water pollution occurs when water is contaminated in oceans, streams, lakes, etc. The Hudson River Case Study exemplifies water pollution based on millions of pounds of polychlorinated bipheny and it is where it is poured into the river. Water and ground water pollution is where pollution is occurring in lakes, oceans, and puddles. Water and ground water pollution is where pollution is occurring in lakes, oceans, and

2 puddles. A borne disease is a sickening disease found in water. Bacteria is a measuredphycalcoliform (Botkin and Keller, 2011). Water pollution occurs when water is contaminated in oceans, streams, lakes, etc. The Hudson River Case Study exemplifies water pollution based on millions of pounds of polychlorinated bipheny and it is where it is poured into the river. Water and ground water pollution is where pollution is occurring in lakes, oceans, and puddles. A borne disease is a sickening disease found in water. Bacteriais a measured-phycalcoliform. Dissolved oxygen disappears in water while biochemical is the demand of oxygen, particularly humans and animals. Dissolved oxygen effects ecosystems by being used up faster. Eutrophication is fertilizer run off when placed in water that immediately kills off all the plants in the water. It aligns so it makes water algae on top of the water that completely blocks out the sun that prevents the plants in the water to grow. Nitrate reacts well in water. Biochemical nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon make fertilizer and decomposition of dead animals and is a run off into the water. It also develops into air and pollutes the air. Phosphorous gets into soil when mountains break and its sediments come into the soil and water. And from the decomposing organisms and rocks. Carbon goes into soil when things decompose which produce carbon dioxide when in water. Septic tanks separate sludge and dirt from water to make fresh and clean water. The treatment works by applying wastewater to land by renovating it. The primary treatments include strainers and draining of the water and the second treatments includes the use of bacteria. The chlorine treatment also kills pathogens. Remediation is the clean up of organisms. Phytormediation is the clean up with

3 plants. Bioremediation is the use of life including bacteria to clean up. What I will use to build my water filtration system is using recyclable water bottles and cups and determines what pollutants can affect the ecosystem. Independent variables are filter designs and the dependent variable is water quality. If we put charcoal and soil in our filter then it will remediate the water to make it clean enough to discharge into an aquatic ecosystem without causing harm to the ecosystem. Materials and Procedure. Material plastic water bottles or 1 2-liter soda bottles Masking tape Packaging tape Waste Water Soil Person bringing it Class supplied Class supplied Class supplied Class supplied Class supplied Procedure I had to research that water is used for human, crop and waste use. Harmful organisms such as bacteria pollute water. We decided to incorporate a fish, gravel, and a plant. Then after each day, we drain the water to test how soluble it is. We poured out the water into a vile and shook up the vile to determine how much oxygen has penetrated the water system. We just poured water into the top of the filtration system. We let the system sit for about a week. For every day we were in the class we had to check up on the water. We just extracted the water from the system and measured the sample. Like before, we extracted a sample and measured the water in a tube. We had to pour waster into the system and we let it sink into the filters to determine what kind of materials can leak into the water. But the filters fell through which destroyed our experiment. We just poured the water into the top of the system.

4 The tests we did was taking a sample and measuring how much oxygen is left in the system. Repeat steps 8-10 for trial 3. We figured to go for a lake route by adding a fish, water, and plants in the system as well as dirt and see how dirt can taint a lake. We did not modify our filter. We took samples and recorded the degrees and measurements. Data: Trial 1: Table 1: Waste water, 5 ml sample tested on (Dates): Sample ph Ammonia/Ammonium Nitrite Nitrate Phosphate Before date: 5 2 After filtration date: Table 2: Distilled water, 5 ml sample tested on (Dates): Sample ph Ammonia/Ammonium Nitrite Nitrate Phosphate Before date: 7 4 After filtration date: Trial 2: Table 1: Waste water, 5 ml sample tested on (Dates): Sample Dissolved BOD ph Coliform Nitrate phosphate temperature turbidity (dates) oxygen bacteria Before testing: c After filtration: c Table 2: Distilled water, 5 ml sample tested on (Dates): Sample (dates) Before testing: Dissolved BOD ph Coliform Nitrate phosphate temperature turbidity oxygen bacteria c After filtration: Trial 3

