1 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 1 Corso di Urbanistica (EA) a.a. 2014/2015 Lezione 06a - 23-ott-14 La costruzione della città post-liberale: Londra
2 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 2 Vicende politiche Queen Victoria Prince Albert La popolazione di Londra (x1000) Queen Victoria 20 June: On William IV's death, she became Queen at the age of Queen Victoria 10 February: she married Prince Albert (her German cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) 1861 Prince Albert 14 December: Prince Albert dies of typhoid fever 1901 Queen Victoria Died: January 22, 1901, Osborne House, East Cowes, United Kingdom 1901 Edward VII Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death, May 6, 1910
3 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 3 Vicende politiche i primi ministri William Lamb The Viscount Melbourne 20 June August 1841 Whig Sir Robert Peel 30 August June 1846 Tory Lord John Russell 30 June February 1852 Whig Edward Smith Stanley The Earl of Derby 23 February December 1852 Tory George Hamilton Gordon The Earl of Aberdeen 19 December January 1855 Conservative Henry John Temple The Viscount Palmerston 6 February February 1858 Conservative Edward Smith Stanley The Earl of Derby 20 February June 1859 Tory Henry John Temple The Viscount Palmerston 12 June October 1865 Conservative Lord John Russell 29 October June 1866 Whig Edward Smith Stanley The Earl of Derby 28 June February 1868 Tory Benjamin Disraeli 27 February December 1868 Tory William Ewart Gladstone 3 December February 1874 Liberal Benjamin Disraeli 20 February April 1880 Tory William Ewart Gladstone 23 April June 1885 Liberal Robert Gascoyne Cecil The Marquess of Salisbury 23 June January 1886 Conservative William Ewart Gladstone 1 February July 1886 Liberal Robert Gascoyne Cecil The Marquess of Salisbury 25 July August 1892 Conservative William Ewart Gladstone 15 August March 1894 Liberal Archibald Primrose The Earl of Rosebery 5 March June 1895 Liberal Robert Gascoyne Cecil The Marquess of Salisbury 25 June January 1901 Conservative
4 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 4 Organismi di gestione e lavori pubblici 1810 Commissioners of Woods and Forests established in the United Kingdom in 1810 by merging the former offices of Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks, and Chases and Surveyor General of the Land Revenues of the Crown into a three-man commission The name of the Commissioners of Woods and Forests was changed in 1832 to the Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings London's short-lived Metropolitan Commission of Sewers (created in 1847) ordered that all cesspits should be closed and that house drains should connect to sewers and empty into the Thames replaced by the Commissioners of Works and Public Buildings and the Commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues dividing between them the public and the commercial functions of the Crown lands 1832 Commissioners of Woods and Forests 1847 Metropolitan Commission of Sewers 1851 Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings 1855 Metropolitan Board of Works è istituito il Metropolitan Board of Works, la Commission of Sewers è abolita (l'area al di fuori della City è divisa in 38 distretti) 1864 Metropolitan Board of Works MBW: lavori di Garrick Street e Southwark Street (iniziati nel '64) 1866 City Corporation City Corporation acquista il ponte di Southwark e sopprime il pedaggio 1869 Metropolitan Board of Works MBW: Victoria Embankment dal Blackfriars Bridge al Westminster Bridge, Albert Embankment fra il Lambeth Bridge e il Vauxhall Bridge ( ) 1874 Metropolitan Board of Works MBW: Chelsea Embankment 1875 Metropolitan Board of Works Dopo il 1875 il MBW, approfittando dell'artizans' and Labourers' Dwelling Act, affronta una serie di interventi di urban renewal 1878 Metropolitan Board of Works è acquistato il Waterloo Bridge e viene soppresso il pedaggio 1878 Metropolitan Board of Works si dà inizio a una politica di acquisto di terreno per parchi pubblici (fra i quali Hampstead Heath, Clapham Common, Finsbury Park, Wormwood Scrubs, e Southwark Park) 1881 City Corporation la City Corporation promuove la costruzione del Tower Bridge 1886 Metropolitan Board of Works MBW: realizza Shaftesbury Avenue (1886) 1887 Metropolitan Board of Works MBW: realizza Charing Cross Road (1887) 1889 London County Council Il London County Council (LCC) sostituisce il Metropolitan Board of Works 1890 London County Council programma di urban renewal a Bethnal Green (Boundary Street Estate) 1896 London County Council programma di urban renewal Millbank Estate
5 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 5 Ferrovie
