1 Maximum uptime thanks to integrated data center solutions from Siemens Safe, secure and efficient data centers from planning to execution Solutions for Data Centers
2 Power Distribution Water Technology Integrated Solutions Totally Integrated Power Building & Energy Management Renewables Security Solutions Fire Safety IT Solutions and Services (via partners) Tailored solutions for maximum uptime and increased efficiency Data centers are among the world s largest users of electricity, with servers running 24 hours per day, seven days a week, under tightly controlled environmental conditions and often not at full capacity. With the huge growth of social networking, Internet usage, electronic banking, paperless storage and modern IT services such as virtualization and cloud computing, the requirement for safe, resilient and energy-efficient data centers is growing. Combined with the effects of globalization and compliance with local codes and regulations, companies face many challenges in their data center facility, to keep it competitive, efficient and productive. There are also a number of key issues that impact the infrastructure design of data centers; including higher levels of security, increased power availability, safe and secure operation, limiting energy usage and environmental impact. As the world s largest electrical engineering company, Siemens has a global portfolio of products and solutions for data centers and engineering teams around the world. We can assist you with all aspects of your data center, starting with consulting, planning, designing and site selection, to engineering, commissioning, full documentation, training, maintenance and expansion planning. 2
3 Siemens meets the growing demand for safe and secure IT processing The expertise of a global company for your entire business Siemens provides the most comprehensive solutions for data centers, by combining innovative development and manufacturing expertise, with project management experience and know-how. Whether for new construction or modernization, be it for an enterprise, Internet or co-location facility, with us you benefit from our expertise from projects made all over the world, with some of the biggest data centers and corporations. Green data centers As the world s largest provider of green technologies, Siemens is at the forefront of reducing the global carbon footprint. Our environmental portfolio helps our customers reduce carbon emissions by over 300 million tons annually. Siemens integrated building automation and control systems, power monitoring solutions and energy services will help your data centers to save energy and reduce PUE. Security By offering fully integrated security solutions, Siemens ensures the security of the data, the building and its assets. From the perimeter to the rack, we provide security solutions that reduce the risk of security breaches, thereby reducing reputational losses and safeguarding your business bottom line. Cooling, BMS and HVAC Siemens understands the importance of cooling in data centers. Our integrated building management and monitoring systems help maintain the computer room areas within precise environmental conditions, with the optimal use of free cooling and alternative energy applications. Power The medium- and low-voltage portfolio from Siemens has been specifically designed to meet the demanding requirements in data centers, providing data centers with tailored, reliable and consistent end-to-end power distribution solutions. Fire safety Fire detection and protection solutions from Siemens are tailored to the specific data center environment and fire risk profile. Our solutions reduce the risk of wide-spread fire, utilizing the highest detection speed and accuracy, matched with preventive maintenance, improving the response effectiveness. Data center infrastructure management Bridging the gap between IT and facility management is an essential component to business success in a data center. Our advanced monitoring and management solutions ensure demand control and provide transparency for all mission critical facilities. Highlights Energy efficiency optimization with green portfolio offering Compliance with all codes and regulations Complete data center portfolio Project support for new build and modernization Ensuring maximum uptime and availability Comprehensive data center solutions from Siemens 3
4 Overview showing energy efficiency, fire safety and security solutions from Siemens Reliable, green, safe and secure data centers In the past decade, the number of worldwide Internet users has increased from 300 million to over 2 billion that is a growth rate of more than 400%! Global growth The huge increase in Internet usage is one of the key drivers for data center growth. Any business with an Internet presence now has a global reach and global competition. An estimated 1.2 billion mobile web-enabled users, new legislation on prolonged data storage and the impact of cloud computing on IT service business are just a few examples. Information technology and communications, and data centers in particular, are therefore becoming more and more important to all businesses. Services Our comprehensive services give data centers the flexibility to strategically outsource competence and operational support based on financial and organizational constraints. Integrated solutions With data center projects made all over the world, Siemens combines years of engineering expertise with a comprehensive portfolio of products, systems and services, to provide integrated solutions designed for your data center. From planning to implementation, our task is to ensure maximum system reliability and availability throughout the entire systems life cycle, providing optimal return on investment. Legacy data centers An estimated 75% of current data centers cannot support today s technology, forcing many companies to invest in significant upgrades. Technologies from Siemens can be employed to extend the capacity of ageing facilities with little or no disruption. Today s new design guidelines allow higher internal temperature and humidity setpoints without affecting IT equipment performance. Technologies from Siemens help to reduce thermal and electrical loads and maximize free cooling, whilst maintaining precise control of the computer room environment. 4
