# Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases nd Intended for Grade: 2 Grade Subject: Science Description: Activities to help students understand solids, liquids, gases, and the changes between these states. Objective: The student will be able to: distinguish between the three states of matter by analyzing the properties; categorize matter into the three states; classify examples by comparing their properties. State Framework addressed: Science Framework 8: Examine the different types of observable and measurable changes that matter can undergo. Science Framework 8a: Observe and discuss the transformation of solids, liquids, and gases. Science Framework 8b: Identify solids, liquids, and gases as states of matter. Science Framework 8c: Determine the properties of the states of matter by experimenting. National Standard addressed: Content Standard B: Physical Science : Please refer to the specific activity. Background: Matter is everything that takes up space, and has mass. All things in the universe are made of matter. The four forms of matter are: solids, NSF North Mississippi GK-8 1

2 liquids, gases and plasmas. Traditionally only the first three of these states of matter are taught to elementary students because there is no way to demonstrate the properties of plasma since they are not naturally occurring on earth. A solid is anything that has its own shape. A liquid flows and will take the shape of the container it is in. A gas, though not visible, will spread out and fill available space. Matter can change from one form to another. There are two types of changes of matter: physical and chemical changes. An example of a physical change is ice melting into water, water boiling and becoming a gas, or the reverse of each of these. Physical changes are said to be reversible. An example of a chemical change is wood burning to become ash. Since this change can not be reversed, it is said to be an irreversible change. Matter can be measured in terms of mass, volume, length, and temperature. An objects mass can be measured in terms of pounds, ounces, grams, kilograms, and many other units. Volume can be measured in terms of milliliters, liters, fluid ounces, cups, pints, quarts, and many others. Similarly length can be measured in inches, feet, centimeters, meters, and others. o o Temperatures are commonly measured in F (degrees Fahrenheit) or C (degrees Celsius). : Before performing the activities included in this folder, students need to have been introduced to the three states of matter, their properties, and the concept of changes between the different states of matter. These activities can be used as reinforcement to ensure that the students understand matter and the changes that matter can undergo. Evaluation: Evaluation can be performed by using the worksheets to assess the students understanding of matter and its properties or by having the students write about the activities and what they learned from the activities. Extended Activities: NSF North Mississippi GK-8 2

3 Ask the students to bring in pictures they have cut out of magazines and lead a group discussion to classify each using the properties of each of the states of matter s: html site by: Olivia Ingersoll and Jeanette Voet Prepared by: Adam Smith NSF NMGK-8 University of Mississippi December, 2003 NSF North Mississippi GK-8 3

4 Activity One The Properties of Matter The objective of this activity is to teach the properties of the three states of matter. plastic cup three zip-lock bags water marbles Fill the first bag with the marbles. Ask the students what state of matter is in the bag. Take out the marbles and let each student hold one. Ask if the marbles take up space? Do they have weight? Do they keep their shape? Ask for other examples of solids. Fill the second bag with water. Ask the students what state of matter is in the bag. Pour some of the water into the plastic cup. Ask if the water takes up space? Does it have weight? Does it keep its shape? Ask for other examples of liquids. Open the third bag and blow some air into the bag and shut it. Ask the students what state of matter is in the bag. Ask if the air takes up space? Does it have weight? Except either yes or no for this although the correct answer is yes. Does it keep its shape? Ask for other examples of gases. tml site by: Olivia Ingersoll and Jeanette Voet NSF North Mississippi GK-8 4

5 Name Activity 1 The Properties of Matter What type of matter is in bag 1? Does it take up space? Does it keep its shape? Does it have weight? What is another example of this type of matter? What type of matter is in bag 2? Does it take up space? Does it keep its shape? Does it have weight? What is another example of this type of matter? NSF North Mississippi GK-8 5

6 What type of matter is in bag 3? Does it take up space? Does it keep its shape? Does it have weight? What is another example of this type of matter? NSF North Mississippi GK-8 6

7 Activity Two Paper Towel Magic The objective of this activity is to teach children that gases take up space. plastic tub water plastic cup paper towel Fill the tub with water. Place a paper towel in the bottom of the plastic cup. Be sure that the paper towel will not fall out when turned upside down. Ask the children to predict whether the paper towel placed in the bottom of the cup turned upside down will get wet when placed in the water. Demonstrate that the paper towel does not get wet. Ask why this happened and what state of matter is responsible for this. Explain that the air trapped in the cup keeps the water from coming into the cup and wetting the paper towel. tml site by: Olivia Ingersoll and Jeanette Voet NSF North Mississippi GK-8 7

8 Activity Three Sink or Float The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the property of mass. marble super bounce ball the same size as the marble plastic tub water Fill the tub with water. Let the children hold the marble and the bounce ball. Both balls should be the same size so that the students can draw a direct correlation between mass per volume and whether an object sinks or floats. Ask which ball is heavier. Ask the children if each one will sink or float. Does the fact that the marble is heavier have something to do with the fact that it sinks? Explain why the marble sinks and the bounce ball floats. tml site by: Olivia Ingersoll and Jeanette Voet NSF North Mississippi GK-8 8

