Satellite Posi+oning. Lecture 5: Satellite Orbits. Jan Johansson Chalmers University of Technology, 2013


 Asher Carson
 6 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Lecture 5: Satellite Orbits Jan Johansson Chalmers University of Technology, 2013
2 Geometry Satellite Plasma Posi+oning physics Antenna theory Geophysics Time and Frequency GNSS Orbital mechanics Physics of the Atmosphere Relativity Stochastic processes Kalman Filtering Wave propagation
3 GPS ERROR BUDGET AND DILUTION OF PRECISION (DOP) Total root sum square when SA off: 9.5
4 Satellite geometry at two loca+ons GLONASS & GPS coverage in Kiruna
5 Orienta+on of the Earth in Iner+al Space The oscilla+on of the earth s rota+onal vector with respect to iner+al space is called nuta+on. It is par++oned into: Secular precession Periodic Nuta+on. The orienta+on of the earth s crust with respect to its rota+onal vector is called polar mo+on Varia+on in length of day (LOD) cause varia+on in orienta+on
6 Astronomical " Latitude also shown" Satellite Posi+oning Geode+c La+tude
7 Internal Satellite Mo+ons Posi+oning of Earth Solid Earth +des Ocean, atmosphere +des and loading Ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere mass mo+ons and loading Glacial isosta+c rebound Geophysical phenomena
8 Internal Mo+ons of Earth Solid Earth +des Ocean, atmosphere +des and loading Ocean, atmosphere mass mo+ons and loading Glacial isosta+c rebound Geophysical phenomena
9 Satellite Orbits Treat the basic descrip+on and dynamics of satellite orbits Major perturba+ons on GPS satellite orbits Sources of orbit informa+on: SP3 format from the Interna+onal GPS service Broadcast ephemeris message Accuracy of orbits and health of satellites
10 Important satellite orbit laws
11 Implica+ons Satellite Posi+oning of Kepler Laws
12 Dynamics of satellite orbits Basic dynamics is described by F=Ma where the force, F, is composed of gravita+onal forces, radia+on pressure (drag is negligible for GPS), and thruster firings (not directly modeled). Basic orbit behavior is given by
13 Simple dynamics GM e = µ = x10 8 m 3 s  2 The analy+cal solu+on to the central force model is a Keplerian orbit. For GPS these are ellip+cal orbits. Mean mo+on, n, in terms of period P is given by For GPS semimajor axis a ~ 26400km
14 Solu+on for central force model We will deal only with closed ellip+cal orbits. The orbit plane stays fixed in space One of the foci of the ellipse is the center of mass of the body These orbits are described Keplerian elements
15 Kepler Satellite elements: Posi+oning Orbit plane Ω, ω, and ί: orienta+on of ellipse
16 Satellite Kepler elements Posi+oning in plane a and e : Size and shape of orbital ellipse
17 mo+on The mo+on of the satellite in its orbit is given by T o is +me of perigee
18 True anomaly Difference between true anomaly and Mean anomaly for e (rad) (seconds)
19 Satellite Eccentric Posi+oning anomaly Difference between eccentric anomaly and Mean anomaly for e (rad) (seconds)
20 Satellite Vector to Posi+oning satellite At a specific +me past perigee; compute Mean anomaly; solve Kepler s equa+on to get Eccentric anomaly and then compute true anomaly. Vector r in orbit frame is
21 Final conversion Satellite Posi+oning to Earth Fixed XYZ Vector r is in satellite orbit frame To bring to iner+al space coordinates or Earth fixed coordinates, use This is basically the method used to compute posi+ons from the broadcast ephemeris
22 Perturbed mo+ons The central force is the main force ac+ng on the GPS satellites, but there are other significant perturba+ons. Historically, there was a great deal of work on analy+c expressions for these perturba+ons e.g. Lagrange planetary equa+ons which gave expressions for rates of change of orbital elements as func+on of disturbing poten+al Today: Orbits are numerically integrated although some analy+c work on form of disturbing forces.