5 2 1 Fire & Life Safety Physical Security 3 Electronic & IT Security 4 Totally Integrated Power Distribution 5 Cooling Controls and Monitoring 6 Energy Transparency 7 Managed Services 8 Energy Generation 9 Sustainability Audits 10 Lighting Transparency If a meaningful approach to energy efficiency is to be realized, information and reporting are essential. Siemens has a proven portfolio of management and monitoring software, with dedicated tools to manage power usage, water & energy consumption and to safeguard the facility in case of failure of danger situations. Siemens also provides advisory services, energy audits and remote energy monitoring services (benchmarking) to help data center owners to maximize their return on investment. Optimizing your energy utilization will not only reduce the environmental impact, it will save you money and increase profitability. Local regulations With offices in more than 170 locations around the world, we understand the necessary regulations including BICSI, ISO, Sarbanes-Oxley, TIA naming just a few, to ensure that all national, regional and local data center codes and regulations are conformed to, ensuring you remain compliant and competitive. Challenges for data centers The growth in IT services and server and storage capacity poses some technical challenges for data center operators: Namely, the availability of power, reduction of risk and the implications for higher energy consumption. Every interruption of data, every temporary stoppage of data flow or a failure in a single element of the facility infrastructure can result in downtime. This often means serious consequences for a company s competitiveness. Long-term protection of data involves more than only IT infrastructure it concerns the availability of your entire data center. The trend towards finding green and sustainable ways to manage your data center is certainly here to stay. Reducing the operating costs of your data center infrastructure is the key to reducing your power usage effectiveness (PUE) and helps to achieve your corporate sustainability targets. Highlights Modernization strategy for legacy data centers Improve energy efficiency and reduce operating costs for long-term profitable operation Evaluate green and sustainable strategies and the latest designs and standards Owners maximize their return on investment 5
6 Renewable green data center solutions from Siemens Green data centers The challenge Data centers are reported to account for around 2% of the world s total energy consumption and are expected to overtake the carbon emissions of the airline industry by Efficient use of energy is therefore more important today than ever before. Renewable energy Natural resources are becoming increasingly rare and expensive, so to use them sensibly justifies our efforts to control data centers as economically as possible. By selecting innovative building control strategies, it is possible to make efficient use of energy while ensuring uptime. As the availability of fossil fuels reduces and their cost grows, the use of renewable resources becomes ever more important. With the world s largest environmental portfolio, Siemens can help to reduce energy costs and reduce your CO 2 footprint and enhance your green reputation. Maximize efficiency From sophisticated airflow management, hot aisle/cold aisle containment and efficient free cooling to proven and patented heat recovery schemes with these solutions, you reduce both your operating and capital costs by ensuring precise equipment selection and precise control, of indoor space conditions according to actual 6 demand cooling such as heat recovery, night purging, geothermal heat rejection etc. Preserving the environment Siemens believes in the importance of leaving behind an intact environment for future generations. With our innovative building technologies, we are helping to preserve the planet s natural resources and habitats in a process that unites environmental protection with advanced technology and business success. Our environmentally focused products and solutions for data centers help to conserve resources in power generation and preserve air and water quality. Energy management solutions Benchmarking of your data center will provide valuable information for its performance and PUE. Siemens enables you to measure the exact amount of energy consumed in your facility, you can track trends, compare with other locations and optimize equipment. By monitoring the consumption, particularly in the partial load range which is usually the most common mode of operation, you can immediately see any power losses of the installed equipment, particularly useful in legacy data centers which are often characteristically inefficient. Highlights Improve your green reputation with energy-efficient technologies Optimized building design improving energy performance Minimized operational costs (OPEX) Complete energy usage reporting and transparency Did you know... A data center consumes more energy than any other building in the world.
