1 Cat-6A UTP and Shielded with Component Rating A Simple Perspective Asef Baddar RCDD, DCD Sr. Technical Manager Leviton Middle East
2 Category Specifications Agenda Terminology International & North America Category 6A and Component Rating Shielded Solutions compared to UTP solutions for Structured Cabling Shielded System Pro s and Con s Bonding & Grounding Summary
3 International Standards TIA is the Telecommunications Industry Association (North America) EIA is the Electronics Industry Alliance (North America) ISO is the International Standards Organization (TIA equivalent) IEC is the International ti Electro Technical Commission i (IEEE equivalent) European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) is the standards setting body of the European Union (EU). BICSI equivalent and uses the EN designation.
4 Category Classification ISO and TIA TIA classification of cabling classes: Category 3 is specified up to 16 MHz Category 5e is specified up to 100 MHz Category 6 is specified up to 250 MHz Category 6A is specified up to 500 MHz Category 7 No plans to develop under TIA. (CAT 7 is referenced in BICSI TDMM and ISO as a Class F and FA equivalent) ISO classifications of cabling classes: Class C is specified up to 16 MHz (similar to Cat-3) Class D is specified up to 100 MHz (similar to Cat-5e) Class E is specified up to 250 MHz (similar to Cat-6) Class E A is specified up to 500 MHz (similar to Cat-6A) Class F is specified up to 600 MHz Class F A is specified up to 1000 MHz
5 Market Segment by Category Cat-5e and Cat-6 are so far dominating Cat-6A on the increase
6 TIA Cat-6A
7 Category 6A Cabling classification designed to support high-speed applications, such as 10GBase-T, over 100 meter channels Unshielded or Shielded Twisted Pair Requirements are for 4-pair 100 Ω CAT6A cabling, cables, cords and connecting hardware up to 500 MHz Several new parameters introduced such as: o alien crosstalk near and far Published in Apr 2008
8 Designing to the Cat 6A Standard The TIA 568 Standards ensure applications will run, and products from different manufacturers work together. These standards build in extra performance margin than is typically required by applications such as 10G Ethernet. A range of performance is specified individually for plugs, jacks, cords, and cables.
9 Designing to the Cat 6A Standard This range allows trade-offs in the design process optimize for all products across the range, or optimize for a specific value within the range. Most manufacturers, choose to optimize for their own component values so their system performance is optimized. Connectors, cords, patch panels, cables can be designed to work best together.
10 Designing to the Cat 6A Standard Range of Connector Values A Range of Cable Values A Range of Connector Values B Range of Cable Values B When products from different manufacturers are combined, overall performance margin can drop due to the need to work together with connectivity that can be anywhere in the performance envelope. Competent manufacturers will design extra margin into component-rated products to provide excellent performance margin with their own products, and with those from other manufacturers.
11 Comp. Guarantee Channel Perform.? Alien Crosstalk (AXT) is new to Cat 6A. It was not previously specified in earlier categories for 4pr UTP cables. Other types of Crosstalk, such as NEXT and FEXT, are generated WITHIN the cable jacket, connector, cord, or panel. NEXT and FEXT can be predicted, and can therefore be reduced through noise cancellation within the active equipment.
12 Comp. Guarantee Channel Perform.? In some instances, meeting component requirements for AXT DOES NOT guarantee the resulting channel or link will meet AXT limits. In addition to meeting the component requirements, all connecting hardware and cable should also be verified for link and channel AXT performance. This is because Alien Crosstalk coupling can take several different forms. The most significant of these forms are common mode and differential mode noise, and differential to common mode conversion.
13 Differential Mode Signals Current flow in UTP cabling induces a magnetic field around the conductors. The spiral form created by the twisted pairs to some extent keeps the magnetic field contained within the spiral. The containment is not perfect, and a magnetic field also exists outside the spiral.
14 Common Mode Signals Common mode noise flows in both conductors in the same direction, and returns to ground via parasitic capacitance. Both conductors generate a magnetic field with equal magnitude and polarity, and do not cancel each other out. The spiral wound pair acts just like an antenna.
15 Common to Differential Conversion The better the electrical balance of the cable, connector, and cord, the better they are able to reject these forms of AXT, and the better the AXT margin of the entire channel.
16 AXT Testing at the Component Level AXT testing for hardware includes setups for ANEXT and AFEXT. To understand the tests, we need to introduce two terms: disturber and victim. In this photo, the V marks the victim port, and the surrounding ports are the disturbers. AXT from each surrounding port is measured and summed.
17 AXT Testing at the Component Level Not all nearby ports have a significant ifi effect on AXT, and are not included. The standards define what s called significant disturbers. For the curious - defined as 90-20log(f/100) In panels and wall plates they re generally the nearby ports.
18 Show Me the Channel A typical worst-case Cat 6A channel as defined in the standards includes 4 connectors, in a 6-around-1 topology.