23 Perturba+on from Flaoening J 2 The J 2 perturba+on can be computed from the Lagrange planetary equa+ons
24 J 2 Perturba+ons No+ce that only Ω, ω, and n are effected and so this perturba+on results in a secular perturba+on The node of the orbit precesses, the argument of perigee rotates around the orbit plane, and the satellite moves with a slightly different mean mo+on For the Earth, J 2 = x103
25 Gravita+onal Satellite perturba+on Posi+oning styles Parameter Secular Long period Short period a No No Yes e No Yes Yes i No Yes Yes Ω Yes Yes Yes ω Yes Yes Yes M Yes Yes Yes
26 Term Other perturba+on on orbits and Satellite Posi+oning approximate size Acceleration (m/sec 2 ) Central 0.6 Orbit error J 2 5x105 (10000 m) Other gravity 3x107 (200 m) Third body 5x106 (3000 m) Earth tides 109 (0,3 m) Ocean tides (0,04 m) Drag ~0 Solar radiation 107 (200 m) Albedo radiation 109 (0,03 m)
27 GPS Orbits Orbit characteris+cs are Semimajor axis km (12 sidereal hour period) Inclina+on 55.5 degrees Eccentricity near 0 (largest 0.02) 6 orbital planes with 45 satellites per plan Design life+me is 6 years, average life+me 10 years Genera+ons: Block II/IIA
28 GLONASS Constellation and Comparison to GPS
29 Galileo Constellation Satellite Posi+oning and Comparison to GPS Galileo GPS No of satellites (+?) No of orbital planes 3 6 Orbital inclination 56º 56º Orbit al+tude 23222km 20200km Period of revolution ~14h05m 11h58m
30 Broadcast Ephemeris Satellites transmit as part of their data message the elements of the orbit These are Keplerian elements with periodic terms added to account for solar radia+on and gravity perturba+ons Periodic terms are added for argument of perigee, geocentric distance and inclina+on The message and its use are described in the ICD GPS 200
31 Broadcast Satellite ephemerides Posi+oning 1 (2) Parameter t e a e M 0 ω 0 i 0 l 0 Δn i Explanation Ephemerides ref. epoch Square root of semimajor axis Eccentricity Mean anomaly Argument of Perigee Inclination Longitude of node at weekly epoch Mean motion difference Rate of inclination angle
32 Broadcast Satellite ephemerides Posi+oning 2 (2) Parameter ΏΏ C uc C us C rc C rs C ic C is t c a 0 a 1 a 2 Explanation Rate of node s right ascension Correction coefficients (arg. perigee) Correction coefficients (geoc. dist.) Correction coefficients (inclination) Satellite clock reference epoch Satellite clock offset Satellite clock drift Satellite clock frequency drift Time given in GPS Week & Seconds
33 Rela+vis+c effects General rela+vity affects GPS in three ways Equa+ons of mo+ons of satellite Rates at which clock run Signal propaga+on In our GPS analysis we account for the second two items Orbits only integrated for 13 days and equa+on of mo+on term is considered small
34 Clock effects GPS is controlled by MHz oscillators On the Earth s surface these oscillators are set to 10.23x( x1010 ) MHz (39,000 ns/day rate difference) This offset accounts for the change in poten+al and average velocity once the satellite is launched. The first GPS satellites had a switch to turn this effect on.
35 Propaga+on and clock effects Our theore+cal delay calcula+ons are made in an Earth centered, non rota+ng frame using a light +me itera+on i.e., the satellite posi+on at transmit +me is differenced from ground sta+on posi+on at receive +me. Two correc+ons are then applied to this calcula+on
36 Satellite Correc+ons Posi+oning terms Propaga+on path curvature due to Earth s poten+al (a few cen+meters) Clock effects due to changing poten+al For e=0.02 effect is 47 ns (14 m)
37 Rela+vis+c Effects
38 Distribu+on Satellite of Posi+oning Ephemerides The broadcast ephemeris is decoded by all GPS receivers and for geode+c receivers the souware that converts the receiver binary to an exchange format outputs an ASCII version The exchange format: Receiver Independent Exchange format (RINEX) has a standard for the broadcast ephemeris. Form [4 char][day of year][session].[yy]n e.g. brdc n up://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/ igscb/data/format/rinex2.txt
39
40 Primary ITRF2005 sites and co located techniques Satellite Posi+oning (48) (25) (6) VLBI sites SLR/LLR laser GPS station DORIS
41 Current geode+c Satellite networks Posi+oning contribu+ng to ITRF
42 Interna+onal Terrestrial Reference Satellite Posi+oning Frame (ITRF) Cartesian system (XYZ) Realized by space geode+c sta+ons with known coordinates and velocity vectors
43 Example of precise ephemerides from IGS igs12980.sp3 analysis center GPS week day of GPS week format Descrip+on of the sp3 and sp3c format: up://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/igscb/data/format/ (X,Y,Z, dt) every 15 minutes terrestrial based reference frame!