7 Can data centers also be green? Siemens provides energy-efficient solutions to both new build and existing systems.
8 Totally Integrated Power from Siemens Power The challenge In order to meet their critical power requirements and mitigate the risk of power outage, data center operators require highquality power distribution equipment. Maximum uptime To ensure a professionally designed power system for your facility, Siemens offers Totally Integrated Power providing support in all life cycle stages of the data center; from maintenance-free gas-insulated medium-voltage switchgear, to energyefficient transformers and a complete range of low-voltage switchgear. Siemens protective devices can even communicate with power monitoring systems. Flexible power distribution Modern data centers require space-saving, reliable and high-quality power distribution systems that can be easily expanded and support high plug densities. The Siemens EMC-friendly (electromagnetic compatibility) busbar trunking systems are renowned for their outstanding performance in data centers, reducing electrical losses and providing modular power distribution. Power monitoring To sustainably run a data center it is crucial to understand the power consumption. It is important to know where and how much 8 energy is used. Our power monitoring devices and communication-capable circuit breakers precisely and reliably monitor power at strategic points throughout the data center. Our measuring devices and management software provide data center operators with the information needed for load management and reporting, to ensure continued energy-efficient operation of their facility. With these tools, power usage effectiveness, the most prominent data center energy efficiency metric, can be monitored in real time so that strategies can be shifted and corrective actions taken as weaknesses are revealed. Trends can be established from a number of different reports including energy consumption, energy costs, CO 2 emissions and demand requirements to allow further energy optimization. Resilience Siemens will help to protect your mission critical facility against disruption or power outage, many other factors such as power surges, lightning strikes or the ignition from static electricity will be considered during design stages. Our high-quality components ensure physical integrity from the main switchboard to the racks and that all zones and equipment rooms (including your personnel) are protected. Highlights Siemens expertise in value engineering and system design helps reduce complex interfacing risks in your facility Complete portfolio of mediumto low-voltage power distribution equipment Expandable systems to support high plug densities Power metering and monitoring devices to detect problems and reduce energy consumption Management and reporting tools with trend diagnostics for the entire power infrastructure Did you know... A 10 millisecond interruption of the power supply can disrupt the entire IT operation of a data center.
9 How can I get a complete overview of my facility? Siemens provides operation and facility managers clear reporting for every aspect of their data center.
10 Security solutions Security The challenge Threats to data centers in this modern day and age come in many forms, from the intruder trying to gain physical access to the facility and ultimately the servers, to cyber attacks and hackers trying to gain access to the network and the data stored. Tailored security solution Siemens provides a layered approach to data center security, identifying all possible threats and their impact on a data center s infrastructure and assets. By adopting an integrated security approach that protects all operational processes, Siemens ensures maximum uptime and business continuity. Flexible yet secure access control Due to the sensitive and around the clock nature of data centers, identity and access control to the various zones is of primary importance. From badge or smart card access to standard zones to biometric access using iris, vein or facial recognition for high security areas, it is possible to ensure that only the right people gain access, at all times. Further security can be achieved through integration with human resource and IT systems. Intrusion detection systems An intrusion detection system from Siemens secures all fences, walls, windows, 10 doors, corridors, even detecting water ingress or flooding. All detectors deliver the highest detection rates and false alarm immunity, including environments with fast changing light or temperature conditions. Intelligent video surveillance Siemens provides an intelligent video surveillance solution that shows you exactly what is happening throughout your facility and displays all surveillance inputs on a single screen. Using intelligent video analytics, policy zones and virtual barriers, all areas are secured using cameras to both ensure the highest protection and help with event investigation, audit trails and forensic analysis, should an incident occur. Security management system Siemens provides central management of all integrated security disciplines for: increased visibility of risks, events and corrective measures in place or conducted following an event increased response agility of policy deployment and enforcement and automated prioritization of events for speed of response increased control for central reporting It is a proactive and preventative security management system that ensures your facility remains secure around the clock. Highlights Tailored security solutions for each facility Intelligent video surveillance using latest analytics Security management system integrates all security elements Complete service offering Facility and data remain secure around the clock Did you know... Siemens has supplied more than 125,000 security systems all over the world.
11 Is it safe to store our family photos online like this? Data center solutions from Siemens ensure family memories remain safe and secure forever.