6 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 6 Ferrovie 1836 London Bridge Opened on 14 December 1836 as Tooley Street by the London and Greenwich Railway, London Bridge was first station to be built. Situated on the south bank of the Thames by London Bridge, it was immediately added to and then rebuilt Euston George and Robert Stephenson, Philip Hardwick, Charles Fox, William Cubitt Fenchurch Street Tite, William Berkeley, George It was the first inter-city railway station in London, opened on 20 July 1837 as the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway. The original building was demolished in the 1960s. The site was selected in the early 1830s by George and Robert Stephenson, engineers of the London and Birmingham Railway. The area was then mostly farmland at the edge of the expanding city of London. The original station was built by William Cubitt. It was designed by the classically trained architect Philip Hardwick with a 200 ft (61 m)-long trainshed by structural engineer Charles Fox. Fenchurch Street Railway Station was the first to be constructed inside the City of London The original station was designed by William Tite and was opened on 20 July 1841 for the London and Blackwall Railway (L&BR), replacing a nearby terminus at Minories that had opened in July The station was rebuilt in 1854, following a design by George Berkeley, adding a vaulted roof and the main facade. The station became the London terminus of the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway (LTS&R) in Waterloo Opened in 1848 with several later additions creating a confusing hotch-potch of platforms and buldings. Later rebuilt. Named after the nearby Waterloo Bridge. Served south western London and counties King's Cross Cubitt, Lewis Opened in 1852 for the Great Northern Railway serving the main east coast route to Peterborough,York, and beyond. Named after a monument to George IV which was erected nearby Paddington Brunel, Isambard Kingdom Opened on 29 May The main station between Bishops Bridge Road and Praed Street was designed by Brunel (Isambard Kingdom Brunel), who was commemorated by a statue on the concourse Paddington - Built in 1854 and created by the great Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel for the Great Eastern Railway which reached the western counties of England. It replaced a temporary station which had served for almost twenty years. Named after the area in which it is sited Victoria Station Built in 1860 and named after Queen Victoria, the station was split in two section and was shared by four train companies serving Kent and Sussex. The stations origin lies with the Great Exhibition of 1851, when the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway came into existence, serving the site of the exhibition, which had been transferred to Sydenham from Hyde Park. The terminus of that railway was at Stewarts Lane in Battersea on the south side of the river. In 1858, a joint enterprise, the Victoria Station and Pimlico Railway, was set up to take trains over the river, 1.25 miles in length.
7 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 7 Ferrovie 1860 Victoria Station Built in 1860 and named after Queen Victoria, the station was split in two section and was shared by four train companies serving Kent and Sussex. The stations origin lies with the Great Exhibition of 1851, when the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway came into existence, serving the site of the exhibition, which had been transferred to Sydenham from Hyde Park. The terminus of that railway was at Stewarts Lane in Battersea on the south side of the river. In 1858, a joint enterprise, the Victoria Station and Pimlico Railway, was set up to take trains over the river, 1.25 miles in length St. Pancras The station was commissioned by the Midland Railway. The Midland Company now had two routes into London, through Euston and King's Cross, and traffic quickly expanded to take advantage, especially with the coal trade, with the Midland Railway transporting around a fifth of the total coal to London by In mid-1862, due to the enormous traffic for the second International Exhibition, the Great Northern and the Midland companies clashed over the restricted capacity of the line. This was regarded as the stimulus for the Midland Company to build its own line and surveying for a mile line from Bedford to London began in October However, the Midland Company had been buying large portions of land in the parish of St Pancras since Charing Cross Hawkshaw, John & Middleton Barry, Edward 1866 Cannon Street Hawkshaw, John & Barry, J. W St Pancras Barlow, William Henry & Gilbert Scott, George Designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, opened in 1864 on The Strand as a link to extend services on from London Bridge. The Charing Cross Hotel, designed by Edward Middleton Barry, opened on 15 May 1865 and gave the station an ornate frontage in the French Renaissance style designed by Sir John Hawkshaw and J. W. Barry, built in the City in 1866 for the South Eastern Railway serving south east London, Kent and East Sussex. Named after the street where it is sited. Built in 1866, passenger services did not begin until July The initial plan of the station was laid out by William Henry Barlow, the Midland's consulting engineer. In its time it had the largest single span roof in the world. The architecture gothic gem of the Midland Great Hotel was built next to it (George Gilbert Scott). Named after the area in which it is sited. Served trains to the Midlands and East Yorkshire Liverpool Street Wilson, Edward Situated on the east of the City of London and replacing an earlier Shoreditch Station. The new station was designed by the Eastern's chief engineer, Edward Wilson. Opened in 1875 by the Great Eastern Railway which served Essex, and East Anglia 1886 Blackfriars Originally called St Paul's it was opened in 1886 to serve commuters from south London to the City 1899 Marylebone Built in 1899 off the Marylebone Road. One of the smaller London stations it served Aylesbury and beyond to Manchester.