44 Satellite Orbit Dissemina+on Source of Information Quality Availability Dissemination Predicted (broadcast) 3 m Real time SignalinSpace IGS predicted (48 hours) 0,2 m Real time Internet/FTP IGS final orbit 0,05 m 1 week delay IGS Data centers Orbit Error Baseline length Baseline Error 3 m 10 km 1,2 mm 3 m 100 km 12 mm 0,5 m 10 km 0,2 mm 0,5 m 100 km 2 mm 0,05 m 10 km 0,02 mm 0,05 m 100 km 0,2 mm Satellite clocks also important => 10 ns corresponds to 3 meter
45 Satellite Summary Posi+oning The important things from this lecture are: Orbit characteris+cs for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo Perturbed mo+on Broadcast ephemerides Precise ephemerides (from IGS)
Orbital Mechanics and Space Geometry
Orbital Mechanics and Space Geometry AERO4701 Space Engineering 3 Week 2 Overview First Hour Coordinate Systems and Frames of Reference (Review) Kepler s equations, Orbital Elements Second Hour Orbit
More informationGünter Seeber. Satellite Geodesy 2nd completely revised and extended edition
Günter Seeber Satellite Geodesy 2nd completely revised and extended edition Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York 2003 Contents Preface Abbreviations vii xvii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Subject of Satellite Geodesy...
More informationPenn State University Physics 211 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1
ORBITAL MECHANICS 1 PURPOSE The purpose of this laboratory project is to calculate, verify and then simulate various satellite orbit scenarios for an artificial satellite orbiting the earth. First, there
More information2. Orbits. FERZagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12
2. Orbits Topics Orbit types Kepler and Newton laws Coverage area Influence of Earth 1 Orbit types According to inclination angle Equatorial Polar Inclinational orbit According to shape Circular orbit
More informationOrbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum
Orbital Mechanics The objects that orbit earth have only a few forces acting on them, the largest being the gravitational pull from the earth. The trajectories that satellites or rockets follow are largely
More informationLecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System
Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws
More informationAUTOMATED OPERATIONAL MULTITRACKING HIGH PRECISION ORBIT DETERMINATION FOR LEO MISSIONS
AUTOMATED OPERATIONAL MULTITRACKING HIGH PRECISION ORBIT DETERMINATION FOR LEO MISSIONS J. Fernández Sánchez, F. M. Martínez Fadrique, A. Águeda Maté, D. Escobar Antón GMV S.A., Isaac Newton 11, 876 Tres
More informationFlight and Orbital Mechanics
Flight and Orbital Mechanics Lecture slides Challenge the future 1 Material for exam: this presentation (i.e., no material from text book). Sunsynchronous orbit: used for a variety of earthobserving
More informationEDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1
Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time
More informationSection 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits
Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits MOTION IN SPACE VS. MOTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE The motion of objects in the atmosphere differs in three important ways from the motion of objects in space. First,
More informationVocabulary  Understanding Revolution in. our Solar System
Vocabulary  Understanding Revolution in Universe Galaxy Solar system Planet Moon Comet Asteroid Meteor(ite) Heliocentric Geocentric Satellite Terrestrial planets Jovian (gas) planets Gravity our Solar
More informationGlobal Positioning System
B. HofmannWellenhof, H. Lichtenegger, and J. Collins Global Positioning System Theory and Practice Third, revised edition SpringerVerlag Wien New York Contents Abbreviations Numerical constants xix xxiii
More informationNewton s Law of Gravity
Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has
More informationSolar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?
Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earthcentered
More informationAnalysis on the Longterm Orbital Evolution and Maintenance of KOMPSAT2
Analysis on the Longterm Orbital Evolution and Maintenance of KOMPSAT2 OkChul Jung 1 Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), 45 Eoeundong, Daejeon, South Korea, 305333 JungHoon Shin 2 Korea Advanced
More informationProf. Ludovico Biagi. Satellite Navigation and Monitoring
Prof. Ludovico Biagi Satellite Navigation and Monitoring Navigation: trajectories control positions estimations in real time, at high frequency popular applications: low accuracy (10 m) required specific
More informationGEOPHYSICAL EFFECTS ON SITE DISPLACEMENTS FOR PERMANENT GPS TRACKING STATIONS IN TAIWAN
GEOPHYSICAL EFFECTS ON SITE DISPLACEMENTS FOR PERMANENT GPS TRACKING STATIONS IN TAIWAN C. C. Chang Department of Surveying and Mapping Engineering Chung Cheng Institute of Technology Tahsi, Taoyuan 335,
More informationHow To Monitor Sea Level With Satellite Radar
Satellite Altimetry Wolfgang Bosch Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI), München email: bosch@dgfi.badw.de Objectives You shall recognize satellite altimetry as an operational remote sensing
More informationExamination Space Missions and Applications I (AE2103) Faculty of Aerospace Engineering Delft University of Technology SAMPLE EXAM
Examination Space Missions and Applications I AE2103 Faculty of Aerospace Engineering Delft University of Technology SAMPLE EXAM Please read these instructions first: This are a series of multiplechoice
More informationTrimble CenterPoint RTX PostProcessing Services FAQs
Trimble CenterPoint RTX PostProcessing Services FAQs What is Trimble RTX technology? 30 September 2013 Trimble RTX TM (Real Time extended) is a highaccuracy, global GNSS correction technology that combines
More informationAttitude and Orbit Dynamics of High AreatoMass Ratio (HAMR) Objects and
Attitude and Orbit Dynamics of High AreatoMass Ratio (HAMR) Objects and Carolin Früh National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow, AFRL, cfrueh@unm.edu Orbital Evolution of Space Debris Objects Main
More informationCoverage Characteristics of Earth Satellites
Coverage Characteristics of Earth Satellites This document describes two MATLAB scripts that can be used to determine coverage characteristics of single satellites, and Walker and userdefined satellite
More informationThe IGS: A MultiGNSS Service
The IGS: A MultiGNSS Service Chris Rizos, Urs Hugentobler, Ruth Neilan IUGG IAG Structure International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) 65 Member Countries (Adhering Bodies), 8 Associations International
More informationOrbital Dynamics: Formulary
Orbital Dynamics: Formulary 1 Introduction Prof. Dr. D. Stoffer Department of Mathematics, ETH Zurich Newton s law of motion: The net force on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by
More informationHalliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton
Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 131 Newton's Law
More informationSpacecraft orbits and missions
General Astrophysics and Space Research Course 210142, Space Physics Module Spring 2009, Joachim Vogt Spacecraft orbits and missions Topics of this lecture Basics of celestial mechanics Geocentric orbits
More informationChapter 2. Mission Analysis. 2.1 Mission Geometry
Chapter 2 Mission Analysis As noted in Chapter 1, orbital and attitude dynamics must be considered as coupled. That is to say, the orbital motion of a spacecraft affects the attitude motion, and the attitude
More informationNotes: Most of the material in this chapter is taken from Young and Freedman, Chap. 13.
Chapter 5. Gravitation Notes: Most of the material in this chapter is taken from Young and Freedman, Chap. 13. 5.1 Newton s Law of Gravitation We have already studied the effects of gravity through the
More informationLearn From The Proven Best!
