2 GIS Data: Classification, Potential Misuse, and Practical Limitations Goals & Objectives Develop an easy to use geospatial data classification system Educate users on the potential misuse of geospatial data Explore practical limitations in using geospatial data
3 GIS Data: Classification United States National Map Accuracy Standards (NMAS) Defines accuracy standards for published maps, including horizontal and vertical accuracy, accuracy testing method, accuracy labeling on published maps, labeling when a map is an enlargement of another map, and basic information for map construction as to latitude and longitude boundaries. Horizontal accuracy. For maps on publication scales larger than 1:20,000, not more than 10 percent of the points tested shall be in error by more than 1/30 inch, measured on the publication scale; for maps on publication scales of 1:20,000 or smaller, 1/50 inch. Vertical accuracy, as applied to contour maps on all publication scales, shall be such that not more than 10 percent of the elevations tested shall be in error more than one-half the contour interval.
4 GIS Data: Classification ASPRS Accuracy Standards for Large-scale Maps https://eserv.asprs.org/pers/1990journal/jul/1990_jul_ pdf A major feature of these ASPRS standards is that they indicate accuracy at ground scale. Thus, digital spatial data of known groundscale accuracy can be related to the appropriate map scale for graphic presentation at a recognized standard. Map accuracies can also be defined at lower spatial accuracy standards. Maps compiled within limiting rms errors of twice or three times the those allowed for a Class 1 map shall be designated Class 2 or Class 3 maps respectively. A map may be compiled that complies with one class of accuracy in elevation and an other in plan. Multiple accuracies on the same map are allowed provided a diagram is included which clearly relates segments of the map with the appropriate map accuracy class.
5 GIS Data: Classification National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA) Implements a statistical and testing methodology for estimating the positional accuracy of points on maps and in digital geospatial data, with respect to georeferenced ground positions of higher accuracy. The NSSDA uses root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate positional accuracy. RMSE is the square root of the average of the set of squared differences between dataset coordinate values and coordinate values from an independent source of higher accuracy for identical points1. Accuracy is reported in ground distances at the 95% confidence level. Accuracy reported at the 95% confidence level means that 95% of the positions in the dataset will have an error with respect to true ground position that is equal to or smaller than the reported accuracy value. The reported accuracy value reflects all uncertainties, including those introduced by geodetic control coordinates, compilation, and final computation of ground coordinate values in the product.
6 GIS Data: Classification More on NSSDA A minimum of 20 check points shall be tested, distributed to reflect the geographic area of interest and the distribution of error in the dataset.4 When 20 points are tested, the 95% confidence level allows one point to fail the threshold given in product specifications. If accuracy reporting cannot be provided using NSSDA or other recognized standards, provide information to enable users to evaluate how the data fit their applications requirements. This information may include descriptions of the source material from which the data were compiled, accuracy of ground surveys associated with compilation, digitizing procedures, equipment, and quality control procedures used in production.
7 GIS Data: Classification A need to categorize and certify digital landbases R.Stricklan, 1998 Basic premise: There is a need for standardizing the uncertainty in digital landbases, enabling legislated definition of creation/permitted uses for those cadastral references. Although it would be impossible to verify positional accuracy of all digital landbase points, there should be some type of grading system that would quantify how closely any such landbase reference matched its original source documents and/or professionallyinterpreted intent of those documents. A proposed system of categorizing digital landbases based on their creation methodology and database structure (Stricklan, 1998): Class 1A: Temporally-complete, auto-refinable, COGO-created digital landbase using legal source documents, with inclusion of record/adjusted measurements as attribution linked to every cadastral line. Class 1B: Auto-refinable, COGO-created digital landbase using legal source documents, with inclusion of record/adjusted measurements as attribution linked to every cadastral line. (no temporal transactions included) Class 1C: COGO-created digital landbase using legal source documents, with inclusion of record/adjusted measurements as attribution linked to every cadastral line. (no auto-refinement nor temporal transactions included) Class 2A: Trace digitized from record plat maps; record measurements shown as annotation and stored as attribution. Class 2B: Trace digitized from record plat maps; record measurements shown as annotation only. Class 2C: Trace digitized from record plat maps; but no record measurements shown. Class 3A: Trace digitized from composite derived documents (e.g. assessor maps) other than record plats and descriptions; record measurements shown as annotation and stored as attribution. Class 3B: Trace digitized from composite derived documents; record measurements shown as annotation only. Class 3C: Trace digitized from composite derived documents; but no record measurements shown.