8 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 8 Ferrovie 1837 Euston George and Robert Stephenson, Philip Hardwick, Charles Fox, William Cubitt 1848 Waterloo King's Cross Cubitt, Lewis 1854 Paddington Brunel, Isambard Kingdom
9 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 9 Ferrovie 1864 Charing Cross Hawkshaw, John & Middleton Barry, Edward 1866 Cannon Street Hawkshaw, John & Barry, J. W St Pancras Barlow, William Henry & Gilbert Scott, George 1875 Liverpool Street Wilson, Edward
10 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Ferrovie
11 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Underground By the 1850s, many steam-powered railways had reached the fringes of built-up London (which was much smaller than now). But the new lines were not permitted to demolish enough property to penetrate the City or the West End, so passengers had to disembark at Paddington, Euston, Kings Cross, Fenchurch Street, Charing Cross, Waterloo or Victoria and then make their own way via hackney carriage or on foot into the centre, thereby massively increasing congestion in the city. The Metropolitan Railway was built under the ground to connect several of these separate railway terminals. It opened in 1863, and was the first line of what was to become the London Underground. Marylebone was connected to the Bakerloo Line in 1907, however Fenchurch Street was never connected to the system - a peculiarity that remains to the present day. 1869
12 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Underground 1854 In 1854 an Act of Parliament was passed enabling the Metropolitan Railway to construct an underground railway between Paddington and the City, as part of an envisaged 'Inner Circle' linking the mainline stations, to be completed in conjunction with the MR's collaborator, later arch-rival: the Metropolitan District Railway (MDR), inaugurated in The Metropolitan Railway, the first section of the London Underground, initially ran between Paddington (Bishop's Road), now Paddington, and Farringdon Street, now Farringdon, and was the world's first urban underground passenger-carrying railway Most of that initial route is now part of the Hammersmith & City Line February. The Metropolitan Railway construction began with John Fowler as the building engineer and Thomas Marr Johnson as resident engineer. The construction was by Smith, Knight and Co and John Jay The Metropolitan Railway: public traffic began on 10 January ,000 passengers were carried that day, with trains running every ten minutes The Metropolitan Railway was built under the ground to connect several of separate railway terminals Metropolitan District Railway (MDR), inaugurated in October: the "inner circle" was completed 1900 Tender issued for electrification of over 50 miles of track The Metropolitan Railway favoured an A.C. system using overhead distribution at 3kV, whilst the District Railway Co favoured a D.C. system using a third rail at 500V. A tribunal was set up to decide which system should be used. The recommendation was for the D.C. system 1902 The Underground Electric Railways Company of London Limited (UERL) was established in 1902 as the holding company for the three deep-level "tube" underground railway lines opened in London during 1906 and 1907 and the Metropolitan District Railway. The UERL is the main precursor of today's London Underground; its lines form the central sections of today's Bakerloo, District, Piccadilly and Northern lines the first electric trains ran on the Metropolitan Railway system 1908 The first combined map was published in 1908 by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL) in conjunction with four other underground railway companies using the "Underground" brand as part of a common advertising initiative.