Applied Technology Institute (ATIcourses.com) Stay Current In Your Field Broaden Your Knowledge Increase Productivity 349 Berkshire Drive Riva, Maryland 1140 888501100 4109568805 Website: www.aticourses.com
More informationAstromechanics TwoBody Problem (Cont)
5. Orbit Characteristics Astromechanics TwoBody Problem (Cont) We have shown that the in the twobody problem, the orbit of the satellite about the primary (or viceversa) is a conic section, with the
More informationSatellite Communications
Satellite Communications Department of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Engineering Chiangmai University Origin of Satellite Communications Arthur C. Clark (1945) British Science fiction writer propose
More informationGPS Precise Point Positioning as a Method to Evaluate Global TanDEMX Digital Elevation Model
GPS Precise Point Positioning as a Method to Evaluate Global TanDEMX Digital Elevation Model 7 th FIG Regional Conference TS 1C Advances in GNSS Positioning and Applications I Volker Schwieger 1, Jürgen
More informationSection 2. Satellite Orbits
Section 2. Satellite Orbits References Kidder and Vonder Haar: chapter 2 Stephens: chapter 1, pp. 2530 Rees: chapter 9, pp. 174192 In order to understand satellites and the remote sounding data obtained
More informationGNSS and Heighting, Practical Considerations. A Parker National Geospatial Information Department of Rural Development and Land Reform
GNSS and Heighting, Practical Considerations A Parker National Geospatial Information Department of Rural Development and Land Reform GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Global Positioning
More informationGravity Field and Dynamics of the Earth
Milan Bursa Karel Pec Gravity Field and Dynamics of the Earth With 89 Figures SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg New York London Paris Tokyo HongKong Barcelona Budapest Preface v Introduction 1 1 Fundamentals
More informationCDMA Technology : Pr. S. Flament www.greyc.fr/user/99. Pr. Dr. W. sk www.htwgkonstanz.de. On line Course on CDMA Technology
CDMA Technology : Pr. Dr. W. sk www.htwgkonstanz.de Pr. S. Flament www.greyc.fr/user/99 On line Course on CDMA Technology CDMA Technology : CDMA / DS : Principle of operation Generation of PN Spreading
More informationSittiporn Channumsin Coauthors
28 Oct 2014 Space Glasgow Research Conference Sittiporn Channumsin Sittiporn Channumsin Coauthors S. Channumsin Outline Background Objective The model Simulation Results Conclusion and Future work 2 Space
More informationPlanetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide
Name: Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide Background Material Answer the following questions after reviewing the Kepler's Laws and Planetary Motion and Newton and Planetary Motion background pages.
More informationSatellite Mission Analysis
CARLETON UNIVERSITY SPACECRAFT DESIGN PROJECT 2004 FINAL DESIGN REPORT Satellite Mission Analysis FDR Reference Code: FDRSAT20043.2.A Team/Group: Satellite Mission Analysis Date of Submission: April
More informationSUNSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT SLOT ARCHITECTURE ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT. A Thesis. Presented to. the Faculty of California Polytechnic State University
SUNSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT SLOT ARCHITECTURE ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
More informationFrom Aristotle to Newton
From Aristotle to Newton The history of the Solar System (and the universe to some extent) from ancient Greek times through to the beginnings of modern physics. The Geocentric Model Ancient Greek astronomers
More informationPHYSICS FOUNDATIONS SOCIETY THE DYNAMIC UNIVERSE TOWARD A UNIFIED PICTURE OF PHYSICAL REALITY TUOMO SUNTOLA
PHYSICS FOUNDATIONS SOCIETY THE DYNAMIC UNIVERSE TOWARD A UNIFIED PICTURE OF PHYSICAL REALITY TUOMO SUNTOLA Published by PHYSICS FOUNDATIONS SOCIETY Espoo, Finland www.physicsfoundations.org Printed by
More informationAstronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review
Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality
More informationRS platforms. Fabio Dell Acqua  Gruppo di Telerilevamento
RS platforms Platform vs. instrument Sensor Platform Instrument The remote sensor can be ideally represented as an instrument carried by a platform Platforms Remote Sensing: Groundbased airborne spaceborne
More informationPost Processing Service
Post Processing Service The delay of propagation of the signal due to the ionosphere is the main source of generation of positioning errors. This problem can be bypassed using a dualfrequency receivers
More informationUnderstanding Orbital Mechanics Through a StepbyStep Examination of the SpaceBased Infrared System (SBIRS)
Understanding Orbital Mechanics Through a StepbyStep Examination of the SpaceBased Infrared System (SBIRS) Denny Sissom Elmco, Inc. May 2003 Pg 1 of 27 SSMD1102366 [1] The GroundBased Midcourse Defense
More informationSATELLITE ORBIT DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS (S.O.D.A) A VISUAL TOOL OF SATELLITE ORBIT FOR SPACE ENGINEERING EDUCATION & RESEARCH
SATELLITE ORBIT DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS (S.O.D.A) A VISUAL TOOL OF SATELLITE ORBIT FOR SPACE ENGINEERING EDUCATION & RESEARCH 1 Muhammad Shamsul Kamal Adnan, 2 Md. Azlin Md. Said, 3 M. Helmi Othman,
More informationOnline Precise Point Positioning Using the. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRSPPP)
Online Precise Point Positioning Using the Natural Resources Canada Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRSPPP) Thomas Nylen and Seth White UNAVCO October 2007 I. Precise Point Positioning Precise Point
More informationName: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015
Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around
More informationMobile Communications: Satellite Systems
Mobile Communications: Satellite Systems Mobile Communication: Satellite Systems  Jochen Schiller http://www.jochenschiller.de 1 History of satellite communication 1945 Arthur C. Clarke publishes an essay
More informationArtificial Satellites Earth & Sky
Artificial Satellites Earth & Sky Name: Introduction In this lab, you will have the opportunity to find out when satellites may be visible from the RPI campus, and if any are visible during the activity,
More informationHalliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton
Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 131 Newton's Law
More informationBinary Stars. Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion
Binary Stars Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Kepler s Three Laws of orbital motion result from the solution to the equation of motion for bodies moving under the influence of a central 1/r 2 force gravity.
