Combined Heat Power Supported Microgrids: Essential for the Evolution of Distributed Generation

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1 Combined Heat Power Supported Microgrids: Essential for the Evolution of Distributed Generation October 16, 2012 Joe Sullivan, VP, Energy Policy & Development Concord Engineering

2 District Energy CCHP Historic Development of Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) The Re-Emergence PURPA Efficiency 2

3 Why CCHP? US Energy Efficiency 1980 o 42.9% Used o 37.1% Wasted US Energy Efficiency 2002 o 35.2% Used o 64.8% Wasted Electric Generation < 31% Energy Used 3

4 4

5 Rejected Energy From Electric Generation Is Equal to All of the Oil Imported Every Year 5

6 CHP & Greenhouse Gas <31% efficient vs. +80% efficient (doesn t take a genius) Much more actually achieved via Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) o 5 MW CHP supports 2000 tons of cooling o This is equal to 7 MW if viewed from the grid o 2000 tons of cooling at zero CO 2 emission 6

7 District Heating and Cooling - What is Old is New Again. Special subset of CHP o Atlantic City (new) o Trenton (new 20 years) o Philadelphia (old) o New York (old) o Boston (old) o Baltimore (mixed WTE) IRS Rules o Tax Exempt Distribution o If serving non profits Tax Exempt central plant Reduced net Emissions NOx, CO 2, CO and VOC in non compliance areas Electric Sales EDECA o Across the street=onsite 7

8 Current Electric Grid 8

9 Future Electric Grid 9

10 Electric Power Cost Components 10

11 Electric Power Costs by Source 11

12 Electric Costs - Secondary General Service Transition Cost Societal Benefits Charge Utility administered EE/RE Sales and Use Tax EDC Distribution BGS PJM Transmission BGS Profit and Risk NJ REC NJ SREC PJM RPM (capacity) PJM Ancillary Services SO2, NOx, CO PJM LMP Total 14.3 cents/kwh 12

13 Distribution Electric Costs - Secondary General Service Transition Cost Societal Benefits Charge Utility administered EE/RE Sales and Use Tax N/A EDC Distribution BGS PJM Transmission N/A BGS Profit and Risk N/A NJ REC N/A NJ SREC N/A PJM RPM (capacity) 10% PJM Ancillary Services N/A SO2, NOx, CO N/A PJM LMP N/A Total cents/kwh 13

14 Capacity Costs Based on your load during power grid (PJM) peak days Zone Results, By Planning Year (Average of top 5 June through September) Peak Load Contribution $ ,000 kw 5 = 1,000 kw 1.32 $ PJM peak day Hour Load (kw) $ $ July 21 5p 1,000 $ July 22 3p 1,000 July 20 5p 1,000 July 19 5p 1, / / / / /2015 June 8 5p 1,000 1 MW x $226/MW-day x 365 Days = $ 82,

15 Energy Prices - 1 Day Notice Time of Day Spot Market Price Time of Day Spot Market Price 2 PM $ PM $ PM $ PM $ PM $ PM $ PM $.075 Average $.085 TIME MATTERS! 2 PM $ PM $ PM $ PM Slow up 6 PM Slow up 7 PM Slow up 8 PM $.075 Average $

16 Smart Building Management System Connecting to People Connecting to the Environment Connecting Building Systems Connecting across the Enterprise Connecting to the Smart Grid Connecting to the Bottom Line 16

17 Military 17

18 Community Microgrid 18

19 The Two Possibilities for Microgrids Traditional Private Wires Single contiguous property Electric power integral to CHP Electrical distribution by owner Chilled Water distributed from Central Plant Hot Water/Steam distributed from Central Plant The Utility as Distribution Provider Multiple properties within defined area Electric power sold/delivered to district energy participants through regulated utility Chilled Water distributed from Central Plant Hot Water/Steam distributed from Central Plant 19

20 Where is this Evolving? Traditional Private Wires College and University Campus Military Governmental Complex Hospitals Pharmaceutical Campus Manufacturing Ports Refineries The Utility as Distribution Company Con Edison (new tariff) Connecticut Energy Improvement Districts Princeton University? 20