13 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Underground the "inner circle"
14 Underground Sir John Fowler ( ) Fowler was also the designer of an experimental fireless locomotive (nicknamed Fowler's Ghost) which was tried out on the Metropolitan Railway in the 1860s. It stored energy in heated bricks (on the same principle as a storage heater) but was unsuccessful. Three different designs were produced but only one locomotive was actually built and this has led to some confusion. The first design was for a saddle-tank and a drawing of this has been published in some books as a representation of the real machine, although it was never built. Robert Stephenson () The locomotive actually built, by Robert Stephenson and Co, was of fairly conventional appearance but very unconventional inside. The boiler had a normal firebox and this was connected to a large combustion chamber containing a quantity of fire brick. The combustion chamber communicated with the smokebox through a set of very short firetubes. Exhaust steam was condensed by a water-jet condenser and there was a pump to maintain a vacuum in the condenser. The idea was that it would operate as an ordinary coal-fired locomotive in the open but, when approaching a tunnel, the dampers would be closed and steam would be generated using stored heat from the firebricks. It was tried out in 1861 but was a dismal failure. Following this unsuccessful trial a third design was produced. It would, again, have had the hot brick heat store but, above the boiler drum, would have been a second steam/water drum to allow for large variations in water level. This machine was never built and, instead, conventional steam locomotives with condensing apparatus were used. URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 14
16 Sewers 1847 London's short-lived Metropolitan Commission of Sewers (created in 1847) ordered that all cesspits should be closed and that house drains should connect to sewers and empty into the Thames 1854 the task of preparing a scheme was assigned to Sir J. Bazalgette 1848 cholera epidemic ( ) killed 14,137 Londoners 1853 Another cholera epidemic struck killing 10, the "Great Stink" (summer of 1858) sittings in the House of Commons had to be abandoned, Parliament passed an enabling act, in spite of the colossal expense of the project, and Bazalgette's proposals to revolutionise London's sewerage system began to be implemented (83 miles of underground brick main sewers to intercept sewage outflows, and 1,100 miles of street sewers) 1859 The works commenced 1865 The system was opened by Edward, Prince of Wales in 1865, although the whole project was not actually completed for another ten years. URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 16
17 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Sewers Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, CB ( ) was an English civil engineer As chief engineer of London's Metropolitan Board of Works his major achievement was the creation in response to "The Great Stink" of 1858 of a sewer network for central London which was instrumental in relieving the city from cholera epidemics, while beginning the cleansing and restructure of the River Thames London's short-lived Metropolitan Commission of Sewers ordered that all cesspits should be closed and that house drains should connect to sewers and empty into the Thames. As a result, a cholera epidemic ( ) then killed 14,137 Londoners. 30,000 cesspits were abolished in the course of six years, under the powers conferred by an Act of Parliament. The polluted state of the river Thames began to attract attention. The necessity of some alteration was so apparent that the Commissioners invited designs for the purification of the Thames, and received in response 116 different schemes. It was declared that Mr. McClean's was the best, but even that could not be recommended for adoption Bazalgette was appointed assistant surveyor to the Commission 1853 Another cholera epidemic struck killing 10,738. Medical opinion at the time held that cholera was caused by foul air: a so-called miasma. Dr John Snow had earlier advanced a different explanation, which we now know to be correct: cholera was spread by contaminated water. His view was not generally accepted.
18 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Sewers 1854 the task of preparing a scheme was assigned to Sir J. Bazalgette 1856 Championed by fellow engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Bazalgette was appointed chief engineer of the Board of Works, a post he retained until the Board was abolished and replaced by the London County Council in , the year of the "Great Stink", Parliament passed an enabling act, in spite of the colossal expense of the project, and Bazalgette's proposals to revolutionise London's sewerage system began to be implemented. The expectation was that enclosed sewers would eliminate the stink, and that this would then reduce the incidence of cholera. At the time, the Thames was little more than an open sewer, devoid of any fish or other wildlife, and an obvious health hazard to Londoners. Bazalgette's solution (similar to a proposal made by painter John Martin 25 years earlier) was to construct 83 miles of underground brick main sewers to intercept sewage outflows, and 1,100 miles of street sewers, to intercept the raw sewage which up until then flowed freely through the streets and thoroughfares of London. The outflows were diverted downstream where they were dumped, untreated, into the Thames. Extensive sewage treatment facilities were built only decades later The works commenced 1865 March: the undertaking was pronounced to be complete. Even then the northern low-level sewer was unfinished, being kept back by the incomplete state of another great work - that of the Thames Embankment. The system was opened by Edward, Prince of Wales in 1865, although the whole project was not actually completed for another ten years.