More informationTime and frequency distribution using satellites
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING Rep. Prog. Phys. 65 (2002) 1119 1164 REPORTS ON PROGRESS IN PHYSICS PII: S00344885(02)989670 Time and frequency distribution using satellites Judah Levine Time and Frequency
More information12. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.
Chapter 1 11. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year X d.) one hour 12. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)
More informationThe Use and Integrity Monitoring of IGS Products at Geoscience Australia (GA)
Australian Government Geoscience Australia The Use and Integrity Monitoring of IGS Products at Geoscience Australia (GA) Ramesh Govind, John Dawson, John Manning IGS2004 Workshop and Symposium Berne,
More informationDevelopment of an automated satellite network management system
Development of an automated satellite network management system Iasonas Kytros Christos Porios Nikitas Terzoudis Varvara Chatzipavlou Coach: Sitsanlis Ilias February 2013 Abstract In this paper we present
More informationQuasiSynchronous Orbits
QuasiSynchronous Orbits and Preliminary Mission Analysis for Phobos Observation and Access Orbits Paulo J. S. Gil Instituto Superior Técnico Simpósio Espaço 50 anos do 1º Voo Espacial Tripulado 12 de
More information19780004170 NASARP 1009 78N12113. An introduction to orbit dynamics and its application to satellitebased earth monitoring systems
19780004170 NASARP 1009 78N12113 An introduction to orbit dynamics and its application to satellitebased earth monitoring systems NASA Reference Publication 1009 An Introduction to Orbit Dynamics and
More informationInternational Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service
International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service IGS MultiGNSS Experiment IGS MGEX Call for Participation www.igs.org Response to this Call for Participation in IGS MGEX via Web Form Submission
More informationTechnical Article Developing Software for the CN3 Integrated GPS Receiver
Technical Article Developing Software for the CN3 Integrated GPS Receiver 1 Intermec Technologies Table of Contents INTRODUCTION... 3 AN OVERVIEW OF GPS TECHNOLOGY... 3 What is GPS?... 3 How GPS works...
More informationIntroduction to satellite constellations orbital types, uses and related facts
Introduction to satellite constellations orbital types, uses and related facts Dr Lloyd Wood space team, Cisco Systems http://www.cisco.com/go/space Guest lecture, ISU summer session July 2006 created
More informationWHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS
WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS N & E State Plane Coordinates for Control Points AZIMUTHS  True, Geodetic, or Grid  Conversion from Astronomic to Geodetic (LaPlace Correction)
More informationCelestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun)
Lecture 3: Motions of the and Moon ecliptic (path of ) ecliptic (path of ) The 23.5 degree tilt of Earth s spin axis relative to its orbital axis around the causes the seasons Celestial Sphere Celestial
More informationMaintaining High Accuracy in Modern Geospatial Data
Maintaining High Accuracy in Modern Geospatial Data Patrick Cunningham President info@bluemarblegeo.com www.bluemarblegeo.com +1 (207) 582 6747 Copyright 2010 Blue Marble Geographics Concepts Geodesy 
More informationOrbital Dynamics with Maple (sll  v1.0, February 2012)
Orbital Dynamics with Maple (sll  v1.0, February 2012) Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Orbital theory is one of the great triumphs mathematical astronomy. The first understanding of orbits was published
More informationChapter 6. Orbital Mechanics. Maj Edward P. Chatters IV, USAF; Maj Bryan Eberhardt, USAF; and Maj Michael S. Warner, USAF
Chapter 6 Orbital Mechanics Maj Edward P. Chatters IV, USAF; Maj Bryan Eberhardt, USAF; and Maj Michael S. Warner, USAF Knowledge of orbital motion is essential for a full understanding of space operations.
