Hybrid DX Air Conditioning utilizing ice storage

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1 Opportunities for: Reducing Carbon Footprint Slashing Peak Demand Hybrid DX Air Conditioning utilizing ice storage Paul Kuhlman Director, Ice Energy Inc.

2 We are experiencing a warming trend Temperature Change and CO2 Concentration 2

3 DX A/C Energy Intensity Increases as Temperatures Rise Standard A/C Energy Demand Soars 3

4 DX A/C Energy Efficiency Increases as Temperatures Drop Average difference between daily high & low is ~22 F Store Distributed Energy Efficiently at Night 4

5 Load Factors are Declining ISO-NE Summer Peak Load Factors History , Forecast

6 Ice Energy s Hybrid Air Conditioning Addresses the largest contributor to commercial building electrical bill and greenhouse emissions Air Conditioning: Driver of high electric bills Peaks are getting peakier 40% of the energy use of a typical building during peak hours Source: PG&E Program Advisory Group for Energy Efficiency: HVAC PAG White Paper, Proctor Engineering 6

7 Air Conditioning Dominates Peak Energy Use Drives higher cost of energy Reduces capacity factors Creates need to build new peaker power plants (growth of peak at 3-5 times base) Demand (GW) A/C is 40% of all energy use Typical Summer Day Load Profile Residential A/C Commercial A/C Commercial Lighting Base load 10 6 a.m. 12 noon 6 p.m. Source: California Energy Commission 7

8 An Alternative to New Power Plants The most efficient and environmentally responsible plant you can build is the one that you don t build, James E. Rogers, Chairman of the Edison Electric Institute; New York Times November 2006 "There are only two paths toward achieving big reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. One is to use existing technologies at the expense of economic growth. The other is to use breakthrough technologies that transform how we produce and consume energy and allow us to reduce emissions, while continuing to grow and to improve the world's living standards. The second course is the only acceptable, cost effective option. Paula Dobriansky U.S. Undersecretary of State for Global Affairs 8

9 The Ice Energy Hybrid Cooling Solution Hybrid Air Conditioning systems utilizing ice storage use less expensive, less polluting, nighttime power to create & store cooling for use the next day By using less expensive, less polluting, nighttime power to create & store cooling for use the next day 9

10 Thermal Energy Storage Markets Existing Thermal Energy Storage Systems Hybrid DX Air Conditioning with Storage Large Commercial & Institutional Bldgs. Small Commercial & Residential Chilled water only Refrigerant based only Custom engineered Pre-engineered; specified Consumes up to 20% more energy Consumes up to 20% less energy 10

11 Ice Bear Hybrid Air Conditioning Ice Bear 50 Hybrid A/C 5 50 Ton Commercial Ice Bear 30 Hybrid A/C 3-5 Ton Commercial Transformational Energy Efficiency and Peak Demand Performance Good Better Best Conventional High Efficiency Hybrid* 11.5 EER 12.5 EER 300 EER * Peak EER Rating, Listed California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Measure: 3 5 Ton Residential Prototype 11

12 Ice Bear Hybrid Rooftop Unit System Diagram 500 gallons tap water 5-Ton Ice Make Condensing unit 90,000 BTU/hr Evaporator Coil water never leaves the tank 300W pump 10,0000W compressor locked-out for 6 hours on-peak 12

13 40-50% GHG Emissions Reductions Source of Carbon Credits Reduced Smog Potential on 2% days Energy Storage Heals the Planet Peak vs. Off-peak CO2 Emission Rate* (Tons/MWh) Heavy AC Use Enhances Renewable Generation *Southern California Edison Data ~ 56% lower NOx emission rate during off-peak ~ 40% lower CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions 13

14 Peak Emissions California Typical Summer Week Avg On-Peak.82 tons/mwh Shift Savings.34 Tons/MWh Avg Nightime.48 Tons/MWn 42% Reduction Daily Variance CO2 Emissions - SCE Hours SCE CO2 Hourly emission rates stated in the E3 Avoided Cost Model Tons/MWh

15 Environmental Performance Declaration Developmental ASTM E /ANSISCSOO2 Standards Source: Scientific Certification Systems 15

16 Enhances the Value of Solar PV Typical California Commercial Building Load with Solar PV Pre Peak PV Generation PEAK Post Solar Peak AC Load kw Building Load Profile* PV Output Hours * Climate Zone 13, 6500 SqFt Office Building, Actual Data Hybrid AC utilizing ice storage makes renewables more valuable to the utility and more affordable to the consumer 16

17 Enhances the value of Wind Electrical Generation Wind is the most Cost Effective Renewable Resource where available Majority of wind generation is when demand is lowest Only ~ 5% of wind generation is available when needed most 17

18 Who is Using Energy Storage Air Conditioning? Utility Customers Southern California Edison San Diego Gas & Electric Pacific Gas & Electric Los Angeles (LADWP) Anaheim Public Utility Azusa Public Utility Banning Public Utility Burbank Public Utility Glendale Public Utility Hawaiian Electric Fort Collins Public Utility Pasadena Public Utility Redding Public Utility Riverside Public Utility Imperial Irrigation District Sacramento Municipal Utility Xcel Energy The City of Victorville California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Rating Customer Types Car Dealership Fire Stations Libraries City Hall Police Stations City Maintenance Buildings Restaurants Fast Food National Chain Big Box National Retailer Light Commercial Manufacturing Office Buildings Utility Buildings Activity Centers Health Clubs Military Bases Universities Community Colleges/Schools Large Custom Homes Small Production Homes Zero Energy Homes Churches 18

19 Ice Energy Overview ASHRAE/ARI Product of the year 2004 for energy management California Recent Highlights CEC, Title 24 CPUC, PLS PG&E, Shift & Save Technology Development Powell Energy Ice Energy January, 2003 Windsor, Colorado 7 Patents, 3 Trademarks Ice Bear unit 1 st Production October units manufactured 19

20 20

21 1 Million Hybrid Air Conditioners using ice storage - solving peak demand & reducing emissions Demand (GW) Slashing A/C demand by 40%, every day Storing Wind Power Ice Energy Summer Day Load Profile Residential A/C Commercial A/C Commercial Lighting Base load 1 Million ice storage air conditioners 300,000 commercial 700,000 residential 6 Gigawatts of peak reduction Greenhouse gas reduction equivalent to 600,000 cars off the road a.m. 12 noon 6 p.m. Source: California Energy Commission and The most efficient and environmentally responsible plant you can build is the one that you don t build James E. Rogers, Chairman of the Edison Electric Institute 21

22 Off-Peak, Ice Make Cycle Relatively ~ 22 cooler (60 F 75 F) Make Ice off-peak 3.7 kw Provides off-peak cooling Store Energy 505,000 BTU ~43 kw-hours 22

23 Ice Bear 50 connected to a Rooftop (RTU) A/C Ice-Ready Rooftop Units with Ice Bear 50 Off peak On-Peak Stage 1 Stage 2 kw reduction 7.5 & 10 Ton Ton Operates in normal DX mode 7.5T Ice-Coil n/a Up to 10T DX 8-10 kw 8-10 kw 23

24 Ice-Ready Rooftop Operation Ice-Ready Rooftop Units with Ice Bear 30 Off peak On-Peak Stage 1 Stage 2 kw reduction 4 & 5 Ton n/a 5 6 kw 10 Ton Operates in 5T normal DX mode Ice-Coil 5T DX 5 6 kw 24

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