19 UTP & Shielded System
20 Growth of Shielded System (US) In 2006, Shielded Systems were about 1% of the US business. o All Categories (5e/6/6A) Shielded solutions business increased in 2009 but still expected to be the same in 2012 o This increase contributed t to Cat-6A
22 Terminology ISO and N. America Flavors
23 End to End Channel
24 4-Connector Channel Channel is the same for UTP and Shielded Devise or Field Tester Work Area Outlet Patch Cord Length 5m max Consolidation Point Horizontal Cable Testing Length 328 ft (100m) Maximum Patch Panel Port 1 Telecommunications Closet Patch Panel Port 2 Patch Cord Length 5m max Total Active or Field Tester
25 What is the Noise all About EMC - Electromagnetic Compatibility o o Immunity - Susceptibility to interference from outside noise sources. Emissions Potential to disturb outside sources EMI / RFI Electromagnetic Interference / Radio Frequency Interference o o The disruption of operation of an electronic device when it is in the vicinity of an electromagnetic field (EM field) in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum that is caused by another electronic device. Causes an undesirable response, malfunctioning or degradation in the performance of electrical equipment.
26 What is a Shield? Used to block RF Electromagnetic radiation from corrupting data signals traveling on core conductors Used to prevent the leakage of signal from core conductors onto other channels in close proximity Reduction of RF/E radiation depends very much upon the material used, its thickness, and the frequency spectrum
27 Shield? STRENGTHS EMI/RFI Protection o Noise immunity from outside electrical noise Security o Data security in secure network applications Alien Crosstalk (Cat 6A) o Mitigates AXT in high frequency applications (500 MHz) Smaller Cable O.D. (Cat 6A) Fill it i P th & S ( o Fill capacity in Pathways & Spaces (vs. Cat 6A UTP cable)
28 Shield? WEAKNESSES Cost o Shielded systems generally 30-40% higher vs. UTP. Shielded Cat-6A is typically higher by about 10% o Labor - Additional labor/cost to terminate t (cable prep, foil, drain wire, rework) o Training - May require additional installer training Availability o Shielded products are stocked in o Shielded products are stocked in smaller quantities than UTP.
29 Foil Most common today Shield Types o Better flexibility but not as rugged o Excellent for mitigating high frequencies o Screen must be folded onto itself for full shield effect o 1.5 or 2.0 mil aluminum foil shield Braids o Good flexibility and rugged o Lower DC resistance than foiled screens o Excellent for mitigating noise at low frequencies o Use higher braid coverage percentage for maximum protection Combination braid/foil il construction ti o Maximum effectiveness of shielding o More bulky difficult to work with o More costly
30 Shield Market Sector Financial o Trading desks, high speed data close to other cables. Govt. o Secure network applications, EMI/RFI immunity. Healthcare o Application near ambient electrical noise; MRI equipment, etc. Gaming o High concentration of electrical noise Lights, slot machines, cameras, ATMs, etc. Industrial o Motors, generator, fluorescent lights
31 Why Bonding & Grounding? Life safety requirements o NEC (NFPA 70) Article 250 Protection of People & Property o Life Safety Prevent severe injury or possible death for building occupants. o Equipment Prevent equipment from being damaged or destroyed.
32 Who will do Bonding & Grounding? The electrician on a project is responsible for Bonding & Grounding as part of the building infrastructure o o National & local codes should always be followed. Contact AHJ if there is question on a specific project. This is typically done before the communications installer arrives on the job site. A primary responsibility of the designer is safeguarding personnel, property, and equipment from foreign electrical voltages and currents. (BICSI TDM, 10 th edition, page 10-2)
33 Bonding Definition The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path that ensures electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely an current likely to be imposed. (NEC Article 100 definition) Purpose o Eliminate voltage potentials across all systems which can cause: Equipment damage Electrical noise Intermittent operation System degradation
34 Grounding (Earthing) Definition A conducting connection, whether intentional or incidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth. Purpose o Establish and maintain the potential of the earth on conductors connected to it. o Conducting ground current to and from the earth A floating gground system is one that is not connected to Earth.
35 Rack Level View of shielded system Grounding Patch Panels
36 Grounding at the Work Area A ground at the Work Area is not required Grounding is done when shielded patch cord connect PL to PC (NIC). The computer is grounded through the electrical receptacle. If shielded patch cord is not used or the PC is not grounded, the channel is tied to the ground in the TR.
37 Summary Component rating is necessary to achieve good channel margin Both Cat-6A Shielded and Unshielded Cables are used world wide Majority of installs are UTP Some regions prefer Unshielded and some prefer just Shielded Introduction ti of Cat-6A, increased the use of shielded d solutions as it was easier to meet alien crosstalk in early Both Shielded and UTP Cat-6A solutions supports 10G applications UTP recommended for installations where no noise is present and Shielded is recommended for installations in noisy environments