More informationUSING MS EXCEL FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION
USING MS EXCEL FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION Ian Cooper School of Physics The University of Sydney i.cooper@physics.usyd.edu.au Introduction The numerical calculations performed by scientists and engineers
More informationThe Sun. Solar radiation (Sun EarthRelationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun
The Sun Solar Factoids (I) The sun, a mediumsize star in the milky way galaxy, consisting of about 300 billion stars. (Sun EarthRelationships) A gaseous sphere of radius about 695 500 km (about 109 times
More informationDIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION
1 DIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION Daniel S. Orton email: dsorton1@gmail.com Abstract: There are many longstanding
More informationGGOS and the Importance of the Combination of Space Techniques. Hansjörg Kutterer Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy, Germany
GGOS and the Importance of the Combination of Space Techniques Hansjörg Kutterer Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy, Germany Content Combination of spacegeodetic techniques Combination examples
More informationEssential Question. Enduring Understanding
Earth In Space Unit Diagnostic Assessment: Students complete a questionnaire answering questions about their ideas concerning a day, year, the seasons and moon phases: My Ideas About A Day, Year, Seasons
More informationResonant Orbital Dynamics in Extrasolar Planetary Systems and the Pluto Satellite System. Man Hoi Lee (UCSB)
Resonant Orbital Dynamics in Extrasolar Planetary Systems and the Pluto Satellite System Man Hoi Lee (UCSB) Introduction: Extrasolar Planetary Systems Extrasolar planet searches have yielded ~ 150 planetary
More informationMobile Computing. Chapter 5: Satellite Systems
Mobile Computing Chapter 5: Satellite Systems Prof. SangJo Yoo History of satellite communication 1945 Arthur C. Clarke publishes an essay about Extra Terrestrial Relays 1957 First satellite SPUTNIK by
More informationAstronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007. Name:
Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007 Name: Directions: Listed below are twenty (20) multiplechoice questions based on the material covered by the lectures this past week. Choose
More informationGPS: A Primer. presented by Jim Pugh, GISP GIS Project Manager. 2007, EMH&T, Inc.
GPS: A Primer presented by Jim Pugh, GISP GIS Project Manager GPS: A Primer GPS = Global Positioning System 24 Satellites in Orbit around Earth Each Broadcasts precise time and known location Receivers
More informationEuropean Geodetic Status European Geodetic Reference Systems
European Geodetic Status European Geodetic Reference Systems Reporter: Hansjörg Kutterer, Federal Agency of Cartography and Geodäsie (BKG), Germany Contributors to this report: Johannes Ihde, Federal Agency
More informationOrbit Modeling and MultiGNSS in the IGS
Orbit Modeling and MultiGNSS in the IGS G. Beutler Astronomical Institute, University of Bern O. Montenbruck, P. Steigenberger DLR, German Space Operations Center 14 th Meeting of the National SpaceBased
More informationLocal Sidereal Time is the hour angle of the First Point of Aries, and is equal to the hour angle plus right ascension of any star.
1 CHAPTER 7 TIME In this chapter we briefly discuss the several time scales that are in use in astronomy, such as Universal Time, Mean Solar Time, Ephemeris Time, Terrestrial Dynamical Time, and the several
More information[3] beautiful visualisation of the satellites positions by HSR / ICOM
GPS (Introduction) MSE, Rumc, GPS, 1 Terms NAVSTAR GPS ( Navigational Satellite Timing and Ranging  Global Positioning System) is a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), developed by the USDoD in
More informationCBERS Program Update Jacie 2011. Frederico dos Santos Liporace AMS Kepler liporace@amskepler.com
CBERS Program Update Jacie 2011 Frederico dos Santos Liporace AMS Kepler liporace@amskepler.com Overview CBERS 3 and 4 characteristics Differences from previous CBERS satellites (CBERS 1/2/2B) Geometric
More informationCHAPTER 18 TIME TIME IN NAVIGATION
CHAPTER 18 TIME TIME IN NAVIGATION 1800. Solar Time The Earth s rotation on its axis causes the Sun and other celestial bodies to appear to move across the sky from east to west each day. If a person located
More informationUse the following information to deduce that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is approximately 10 N kg 1.
