1 3 The Structure of Geographic Data Geographic data come from a variety of sources, such as digitized maps, aerial photography, GPS, and field data. Valid geographic data serve as a collective true marker as to what level of detail and accuracy a GIS can potentially attain. But, in reality, this is only a half-truth. The manipulation of this geographic data is as important and, often, more suggestive of the outcome s quality. The appropriate structure of geographic data is considered a top reason why a GIS succeeds or fails. Inappropriate data handling or structure predictably leads to inappropriate geographic information products. To this extent, a user s grasp of the GIS application, the desired outcomes, and the geospatial system s limits are detrimental to realizing how best to treat the geographic data. Ultimately, the successful structuring of geographic data requires a combination of understanding and sound decision making. Geographic information systems utilize two primary data models to manipulate and structure geographic data: the raster data model and the vector data model. We have already discussed both types briefly in Chapter 1 but now must build upon that initial introduction to gain a better understanding of both the elements and idiosyncratic nature of each type. By examining the nature of each data model you will have a much clearer picture of the important and institutional structure of geographic data, as well as a distinct understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each. Raster and Vector Data Structures Like any complex data structure, raster and vector data have a myriad of different realizations that vary in complexity through use, appearance, format, and file size. 29
2 30 Geographic Information Systems Demystified Although distinctly different, these affiliate data structures share two characteristics: (1) They visually represent real-world features, and (2) they are subject to orientation within the real world. By satisfying both of these characteristics, geographic data are born and made interoperable with other geographic data sources within GIS. Before proceeding further with this discussion, let us take a small step back to reacquaint ourselves with the raster and vector data structures. Raster data structures characterize continuous data (such as imagery) and are exceptionally strong where boundaries and point information are not well defined. Raster data provide data as a pixel grid, whereby each pixel or cell is a feature capable of retaining properties and attributes. These pixels approximate pictures and images in an impressionistic way, with all of the smallish, monothematic cells contributing to a greater whole. Adding further identity, a raster image can vary in file format, color representation, resolution (size of pixels/number of pixels per set area), and potential properties. Vector data are a bit different. Vector data structures characterize discrete data (such as roads, pipelines and topographic features) and are exceptionally strong where distinct boundaries and point information are well defined. This data structure is constructed on ordered two- and three-dimensional coordinates ([x,y] and [x,y,z], respectively). Features are represented as geometric shapes defined through single or grouped coordinates on a set grid. For a clearer understanding of both models, refer to Figure 3.1, which illustrates the visible differences between raster and vector data, as well as how each data set represents Earth features. The original graphic is a raster, high resolution satellite image of a land parcel with infrastructure and a pond. Notice the distinct feature variance between its continuous data image and vector s point representation. It is clear that the raster image serves as a good overall representation, while the vector representation serves as a good individual feature representation. Vector Representation Raster Satellite Image Figure 3.1 Raster versus vector data representation.
3 The Structure of Geographic Data 31 Both the raster and vector data structures have inherent advantages and disadvantages that allow GIS users a certain degree of choice. A full understanding of the native characteristics of each data model is a prerequisite for GIS success. Often certain requirements force the use of one data model rather than the other, such as the need for a better output resolution, easy image analysis, or enhanced spatial accuracy. Raster data, for example, offer a truly simple data structure that involves a grid of row and column data. This simple grid structure allows for easy raster image analysis, as well as analysis among multiple images. Raster modeling is also much easier to implement due to the single-value cell structure and relatively simple software programming. These advantageous raster capabilities are shadowed only by raster s native weaknesses. Disadvantages to raster data include general spatial inaccuracies and misrepresentations, low resolution, and massive data sets that require significant processing capability. The lack of accurate topology is also a major raster-based limitation. Similarly, vector data offer their own variation of modeling strengths. Vector data, for instance, are spatially accurate and support a better, higher resolution than the raster data model. The ability to provide topology or feature relationships is a definite advantage, as well as the minimal data storage requirements. Although seemingly ideal, vector data have their own share of weaknesses worthy of mention. Due to the complex data structure, vector data require a greater and more powerful processing capability. With this comes the need for better, faster workstations to minimize the data processing times that typical computers face. Inevitably, the costs to run a vector GIS and expeditiously process complex geographic data sets can become highly expensive. Needless to say, both the raster and vector data models have their own brand of geographic data expertise and capability embedded within a GIS. Nowadays, GISs are offered as raster-based systems, vector-based systems, or raster-vector capable systems. When necessary, raster-to-vector/vector-to-raster conversions can be easily accomplished through GIS or third-party conversion software. Undoubtedly, the choice of data model lies with the user and the available software/hardware. The next few sections examine raster and vector data capabilities that are vastly used in everyday GIS work. Vector Feature Geometry Often it is necessary to depict real objects as features on a map and designate object positions within a GIS. These features can range from the simplistic (i.e.,
4 32 Geographic Information Systems Demystified linear transmission lines) to the complex (a multibranched, nonlinear river). To detail objects as features in a GIS, we must choose the best data model. In most cases, features are defined using the vector data model. Given the nature of raster data, features are ambiguous in shape and general in position. For applications where specific form or position is not needed, raster may prove easiest. Some possible applications where raster data can be used to define features is on nonprecise maps, such as visitor maps of an amusement park, or macroscopic markers on an overview map, such as a colored box for approximate position. Alternately, given the accurate, positional nature of vector data, features are best represented by coordinates and geometry. Real-world objects can be represented as individual or a group of geometric shapes called feature geometries. In any geospatial platform, there are three primary types of feature geometries: points, lines, and polygons. As a subset of these three primary types there exists a fourth geometric feature called a polyline. Figure 3.2 illustrates these major feature geometries in both the raster and vector data models. The differences between and usefulness of the models are obvious as they relate to depicting feature geometry. A point is an individual position defined as a vector x-y-z coordinate or as one raster pixel. Lines are two connecting points with two distinct coordinates in vector or a linear block of pixels in the raster model. Polygons are a grouping of vector coordinates connected in a sequential fashion or a group of pixels Feature Vector Model Raster Model Point Line Polyline Polygon Figure 3.2 Feature geometries in raster and vector.