12 Fire detection and extinguishing solutions Fire safety The challenge A data center should have the highest level of fire safety as it involves a great level of risk, particularly in the raised floor area, due to the presence of both a constant ignition source of electricity and a plentiful supply of combustible materials. Therefore, an integral fire safety concept is critical to protect data and to ensure uptime. Sophisticated fire safety solutions Siemens understands the specific requirements of data centers in terms of prevention, detection, response and recovery. Accompanying our solutions offering, we provide advice and support during every phase of a project from the risk analysis of your data center to the specification and evaluation of our solution. Our service portfolio covers the entire spectrum throughout the life cycle from alarm management to system maintenance, extensions and modernization. Fast and highly reliable fire detection Fire detection in data centers can be challenging for traditional smoke detection systems: fires typically start slowly before erupting into flames; detecting smoke early is therefore essential to avoid the onset of flames. However, the high levels of ventilation necessary to prevent equipment overheating also disperse smoke, 12 making it more difficult to detect and enhancing the risk of a fast fire distribution. Our fire detection concept for data centers combines aspirating smoke detection with highly accurate smoke detectors. Avoid hard disk failures Occasionally, gas extinguishing systems can interfere with data center hard disk drives and in rare cases, cause them to fail. Studies suggest that this is caused by the high noise level generated by conventional gas extinguishing systems, normally around 130 db, during the extinguishing process when the agent is discharged into the flooding zone. To avoid this type of risk, Siemens has uniquely developed a Silent Nozzle designed to keep noise levels below 100 db during extinguishing and does not pose a risk to hard drives suitable for both new installations as well as for upgrading or modernizing existing systems. Reliable alarming and fast evacuation As in any fire situation, ensuring people are alerted immediately and know what to do is top priority. Alarm sounders and sounder beacons from Siemens provide immediate audible and visual alert to people in the danger area. The voice evacuation system provides clear and precise instructions to ensure personnel evacuate the danger area quickly and safely. Highlights Maximizing data center uptime with an integral safety concept Fast and highly reliable fire detection and extinguishing Safe evacuation when needed Complete service offering 150 years experience in fire safety Did you know... 70% of companies that suffer a major fire are no longer in business 3 years later.
13 Hi Dad, did you transfer the money online for my college fees? By keeping data centers protected from the threat of fire, Siemens maximizes uptime so families can contact and support each other 24/7.
14 Energy monitoring and reporting Cooling strategies Cooling, BMS and HVAC The challenge The largest part of a data center s energy consumption is associated with the HVAC and cooling equipment so it is important to have a proven and trusted partner. Energy-efficient building management systems (BMS) and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) products from Siemens help to optimize energy usage, avoid equipment malfunctions and interruptions, and ensure system uptime as well as the constant availability of service. Planning your data center There are many differences in the design of a modern data center today. Some are designed around a raised floor, others use hot or cold aisle containment, some prefer computer room air conditioners (CRACS) to maintain room temperature, others are moving to free cooling. Whatever the final solution, careful planning must take place to fully optimize the air flows and ensure energy usage is optimized. Starting from an existing building plan, Siemens can provide the optimal design of the server room and the associated data center infrastructure, to keep IT equipment at the right operating temperature, whilst minimizing energy costs. A trusted partner Siemens has over 100 years of proven experience in the design and manufacture of world-leading building management systems. Our complete portfolio of products for data centers ranges from direct digital control hardware and data center management software, through to field level devices such as variable speed drives and CRAC controllers. Improve your PUE and DCiE Optimizing the cooling will directly impact the bottom line in your facility. Siemens can help improve data center efficiency by monitoring equipment power, carrying out diagnostics and trend logs. In case of irregularities in temperature, humidity or pressure, our management system quickly and reliably detects them and provides instant alarms with visual verification, to ensure an energy-efficient operation is maintained. Integrate the whole data Building management systems from Siemens also have the ability to visualize the whole data center on a single screen and our certified Total Building Solutions provide functional integration of all disciplines such as power distribution, fire safety and security. An investment for the future growth of your data center. Highlights Improve facility PUE value High-density design strategy Computational fluid dynamics visualization to optimize data center design Did you know... > 50% of the energy used in a data center is for cooling. 14