19 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Sewers
20 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Sewers
21 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Embankments Victoria Embankment, London, extends along the left bank from Westminster to Blackfriars, a distance of about a mile and a quarter, and was constructed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette, the engineer to the Metropolitan Board of Works. The whole of the space now occupied by the embankment was covered by water or mud, according to the state of the tide, and few London improvements have been more conducive to health and comfort. The substitution of the beautiful curve of the Embankment, majestic in its simplicity, with its massive granite walls, flourishing trees, and trim gardens, is an unspeakable improvement on the squalid foreshore, and tumble-down wharves, and backs of dingy houses which formerly abutted on the river. Charles Dickens (Jr.) Dickens's Dictionary of the Thames, 1881
22 Embankments Embankments along the Thames were first proposed by Christopher Wren in the 1660s The Thames Embankment is a major feat of 19th century civil engineering designed to reclaim marshy land next to the River Thames in central London. It consists of the Victoria and Chelsea Embankment. In connection with the Main Drainage Low-level Sewer, a scheme for an embankment of the river Thames was proposed, and a Royal Commission appointed, in 1861, to inquire into its practicability; when the plan of Mr. M. Lean was approved of, and submitted to Parliament. In 1862 an Act was passed, authorising its completion. Started in 1862, the present embankment on the northern side of the river was primarily designed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette. It incorporates the main low level interceptor sewer from west London, and an underground railway over which a wide road and riverside walkway were also constructed, as well as a retaining wall along the north side of the River Thames. In total, Bazalgette's scheme reclaimed 22 acres of land from the river. URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 22
23 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Embankments Beyond the Houses of Parliament, it is named Victoria Embankment as it stretches to Blackfriars Bridge; this stretch also incorporates a section of the London Underground network used by the District and Circle Lines, and also passes Shell Mex House and the Savoy Hotel. The embankment also incorporates several stretches of gardens and open space, collectively known as the Embankment Gardens, which provide a peaceful oasis within the heart of Central London.
24 Embankments 1880 Victoria Embankment, London, extends along the left bank from Westminster to Blackfriars, a distance of about a mile and a quarter, and was constructed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette, the engineer to the Metropolitan Board of Works. The whole of the space now occupied by the embankment was covered by water or mud, according to the state of the tide, and few London improvements have been more conducive to health and comfort. The substitution of the beautiful curve of the Embankment, majestic in its simplicity, with its massive granite walls, flourishing trees, and trim gardens, is an unspeakable improvement on the squalid foreshore, and tumble-down wharves, and backs of dingy houses which formerly abutted on the river. Charles Dickens (Jr.) Dickens's Dictionary of the Thames, 1881 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 24
25 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Embankments The much smaller Albert Embankment is on the south side of the river, opposite the Millbank section of the Thames Embankment. It was created by Bazalgette for the Metropolitan Board of Works between July 1866 and November 1869
26 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Docks 1882
27 URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott Docks 1828 St. Katherine Dock 1820 Regents Canal Dock 1802 West India Docks 1806 East India Docks 1855 Royal Victoria Docks 1880 Royal Albert Docks 1805 London Docks 1807 Surrey CommerciaI Docks 1868 Millwall Docks
28 Esposizioni 1851 The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations (the "first world's fair") 1862 International Exhibition 1871 First Annual International Exhibition 1872 Second Annual International Exhibition 1873 Third Annual International Exhibition (1873) 1874 Fourth Annual International Exhibition 1885 International Inventions Exhibition 1886 Colonial and Indian Exhibition 1887 American Exhibition 1899 Greater Britain Exhibition (1899) 1905 Naval, Shipping and Fisheries Exhibition 1906 Imperial Austrian Exhibition 1908 Franco-British Exhibition 1909 Imperial International Exhibition 1910 Japan-British Exhibition 1911 Coronation Exhibition 1911 Festival of Empire 1912 Latin-British Exhibition 1914 Anglo-American Exhibition At this point, an idea was entertained by the late Prince Consort of gathering together into one place the best specimens of contemporary art and skill, and the natural productions of every soil and climate, instead of the mere local or national productions of France and England. "It w as to be a w hole world of nature and art collected at the call of the queen of cities a competition in which every country might have a place, and every variety of intellect its claim and chance of distinction. The undertaking received Her Majesty's royal sanction on the 3rd of January, 1850; on the 11th of the same month the Royal Commissioners held their first meeting; and on the 14th of February Prince Albert sat as Chairman of the Commission. On the 21st of March the Lord Mayor of London invited the mayors of nearly all the cities, boroughs, and towns of the United Kingdom to a banquet at the Mansion House to meet the Prince, and upon that occasion his Royal Highness lucidly explained the object of the proposed undertaking. URB_14-15_[2p]_Lez_06a_23-ott-14 29
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