5 The Structure of Geographic Data 33 forming the object s general shape. Lastly, the subset polyline (known also as an arc) is a connected string of vector points or raster pixels. Often a polyline involves two lines sharing a same point or pixel (vertex). Vector features are constructed on ordered pairs of vertices, whereby these ordered pairs reside in the design plane having known x, y, z locations. The positions of these ordered pairs are recorded in the vector file and often encoded as binary. These vertices are objects and can be grouped to form features that exist as independent entities. This is in contrast to the raster model, where the entire image is an object. In raster, features must first be sampled and then represented as image pixels, which, as we already know, visually approximate the features. Raster images have no independent vector ordered pairs, the actual building blocks of feature-driven spatial information. Vector data for feature geometry comprise positional coordinates and, for some, other position-defining data, such as inside/outside and left/right. Figure 3.3 depicts the three primary types of geospatial feature geometries, as well as the polyline and the more complex polygon within a polygon (i.e., the doughnut ). As illustrated in the figure, the point depicts a discreet position in space, defined by an individual geospatial coordinate. The line is defined by two geospatial coordinates. The open-ended third feature is a polyline, which comprises two vector lines sharing a common point (vertex). Interesting enough, polylines are defined not only by geospatial coordinates, but also by left and Point (x1, y1, z1) Line (x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2) Polygon (x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2...xn, yn, zn, inside, outside) Polyline (x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2, x3, y3, z3, left, right) Doughnut (Polygonal Hole) [(x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2...xn, yn, zn, inside, outside), (hx1, hy1, hz1, hx2, hy2, hz2...hxn, hyn, hzn, houtside, hinside)] Figure 3.3 Major vector feature geometries.
6 34 Geographic Information Systems Demystified right characteristics that indicate whether other features are directly left or right of the polyline. Growing in complexity, the remaining two geospatial feature geometries in Figure 3.3 are closed features and depict specific areas. The polygon involves numerous vector points that are connected in sequence. Polygons are defined with inside and outside characteristics that delineate whether any overlapping geospatial feature geometries exist inside the polygon s boundaries. The most complex of the geospatial feature geometries presented in Figure 3.3 is the doughnut or polygonal hole. A doughnut comprises a polygon within another polygon. Polygon 1 forms the boundary area and polygon 2 serves as the cutout within polygon 1. Think of a doughnut, whereby polygon 1 is the outermost doughnut boundary and polygon 2 is the cutout in the doughnut center (doughnut hole). Each polygon enables coordinate characteristics for inside and outside elements. To uniformly structure, manage, and manipulate feature geometries like the ones just discussed, a GIS stores vector data in geospatial feature file formats. Common feature file formats, such as the shapefile developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) or the TAB file developed by MapInfo, are basic geometric containers compatible with an overwhelming majority of GISs. These geographic dataset types store nontopological vector (or coordinate) geometry in the form of real-world spatial features, as well as links to attribute information for these respective objects. Raster Image Structures The nature of images, such as aerial photographs and base maps, involves a continuous array of data. As discussed, the raster model provides the best solution for continuous data. Due to the lack of specified feature boundaries, point locations, and multiple objects, vector data are not intrinsically fit to handle the image information. A vector data representation of such an image produces a complex and often massive image structure. Unlike a vector format, the raster palette is much more desirable for applications requiring the use of photographs or digital scans. Raster imagery instantiates outrageously complex geometries quite easily with the use of attributed image pixels. The essence and value of raster image structures are that raster represents real-world information with native visual properties a feat vector imagery cannot reproduce. Because raster images are physically continuous by nature, a reasonably accurate transformation process can be applied to fit raster data onto the real world. In brief, images are rasterized or digitally transformed to raster data through a matrix of pixels. Photographs are typically scanned with a set image