15 Worldwide proven experience KPN data center in the Netherlands KPN is the Netherlands leading telecommunications provider and the major information and communication technology (ICT) services provider in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. A key element of KPN s business is its data center services. Typically, clients are high-profile blue-chip companies; 80% of them are listed among the top 600 Dutch companies. KPN guarantees its customers ICT services that they are secure and available 99.98% of the time that means a downtime of less than two hours a year. At the KPN data center, power systems from Siemens offer the security of maximized uptime with power availability, yet reduced up to 30% of the overall facilities power consumption and 70% of cooling power. The operational experience and innovative modular design from Siemens allows for future expansion with minimal disruption. Project portfolio overview SIVACON 8PV low-voltage switchgear SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking systems GEAFOL transformers NXPlus medium-voltage distribution Desigo building automation and control system Power monitoring system from Siemens Safe Host data center in Geneva Geneva-based Safe Host SA provides a complete range of data center infrastructure services including four service lines Colocation, Connectivity & Security, Business Continuity and Managed IT Services these provide industry-leading banks, multinationals, international organizations and retail customers a secure, reliable and cost-effective way to ensure the continuous availability of business systems and applications. At the Safe Host data center, Siemens has supplied solutions to meet their infrastructure needs, protecting against power supply interruptions, security and fire safety threats, and ensuring servers operate at the correct temperature, protecting the data of its customers around the clock. Project portfolio overview Central management system 2,800 data points 30 aspirating smoke detectors 50 manual call points 4 fire control panels 830 smoke detectors 4 floor repeater displays Sinorix N 2 extinguishing solution Intrusion detection system Video surveillance cameras at all major entrances Siemens data center in Beijing The largest data center in Asia is equipped with integrated security, fire safety, building automation, electrical supply and distribution, lighting control and energy monitoring. Integrated solutions helped win the New Generation Data Center Award for Siemens in Beijing with categories of green energy, security, stability and availability. Energy savings of 28%, over 600,000 kwh per year are now achieved. Project portfolio overview MM8000 danger management system 63 Sinteso heat and 57 smoke detectors Video fire controllers Gas extinguishing Evacuation system SiPass access control system 25 day/night cameras Digital recording systems Intrusion detection systems Building management system 15
16 Siemens Switzerland Ltd Infrastructure & Cities Sector Building Technologies Division International Headquarters Gubelstrasse Zug Switzerland Tel Siemens AG Infrastructure & Cities Sector Low and Medium Voltage Division Freyeslebenstr Erlangen Germany Tel Siemens Ltd Center of Competence 22/F, Two Landmark East 100 How Ming Street, Kwun Tong Kowloon, Hong Kong Tel Siemens Industry, Inc Center of Competence 1000 Deerfield Parkway Buffalo Grove, IL United States Tel Siemens n.v. / s.a. Center of Competence Marie Curie Square Brussels Belgium Tel The information in this document contains general descriptions of technical options available, which do not always have to be present in individual cases. The required features should therefore be specified in each individual case at the time of closing the contract. Siemens Switzerland Ltd, 2013 Answers for infrastructure. Our world is undergoing changes that force us to think in new ways: demographic change, urbanization, global warming and resource shortages. Maximum efficiency has top priority and not only where energy is concerned. In addition, we need to increase comfort for the well-being of users. Also, our need for safety and security is constantly growing. For our customers, success is defined by how well they manage these challenges. Siemens has the answers. We are the trusted technology partner for energy-efficient, safe and secure buildings and infrastructure. siemens.com/datacenters
DATA CENTER DESIGN White Paper JAN KREMER CONSULTING SERVICES Data Center Design White Paper Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION... 4 1.1. DOCUMENT OUTLINE... 4 2. GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES... 5 2.1.