8 GIS Data: Classification APLS Geospatial Data Standards Standards for the acquisition and evaluation of geospatial data The main purpose of these standards is to provide guidance for developing the scope or statement of work for projects involving collection of spatial data. In all cases, accuracy shall be determined at the 95% confidence level both horizontally and vertically, including all accuracy values cited within these Standards. For datasets larger than or equal to 100 points but less than 1000 points, a minimum of 20 check points shall be used. For datasets of 1000 or more points, the number of check points shall be at least 2% of the total number of points in the dataset. For datasets of less than 100 points, the number of check points shall be specified in the project scope. The positional accuracy of polyline and polygon features shall be evaluated in the same manner as point features, by observation of discrete points on the perimeter of the feature. If more than one point is evaluated for a single polyline or polygon feature, the mean accuracy of the set of validation measurements shall be used to estimate the overall accuracy of the feature. The minimum number of check observations for each polyline or polygon feature shall be based on the number of vertices using the same criteria as for individual point features.
9 GIS Data: Classification The purpose of the rating system is to guide users in assessing the accuracy of geospatial data, thereby indicating to them the appropriate use of the data. Three categories of criteria: Who created the data. How they created the data. Measured Spatial Accuracy. Equipment and Process will determine the Class, also: (examples) A: High-order GPS/postprocessed to Class accuracy range. B: Medium to low-order GPS/optional post-processing; high to medium-grade orthophotography/field verified to stated accuracies. C: low-grade orthophotography/non-field verified; small-scale maps/heads-up or tablet digitized. Proposed Data Classification System (DRAFT) CLASS GRADE WHO HOW ACCURACY 1 RLS Field derived source - PP 1 +/- 1cm 2 RLS Field derived source +/- 1dm A B C D RLS GeoSpatial RLS GeoSpatial RLS GeoSpatial RLS GeoSpatial GeoSpatial Field Techs GIS Techs GeoSpatial Field Techs GIS Techs GeoSpatial Field Techs GIS Techs 1 Non-GeoSpatial 2 Non-GeoSpatial Field derived source Field derived source Ortho derived source Digitizing on A1 Field derived source Ortho derived source Other geo-referenced GIS Sources Field derived source Ortho derived source Other geo-referenced GIS Sources Ortho derived source Satellite imagery (georeferenced) USGS 7.5 USGS 15, 1:100K Other geo-referenced GIS Sources USGS 1:250K 3 rd party GIS data sets of stated accuracy Unknown 3 rd party GIS data sets of unknown accuracy +/- 1m +/- 3m +/- 5m +/- 10m unknown Unknown
10 GIS Data: Classification Data Input Methodologies Heads-up digitizing Screen digitizing over imagery (orthogonal, oblique, etc.) Semi-automatic feature extraction (ARAN van imagery, street-level views, etc.) Measured vs. visual GPS Resource-grade Survey-grade Techniques for high accuracy Post-processing Smart phones
11 Attribute Accuracy Logical Consistency Completeness Horizontal Positional Accuracy Vertical Positional Accuracy GIS Data: Classification Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines Metadata An explanation of how accurately the entities have been identified or how accurately values have been assigned in the data set. This can be the results of quantitative analysis, steps taken to ensure accuracy during development, or known deficiencies. An indication of topological problems such as overshoots, undershoots, unwanted intersections, unclosed polygons, missing or duplicate labels, etc. Information about omissions, selection criteria, generalization, definitions used, and other rules used to derive the data set that may affect the completeness of content of the data. An explanation of the accuracy of the horizontal positions (coordinates) of spatial objects and a description of the tests or line of reasoning used to arrive at the estimate. An explanation of the accuracy of the vertical positions (coordinates) of spatial objects and a description of the tests or line of reasoning used to arrive at the estimate. Other important information: Descriptive name/ description/abstract Known errors and qualifications Feature type Projection File name Dates creation, update Contacts general, maintenance Availability Field metadata Feature metadata Lineage Source Scale Denominator Information about the sources of data used to construct the data set and steps used to process the data. For each processing step provide, where possible, the following: source data name, source data scale, source data date, description of processing steps performed, scanning or digitizing specifications, hardware & software used, processing tolerances, etc. The denominator of the representative fraction of source map(s). Please leave out commas (e.g not 24,000). Example: on a 1:24000 scale map, the Source Scale Denominator is 24000; on a 100 scale map (1 inch = 100 feet) the Source Scale Denominator is If no source maps were used, enter zero (e.g. GPS data). If multiple source map scales were used, enter the Source Scale Denominator of the smallest scale map (largest denominator).