IB PHYSICS: Gravitational Forces Review 1. This question is about gravitation and ocean tides. (b) State Newton s law of universal gravitation. Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational
More informationInteraction of Energy and Matter Gravity Measurement: Using Doppler Shifts to Measure Mass Concentration TEACHER GUIDE
Interaction of Energy and Matter Gravity Measurement: Using Doppler Shifts to Measure Mass Concentration TEACHER GUIDE EMR and the Dawn Mission Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) will play a major role in
More informationDynamics of Celestial Bodies, 103107 PLANETARY PERTURBATIONS ON THE ROTATION OF MERCURY
Dynamics of Celestial Bodies, 103107 Contributed paper PLANETARY PERTURBATIONS ON THE ROTATION OF MERCURY J. DUFEY 1, N. RAMBAUX 1,2, B. NOYELLES 1,2 and A. LEMAITRE 1 1 University of Namur, Rempart de
More informationSolar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System
Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!
More informationThe Moon. Nicola Loaring, SAAO
The Moon Nicola Loaring, SAAO Vital Statistics Mean distance from Earth Orbital Period Rotational Period Diameter 384,400 km 27.322 days 27.322 days 3476 km (0.272 x Earth) Mass 7.3477 10 22 kg (0.0123
More informationThe orbit of Halley s Comet
The orbit of Halley s Comet Given this information Orbital period = 76 yrs Aphelion distance = 35.3 AU Observed comet in 1682 and predicted return 1758 Questions: How close does HC approach the Sun? What
More informationCan Hubble be Moved to the International Space Station? 1
Can Hubble be Moved to the International Space Station? 1 On January 16, NASA Administrator Sean O Keefe informed scientists and engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) that plans to service
More informationMobile Communications Exercise: Satellite Systems and Wireless LANs. Georg von Zengen, IBR, TU Braunschweig, www.ibr.cs.tubs.de
Mobile Communications Exercise: Satellite Systems and Wireless LANs N 1 Please define the terms inclination and elevation using the following two figures. How do these parameters influence the usefulness
More informationAstronomy of Planets
McDonald Press Releases: Triumphs and Ques7ons Globular Clusters Rotate at Heart Astronomers Discover Ancient Solar System with Five Earth sized Planets Black Hole Chokes on a Swallowed Star Astronomers
More informationAMENDMENT 1 3 January 2000. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM 1984 Its Definition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems
AMENDMENT 1 3 January 2000 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM 1984 Its Definition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems These pages document the changes made to this document as of the
More informationRobot Perception Continued
Robot Perception Continued 1 Visual Perception Visual Odometry Reconstruction Recognition CS 685 11 Range Sensing strategies Active range sensors Ultrasound Laser range sensor Slides adopted from Siegwart
More informationSatellite technology
Satellite technology Overview What is a satellite? The key elements of orbital position Satellite manufacturers and design The components of a satellite: payload and bus Digital versus analogue How do
More informationcircular motion & gravitation physics 111N
circular motion & gravitation physics 111N uniform circular motion an object moving around a circle at a constant rate must have an acceleration always perpendicular to the velocity (else the speed would
More informationPRECISE EPHEMERIDES FOR GPS TIME TRANSFER
PRECISE EPHEMERIDES FOR GPS TIME TRANSFER W. Lewandowski Bureau International des Poids et Mesures Pavillon de Breteuil 92312 Sevres Cedex, France and M. A. Weiss United States Department of Commerce National
More informationPhysics 40 Lab 1: Tests of Newton s Second Law
Physics 40 Lab 1: Tests of Newton s Second Law January 28 th, 2008, Section 2 Lynda Williams Lab Partners: Madonna, Hilary Clinton & Angie Jolie Abstract Our primary objective was to test the validity
More informationHybridSail. Hybrid Solar Sails for Active Debris Removal Final Report
HybridSail Hybrid Solar Sails for Active Debris Removal Final Report Authors: Lourens Visagie (1), Theodoros Theodorou (1) Affiliation: 1. Surrey Space Centre  University of Surrey ACT Researchers: Leopold
More informationExam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti
Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking
More informationName Class Date. true
Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized
More information