Ten Steps to Increasing Data Center Efficiency and Availability through Infrastructure Monitoring A White Paper from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity Summary The first decade of the 21st century
Racks & Integrated Cabinets High Density Cooling Solutions For Business-Critical Continuity TM In Energy Efficient Data Centers Green-IT Full-On Trend! Technology Solutions Of Emerson Network Power Are
R&M Data Center Handbook R&M Data Center Handbook Preface The modern data center, along with the IT infrastructure, is the nerve center of an enterprise. Of key importance is not the data center's size
Energy Efficiency in the Data Center Maria Sansigre and Jaume Salom Energy Efficieny Area Thermal Energy and Building Performance Group Technical Report: IREC-TR-00001 Title: Energy Efficiency in the Data
Nokia Corporation Nokia Mobile Phones P.O. Box 100 FIN-00045 Nokia Group, Finland Tel. +358 7180 08000 Telefax +358 7180 34016 www.nokia.com/m2m Machine-to-Machine - Real Opportunity in Wireless Data Business
SMART METERING & INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM BUSINESS CASE 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary... 1 Introduction................................................... 3 What is the Smart Metering Program?............................
THE INFORMATION SOURCE FOR THE DATA CENTER INDUSTRY EXECUTIVE GUIDE SERIES PART 3 Data Center Energy Efficiency by Julius Neudorfer August 2012 This is the third of a six part series of our Executive Guide
ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES IN JAPAN: CASE STUDIES EDITORS: Akiko Abe, NEC Eiji Taguchi, Intel Makoto Karaki, ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Miho Kato, ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Yoshihiro Fujie, IBM Japan PAGE 2
WHITE PAPER Cybersecurity in Modern Critical Infrastructure Environments SECURE-ICS Be in Control Securing Industrial Automation & Control Systems This document is part of CGI s SECURE-ICS family of cyber
Thought Leadership Paper Cloud Computing in the Hedge Fund Industry About Eze Castle Integration Eze Castle Integration is the leading provider of IT solutions and private cloud services to more than 600
Securing Microsoft s Cloud Infrastructure This paper introduces the reader to the Online Services Security and Compliance team, a part of the Global Foundation Services division who manages security for
DATA CENTER STRATEGIES Simplifying high-stakes, mission critical decisions in a complex industry. July 2011 John Rath Rath Consulting Brought to you by Executive Summary Business climate changes, business
W h i t e P a p e r Tier Classifications Define Site Infrastructure Performance By W. Pitt Turner IV, PE, John H. Seader, PE, Vince Renaud, PE, and Kenneth G. Brill Table of Contents Executive Summary...
The Industrial Internet@Work Marco Annunziata & Peter C. Evans Table of Contents Executive Summary The Industrial Internet Towards No Unplanned Downtime 3 Introduction A New Information and Collaboration
J U L Y 2 0 1 2 OpenText Enterprise Information Management CIOs are under siege Do more with less is no longer an ideal, it s a mandate. With growing volumes and a host of information formats to manage
WHITE PAPER #49 PUE : A COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION OF THE METRIC EDITORS: Victor Avelar, Schneider Electric Dan Azevedo, Disney Alan French, Emerson Network Power PAGE 2 The Green Grid Association would
BUSINESS ASSURANCE Saving energy today for a brighter tomorrow JUNE 2015 SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER 2 CONTENTS FOREWORD CURRENT SCENARIO FUTURE OUTLOOK OUR FINAL THOUGHTS INTRODUCTION 07 The importance of
The Microsoft Office 365 Buyer s Guide for the Enterprise Guiding customers through key decisions relative to online communication and collaboration solutions. Version 2.0 April 2011 Note: The information
EXECUTIVE REPORT Seven Critical Success Factors for Choosing A Reliable Data Center Provider Introduction Today, more and more forward-thinking companies across all industries are seeking reliable data
Smart Wireless Solutions for Plant Operations Start anywhere, go everywhere. Take back control......by extending predictive intelligence capabilities to further reduce risk and improve operations. SMART
Enabling Tomorrow s Electricity System Report of the Ontario Smart Grid Forum CONTENTS Executive Summary 1 Members of the Smart Grid Forum 8 Introduction 9 Smart Grid Vision 11 Consumer Technologies 16
WHITE PAPER: Integrated Infrastructure and Performance Management for Virtualized Environments Integrated Infrastructure and Performance Management for Virtualized Environments APRIL 2009 Table of Contents
Energy Logic: educing Data Center Energy Consumption by Creating Savings that Cascade Across Systems A White Paper from the Experts in Business-Critical Continuity The model demonstrates that reductions
Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency Public Law 109-431 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ENERGY STAR Program August 2, 2007 Table of Contents Table of Contents... i Executive