21 Private Wires Advantages If as on a single campus displaces full retail electric cost Subject to standby or demand charges Can be optimized for CHP Can incorporate demand response generation Can operate in Island Mode Disadvantages Limited to contiguous property or Energy Improvement District (EID) Utility opposition on franchise and safety issues Duplicates existing infrastructure at high cost to developer Difficult to integrate renewable or remote resources 21

22 Utility as Distribution Provider Advantages Can revitalize older thermal district energy systems Can optimize CHP Can serve non-contiguous loads Avoids cost of building parallel wires Avoids conflict with utility EDC over franchise issues Avoids safety issue for parallel wires Disadvantages Will need to pay for use of utility wires The system cannot island Requires regulatory process or legislation Distribution without transmission cost would generate loss revenue for EDC 22

23 Operating Paradigm This requires not just building a CCHP - it also requires building a larger plant to serve multiple customers The district energy plant needs to become an integrated part of the EDC and ISO not a peaking parasite (a really smart grid) A district energy plant stands on three legs; Electric, Chilled Water and Heating 23

24 Examples Private Wires Utility as Distribution Provider NYU Princeton University MIT Federal Bases (some) VA Hospitals (some) Pharmaceutical Campus Military Bases (few) ConEdison Case 11-E-0299 (implementation delayed to October 25, 2012) Connecticut Energy Improvement Districts Princeton University 24

25 ConEdison CASE 11-E-0299 Originally issued and effective September 7, 2012 State of New York Department of Public Service Tariffs, Electric Supply and Small Utility Rates Edison Company of New York, Inc. to expand applicability of former Service Classification No. 14 Standby Service Special Provision E (former P.S.C. No. 2 - Retail Access), now General Rule Standby Service, P.S.C. No Electricity, to multiple dwellings or campus style buildings and to PASNY Company has agreed to further postpone the effective date of the filing to October 25, 2012 to allow additional time for Staff s review 25

26 Princeton University NJ P.L ch. 240 Allows a CHP plant supplying a customer not contiguous to be sold electric power if they are purchasing/using thermal energy Princeton was able to optimize operation of their 15 MW campus CHP to serve electric power to additional buildings not on the CHP substation Distribution cost is the full EDC Tariff 26

27 Trenton District Energy Company Operated as a full CHP 80% plus efficiency and 90% availability with a utility PPA recipient of EPA Energy Star Award Upon expiration of PPA CHP operates based on day ahead pricing < 20% Without electric sale capability investment in repowering uneconomic. 27

28 Connecticut Initial proposal 2007 was for Energy Improvement Districts Parallel wires within utility franchise Justified as reliability need New regulations recently proposed no systems developed to date 28

29 Federal Government - H.R Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 New Combined Heat and Power The bill authorizes a new Investment Tax CHP property qualifies for a 10-percent ITC under section 48(a)(3)(A)(v) of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC). This ITC is equal to 10 percent of the costs of the first 15 megawatts of qualifying CHP energy property. Eligible CHP property includes systems up to 50 MW in capacity that exceeds 60% energy efficiency. CHP and other energy property, as defined under section 48(a)(3)(A), also qualify for 5 year accelerated depreciation. 29

30 Federal Government - H.R Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds ( CREBs ) The bill authorizes $800 million of new clean renewable energy bonds to finance facilities that generate electricity from renewable resources solar, wind, closed-loop biomass, open-loop biomass, geothermal, small irrigation, qualified hydropower, landfill gas, marine renewable and trash combustion facilities. 30

31 What s Next? District Energy CCHP works for Campus Systems Microgrids can build and expand on CCHP FERC President Wellinghoff recently was quoted as saying Distributed Generation can deliver capacity at 20% to 40% less cost than grid supply power plants If we are concerned about Global Warming CCHP is a must District Energy CCHP is a mature technology with a 90% availability a micro grid can multiple resources District Energy Micro grids with CCHP can complement our electric grid EDC s and ISO 31

32 We Can Not Afford the Irresponsible Waste of Energy We need to expand on the District Energy based on CCHP as one of our energy efficiency strategies. We need to implement on a broad scale to support our economy, preserve the environment, and minimize the use of non renewable resources. The local nature of this technology makes it a perfect complement to micro grids. 32

33 Thank You for Your Time Today Questions? Joe Sullivan, VP, Energy Policy & Development Concord Engineering (856)

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