7 The Structure of Geographic Data 35 resolution defined by pixels per inch (ppi), more commonly known as dots per inch (dpi). With the use of a GIS, the organic transformation into a raster image can enable users to characterize previously nonattributed existing geographic data material. In fact, solutions produced from this process result in alternative, often unexplored, geographic data sets. There are times when an existing raster image is not at the desired resolution for the present application and an image adjustment is necessary. Manipulating resolution within raster images is a technique to adequately control and manage the amount of raster data to be processed and the overall image quality. As mentioned earlier, raster data resolution is the result of the amount of row and column pixels used to define an image. Raster image dataset size is directly proportional to the amount of raster pixels used to define an image. The rule of thumb is: The more pixels in the grid, the higher the image resolution, quality, and dataset size; the fewer pixels in the grid area, the lower the image resolution, quality, and dataset size. Modifying the image s resolution presents varying results within the image. You can easily transform a high resolution raster into a low resolution raster without desecrating image quality. The image size often remains unchanged through an intelligent interpolation that transforms a grouping of pixels into one pixel. However, it is not always easy to reverse this transformation. Taking a low resolution into a high resolution form is not always feasible. To retain moderate image quality, a high resolution raster will take on a reduced, fractional size to that of the original low resolution raster. If image size remains unchanged, the new high resolution image will be relatively unusable and indistinguishable in content. Care should always be taken when modifying the resolution of raster images. In actuality, geographic information obtained from these types of organic processes may be of critical relevance to future projects and unwittingly provide solutions to problems not yet known. Many times these unforeseen criticalities involve complications put forth by the presence of precious natural resources on a project. The manifestation (or realization) of these transformations is the fundamental building block for geospatial systems and makes available opportunity for other advanced GIS techniques. Topology It has already been established that in a vector-based GIS, primary geometries (i.e., points, lines, and polygons) represent real-world features. Topology is the set of rules through which a GIS represents features with the primary geometric shapes (i.e., point, line, and polygon). The vector data model utilizes topology
8 36 Geographic Information Systems Demystified to organize spatial relationships between discrete features. In essence, the main functions of topology are to define: (1) feature-to-feature locality or, simply, where a feature is in relation to another feature, (2) what is shared between different features, and (3) how features are grouped or connected within a set. In a GIS, topology establishes geometric harmony within a geographic data set. Illustrating this precept is ESRI s shapefile, in which the vector feature file employs a set of natural numbers plotted and structured in binary format. This set of natural numbers delineates the boundaries and coverage of a particular feature. The simple binary structure defines a topological space for the feature and establishes continuity with other features, forming topological relationships. Topological relationships are defined in all types of feature files and are generally categorized into the three primary functions of topology (previously mentioned): 1. Feature-to-feature locality, called a complement; 2. What different features share, called an intersection; 3. How features are grouped, called a union. In Figure 3.4, the simplistic Venn diagram depicting two overlapping, amorphous shapes highlights the base concepts of the three feature topology functions. Within this figure, the lighter areas are considered complementary shapes (A and B ), while the darkest area depicts the intersection of the two shapes (C ). A B C Figure 3.4 Venn diagram.
9 The Structure of Geographic Data 37 All three areas together (A, B, and C ) form the union of the set. Applying these concepts to a vector GIS, shapes A and B can be considered two separate features that share topologic space (C ). Feature topology is also very sensitive to retaining the original shape of different features and the demarcation of each individual feature. In the context of traditional mathematics, topology is the examination of objects and groupings of objects that exhibit a predictable structure. Put simply, topology involves object aspects that remain unchanged even when the object itself is under some form of physical transformation (i.e., intersection). Similarly within the figure, shape A maintains its form even when sharing topological space with shape B. All types of geographic data sets can utilize topology within geospatial software environments. These predictable structures (such as shapes A and B ) constitute a set of features (N ), which represents whole geospatial features. Topology implements a successor function: s(x ) x + 1, which succinctly indexes each separate feature for identification (FID). The successor function enables unique identification of each feature within the set. In this way topology serves as a geographic data quality overseer by ensuring the geometric integrity of geographic features between the real world and GIS, as well as retaining responsibility for producing truly clean and representative geographic data products. Topology also helps to avoid repeating feature data, such as shared boundaries and shared nodes (points). The data model stores a single line to represent a boundary, as opposed to two lines with the same coordinates. This topological quality control helps maintain a smaller data set and vector feature file. In Figure 3.5, polygon 1 (points QRST ) and polygon 2 (points RUVS ) are side by side, connected by a shared border (RS ). Topology dictates that line RS for polygon 1 and line RS for polygon 2 are identical and the data model only accounts for RS once. Feature topology proves diligent in avoiding topological overlap. Q R U Polygon 1 Polygon 2 V T S Figure 3.5 Topology of two polygons.