9 Activity Four The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the change of liquid water to water vapor. plastic jar with a wide mouth rubber glove matches water Barely cover the bottom of the jar with water. Hang the glove inside the jar with its fingers pointing down, and stretch the glove's open end over the mouth of the jar to seal it. Insert your hand into the glove and pull it quickly outward without disturbing the jar's seal. Nothing will happen. Next, remove the glove, drop a lit match into the jar, and replace the glove. Pull outward on the glove once more. Fog forms inside the jar when you pull the glove outward and disappears when the glove snaps back. The fog will form for 5 to 10 minutes before the smoke particles settle and have to be replenished. Water molecules are present in the air inside the jar, but they are in the form of an invisible gas, or vapor, flying around individually and not sticking to one another. When you pull the glove outward, you allow the air in the jar to expand. In expanding, the air must do work, which means that it loses some of its thermal energy, which in turn means that its molecules (including those of the water vapor), slow down slightly. This is a roundabout way of saying that the air becomes cooler! When the water molecules slow NSF North Mississippi GK-8 9

10 down, they can stick to each other more easily, so they begin to bunch up in tiny droplets. The particles of smoke in the jar help this process along: The water molecules bunch together more easily when there is a solid particle to act as a nucleus. When you push the glove back in, you warm the air in the jar slightly, which causes the tiny droplets to evaporate and again become invisible. Ask the children what type of change the water is going through. Explain that the change is a physical change because the water is only changing from one state to another and back again. What two states of matter are involved in this change? You can use this activity to tie in the water cycle if you have covered it prior to performing this experiment. NSF North Mississippi GK-8 10

11 Activity Five The Three States of Water The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the properties of the three states of matter. 3 balloons water scissors empty bowl Before performing this activity have several balloons filled with frozen water, several filled with water, and several filled with air. Tell children they are going to investigate the contents of the three balloons and write down their observations. They will feel the frozen balloons; cut the rubber off with scissors. Discuss what they see and feel. Do the same with the water balloon, observing the properties of the water both when it is in the balloon and as they pour it into the bowl. Record observations. Feel balloon with air. Let air out. Write observations. Encourage use of descriptive words such as "hard, invisible, wet, splashy," etc. discuss all observations of all groups. Combine onto large chart with the three headings of solid, liquid, gas. Try to accept all observations as valid. NSF North Mississippi GK-8 11

12 Activity Six Space Matters The objective of this activity is to demonstrate that all matter is made of molecules and the spacing of these molecules determines the state of matter. pieces of three different colored paper Begin by telling the children that all matter is composed of tiny particles called molecules. There should be about 10 pieces of yellow paper, 4 pieces of blue paper, and 2 pieces of red paper. Pass out colored papers. Have a square of about five feet by five feet taped off on the floor of your classroom. Have all the children with yellow paper come up and stand in the square. Have them try to move around staying in the square. Explain to the class that this is representative of a solid. The molecules of solids are packed very closely and have very little room to move and this is why solids maintain their shape. Have all the children with blue paper come and stand in the square. It will be easier for them to move around. Explain that this is representative of liquids and this is why they conform to the shape of their container. Have the children with the red paper come and stand in the square. Explain that this is representative of gas. The molecules can easily move around and this is why they fill their container. Repeat this activity to get the children to understand the concept of molecules. NSF North Mississippi GK-8 12

13 Activity Seven Alka-Seltzer Magic The objective of this activity is to demonstrate that gases take up space. vinegar alka-seltzer or baking soda one-hole stopper and clear bottle a second clear bottle rubber tubing (about 8 inches) or two flexible straws taped together Explain that children will see how another gas, carbon dioxide, takes up space. Fill one bottle to the top with water. Put baking soda or alkaseltzer in second bottle, add vinegar, and quickly stop up the bottle with the stopper, which has the hose or straws inserted in it. Place the other end of the hose or straw in the bottle of water and observe the action of the carbon dioxide as it is released in the water. (The reaction lasts for only a short time) Discuss what happened, why, and what we learned about the gas. NSF North Mississippi GK-8 13

14 Activity Eight The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the concept of evaporation as a change in state of matter. water, alcohol, brown paper bag, 2 plastic cups, cotton swabs Dip one cotton swab in alcohol and another in water. Ask the students to predict which liquid will evaporate faster. Make a quick swipe of each liquid on a separate area of brown paper from a paper bag. Blow on the lines and see which one disappears first. Have the students figure out which evaporated faster. NSF North Mississippi GK-8 14

15 Activity Nine The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the concept of condensation as a change in state of matter. Glass cups or jars, ice cubes, cold water Distribute a glass cup or jar to each group. Do the cups feel wet or dry? Fill the cups with ice and add cold water to them. Do the cups feel wet or dry? Let the cups sit for one half hour. What do you notice about the outside of your cups? Are they wet or dry? Where did the water come from? Students can leave the ice water glasses out overnight or for several hours. If the class had studied evaporation, then discuss with them what happened to the water on the outside of the glass. NSF North Mississippi GK-8 15

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