12 GIS Data: Classification Proposed Data Classification System (DRAFT) To do: Complete the accuracy ranges Provide examples Emphasize the use of ground-based features and/or control for evaluating existing data, e.g. Ground Control Points, Photo Control Points, etc. Provide references to the Geospatial Data Standards for guidance Figure in imagery as a data creation/enhancement resource Propose as an addendum to the Spatial Data Standards Suggestions: How accurate do you think your data is? Add a metadata column to the matrix
13 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Boundary misinterpretation Assessor Record Map Especially when displayed on top of imagery Subdivision Plat Map How good is the data? How good is the imagery? Mixing scales? Different projections/coordinate systems?
14 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Census Blocks on Parcels Mixing Data Scales/Accuracy/Quality Parcels on NAIP imagery (+/- 15-feet) Miss-registered layers
15 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Mixing Data Scales/Accuracy/Quality Building roof lines, as captured from aerial imagery Planned features 2010 imagery, +/- 10-foot accuracy 2008 imagery, +/- 2-foot accuracy Spatial location differences between imagery Different image specifications Different image years Why so much imagery?
16 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Attribute Data Misinterpretation Data Normalization AREA PARCEL LANDFCV IMPFCV TOTALFCV C A A A A B A Divide all aggregated values by the frequency Know your table relationships: One-to-one One-to-many Many-to-many Many-to-one Data View Settings TOTAL_POP POP_DENS AREA_SQFT Data value is stored correctly, but is too small for the display setting
17 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Color/Symbology Misinterpretation Colors that are too alike (and patterns) Too many layers displayed together Colorblindness Grayscale Black & white
18 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Inappropriate Use for Regulatory Applications Floodplains? Development/building restrictions Zoning Overlay zones, e.g. hillside, riparian, etc. Building setbacks Density In/out/maybe zones of confidence FEMA floodplain changes Zones of confidence
19 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Inappropriate Measuring Inappropriate data accuracy/quality/classification Scale is too large Interpreted view, e.g. oblique, integrated into applications, street, etc. Know the source accuracy/classification to know if you are in the ball-park or better Oblique image ARAN van image
20 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Overstating the accuracy of the results Data accuracy/quality Vector Raster Elevation Area proportion overlays Mixed scales Attribute accuracy Ignoring topological errors Bad Analysis Practices
21 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Internal Use Only Data, That Gets Loose Critical Infrastructure and other DHS classified data Developmental/incomplete data sets Non-public data, e.g. health, public safety, etc.
22 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Projections and Coordinate Systems Metadata Projecting data Use correct Geographic Transformations Datum changes add complexity Projections/coordinate systems have a sweet spot or zone of best accuracy
23 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Data Creation Data input methodologies Data sources Classification Data Enhancement (or Degradation) Conflation Measured adjustment Data Dissemination Metadata Classification Disclaimers and data qualifications Scale-dependent viewing, e.g. layers are viewable within defined scale ranges Turn off boundaries at certain scales, especially when displayed against imagery Mixing scales
24 GIS Data: Potential Misuse and Practical Limitations Data Analysis Mixing scales Relative accuracy vs. absolute accuracy Projections and coordinate systems Data Reporting Attribute data accuracy Analyses results
25 GIS Data: Classification, Potential Misuse, and Practical Limitations Questions?
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