10 38 Geographic Information Systems Demystified These geometric monitoring techniques allow GIS to control, query, and edit the topological coincidence between geospatial features (objects). Topology introduces the notion of absolute feature continuity, opening the door for numerous potential software compatibilities, including complex mathematics and engineering programs. GIS Attribute Tables and Indices In order for a GIS to successfully manipulate and portray geographic data, feature files must be indexed to attributes providing more information. As detailed in Chapter 1, most standard GIS data formats consist of a feature file, an index file, and a linked attribute table, whereby the feature file contains geographic object feature information, the attribute table (file) contains explicative attributes for spatial features, and the index file links attributes with features. Briefly stated, index files act as attribute pointers. Indices contain unique identifiers that contain more detailed information about a specific feature. This embedded linkage helps speed up spatial feature queries within the GIS and serves as an index file s only true function. Geospatial attribute tables, on the other hand, drive the spatially enabled database. There are various attribute field data types to handle the multitude of data, differentiated by a specific form of data and the degree of precision. To adequately handle the variants, attribute field data types signify different groupings of data bits, such as incorporating sign (i.e., + or ), binary, mantissa, and exponent bits, or signify data values, such as text, date, and object ID values. For clarity of this discussion, an exponent defines repeated multiplication (i.e., in 2 3 = 2 2 2, the exponent is 3) and a mantissa is the value to the right of the decimal point in a common logarithm (i.e., in log 196 = , the mantissa is ). The following attribute field data types are most common and are supported in many major GIS environments: Short Integer. A basic attribute data type that includes one signed bit and 15 binary bits. Long Integer. A more complex form of the basic attribute type that incorporates one signed bit and 31 binary bits. As you can imagine, the Long Integer offers greater precision than the Short Integer. Float. Contains one signed bit, seven exponent bits, and 24 mantissa bits. Double. A more complex form of the Float attribute type with one sign bit, seven exponent bits, and 56 mantissa bits. As with the Long Integer,
11 The Structure of Geographic Data 39 the Double attribute type holds greater precision than the Float attribute type. Text. Contains varying forms of data, such as numbers, letters, and symbols. The Text attribute type is a character string that can hold any amount of characters, but each character is stored using eight bits (called a byte). An interesting aspect to Text attribute data are that each text value in the same field must have the same number of characters. To achieve this, end blanks are used to fill in the empty slots. Date. Though not apparent from the attribute data type name, a Date type contains date and time data. The value is based upon a standard time format and is automatically transformed into the current day and time within the system s local time zone. BLOB. Short for Binary Large Object. ABLOB is a complex (and large) object stored in the database that may include an image, sound, video, or geometry. BLOBs allow users the ability to insert any type of multimedia data into the geodatabase. GUID. Acronym for Globally Unique Identifier. AGUID is a unique 128-bit (16 byte) number that is produced to identify a particular application, file, database entry, hardware, or user. Each generated GUID is mathematically guaranteed to be unique since the total number of unique keys is colossal and the probability of generating an identical GUID is virtually impossible. As with any abstract concept, casual or novice users often misunderstand attributes in geospatial systems. With a better understanding of GIS s theory (this book) and real-world practice, these feature-attribute concepts will congeal.
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Chapter 1 Data Modeling Abstract This chapter starts by differentiating data, information, evidence, and knowledge. Choosing the most appropriate way to organize data within a GIS depends on choices made
Spatial Adjustment Tools: The Tutorial By Peter Kasianchuk, ESRI Educational Services In this exercise, you will perform some spatial adjustment and data management operations data to be used in analysis
Applications of Dynamic Representation Technologies in Multimedia Electronic Map WU Guofeng CAI Zhongliang DU Qingyun LONG Yi (School of Resources and Environment Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei.
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Content Strand: Number and Numeration Understand the Meanings, Uses, and Representations of Numbers Understand Equivalent Names for Numbers Understand Common Numerical Relations Place value and notation
How to Import Data into Microsoft Access This tutorial demonstrates how to import an Excel file into an Access database. You can also follow these same steps to import other data tables into Access, such
THE CERN/SL XDATAVIEWER: AN INTERACTIVE GRAPHICAL TOOL FOR DATA VISUALIZATION AND EDITING Abstract G. Morpurgo, CERN As a result of many years of successive refinements, the CERN/SL Xdataviewer tool has
Big Data and Analytics: Getting Started with ArcGIS Mike Park Erik Hoel Agenda Overview of big data Distributed computation User experience Data management Big data What is it? Big Data is a loosely defined