5 Table 1: Waste water, 5 ml sample tested on (Dates): Sample Dissolved BOD ph Coliform Nitrate phosphate temperature turbidity (dates) oxygen bacteria Before testing: 8ppm high 8.5 pos 0ppm 2ppm 23 After testing 8 ppm low 7 neg Table 2: Distilled water, 5 ml sample tested on (Dates): Sample (dates) Before testing: Dissolved oxygen BOD ph Coliform bacteria Nitrate phosphate temperature turbidity 8ppm loco Negative 0ppm 2ppm 23 (Red) EcoColumn measurements and qualitative observations Table 1EC: Date Wed/Thurs Fri Mon Tues Wed/Thurs Terrestrial Plant Height Temperature Dissolved O 2 4ppm 4ppm 4ppm 4ppm Table 2EC: Day Deaths? Soil Water Fish Plants other Wed/Thurs

6 Fri Yes No Clear Dead green, healthy X Mon Yes No Clear lightened in color got bigger X Tues Yes No Clear stayed there, not rotting yet, still light in color plant didn t grow as much X Wed/Thurs Yes No Murky stayed there, not rotting yet, still light in color it died, X fell out of its place Results: Figure 1:Nitrogen in the water before and after trial 2. There is no results for trial 1 and 3.

7 Figure 2: I used ph before and after for trials 1-3. Figure 3: I used Phosphate before and after trial 1-3.

8 Trial 4: I used Dissolved O2 before and after for trial 2 and trial 3. There was no experiment for trial 1. Trial 5: I discovered the before and after for Temperature for trial 2 and trial 3. There was no experiment for trial 1.

9 BOD Figure 6: I discovered the Plant Height over a week s period. Discussion:

10 Our essential question was, How could polluted water be remediated so that it could support life? The trends we saw showed that water was not remediated so it stayed at a constant temperature. If we put charcoal and soil in our filter then it will remediate the water to make it clean enough to discharge into an aquatic ecosystem without causing harm to the ecosystem. My hypothesis was not supported because in an instant when we placed a live gold fish in the water the fish died due to the contents from the filter that leaked into the system. For trial 1, we chose to build our system like a multiple filter system because we felt it was appropriate to see how well contents can leak through the system. The results only led me to have less satisfying results for ph and phosphate. This experiment showed me that I didn t understand water use because I wasn t able to determine how to track down more results from the experiment. I didn t have enough data because ph showed that we made the water more neutral, which is something I am proud of, but the phosphate levels increased, and we don t want too many nitrates and phosphate because they cause Eutrophication. For the second trial we left our filtration the same to see what our experiment could look like over time and also because we didn t have time to remodel the filtration system. The results for trial 2 were dissolved oxygen went from 2ppm to 4ppm, ph went from 5 to 7, nitrate and phosphate went up and temperature stayed the same. The before data showed that coliform bacteria was positive, ph was 5 (acidic), BOD was positive, and dissolved oxygen was 2 ppm, which is very low. This new-found understanding relates on how polluted the water

11 is because it is lacking in terms of oxygen. The water looked very dirty at first, then when it went through the filter, it looked clear and there was more dissolved oxygen, which is a good thing because the fish needs the oxygen. For the third trial we left our system the same without any need of changing it. The results for my experiment were negative. An understanding I found out of performing this experiment was that both biochemical cycles and ecosystems were negatively effected. This was because the minerals in our filter fell into the ecosystem. We added it onto the ecosystem, and the fish died on the first day. The water slowly got murkier, so there was pollution coming through the filter. The chemical tests mostly stayed the same, but somehow our fish died. I would alter this for my third trial because I would like to test different results of it and see how the water can be least affected by the filter s contents. My results mainly came out negative due to lack of further research on the filter. I ve noticed that the fish died within the last 20 minutes upon entering the system and that the filters ripped through which was a main cause of why our fish died. Our ecosystem showed that it is harmful and hazardous due to the rock and charcoal materials placed there. It related based on how we built our system based on an ecological environment and what kind of toxins could effect and pollute it. It taught us that we need to be more cautious and open to what could pollute and contaminate our water systems and we have to enforce a way to prevent anything from interfering with it. Some errors we encountered during our experiment was when our filters weren t secured properly and our contents were completely leaked into the

12 system. No because we didn t fill out or even experiment with the after effects of the experiment since it never occurred to us to do so. If I were to do this experiment again, I would test the water from the filters more before we put it on the ecosystem. I would record the after results. We learned to always ensure and inspect on our filtration system and see whether or not it is worthy of testing especially using live subject in the system. We would make stronger and more secure filtration system and just do an experiment on plants and bugs instead of fish since the project with the fish was very life threatening for the fish. The new questions posed from this experiment were - What are new methods to clean out my filtration system?

13 Bibliography Botkin, D.B., Keller, E.A. (2011). Environmental Science: Earth is a Living Planet eighth edition. Danvers, Massachusettes.

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