CHP Strategies and Options / Stored Energy ENERGY SYMPOSIUM April8, 2014 Reading Country Club

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1 CHP Strategies and Options / Stored Energy Jim Freihaut, Ph.D. Director, DOE Mid Atlantic CHP Technical Assistance Partnership Director, Indoor Aerosol Laboratory Professor, Architectural Engineering 104 Engineering Unit A Pennsylvania State University University Park Tel: Navy Yard Tel: ENERGY SYMPOSIUM April8, 2014 Reading Country Club

2 CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships Promote and assist in transforming the market for CHP, waste heat to power, and CHP district energy technologies and concepts throughout the United States. Key services of the CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships include: Market Opportunity Analyses Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Technical Assistance Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to

3 CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships

4 Combined Heat & Power (CHP) Status & Potential in United States (1) Currently, 82 gigawatts (GW) of CHP capacity in use at more than 4,200 sites across the United States. Seventy-one percent of existing CHP capacity is fueled by natural gas Source: The technical potential for additional CHP applications at existing industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities is large, at approximately 130 GW. However, this represents an upper bound and does not consider capital costs, regulatory barriers, policy uncertainty, market conditions,.. President Obama s Executive Order Executive Order -- Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency. there is an opportunity to accelerate and expand these efforts with investments to reduce energy use through more efficient manufacturing processes.and the expanded use of combined heat and power (CHP).. CHP as a Percentage of National Generating Capacity

5 Existing CHP Capacity in the United States Note: Thermal Demand Intensive Applications

6 What Is Combined Heat and Power? CHP is an integrated energy system that: -Is located at or near a factory or building - Generates electrical and/or mechanical power -Recovers waste heat for heating, cooling or dehumidification -Can utilize a variety of technologies and fuels

7 The Combined Subsystems More Primary Fuel Efficient Than Separate Subsystems h CHP = 30% h echp < h egtd h Q HRU CHP < h Q fuel Boiler h HRU, exhaust enthalpy = 64 % h HRU, primary fuel= 45 % But: h CHP System > h SHP System

8 CHP Value Proposition Category 10 MW CHP 10 MW PV 10 MW Wind Combined Cycle (10 MW Portion) Annual Capacity Factor 85% 25% 34% 87% Annual Electricity 74,446 MWh 21,900 MWh 29,784 MWh 76,212 MWh Annual Useful Heat 103,417 MWh t None None None Footprint Required 6,000 sq ft 1,740,000 sq ft 76,000 sq ft N/A Capital Cost $20 million $60.5 million $24.4 million $10 million Cost of Power 7.6 /kwh 23.5 /kwh 7.5 /kwh 5.8 /kwh Annual Energy Savings 316,218 MMBtu 225,640 MMBtu 306,871 MMBtu 203,486 MMBtu Annual CO 2 Savings 42,506 Tons 20,254 Tons 27,546 Tons 35,090 Tons Annual NOx Savings 87.8 Tons 26.8 Tons 36.4 Tons 76.9 Tons Based on: 10 MW Gas Turbine CHP - 28% electric efficiency, 68% total efficiency, 15 PPM NOx Electricity displaces National All Fossil Average Generation (egrid 2010 ) - 9,720 Btu/kWh, 1,745 lbs CO 2 /MWh, lbs NOx/MWH, 6% T&D losses Thermal displaces 80% efficient on-site natural gas boiler with 0.1 lb/mmbtu NOx emissions Source: ICF International

9 CHP Recaptures Much of that Heat, Increasing Overall Efficiency of Energy Services 75 units 150 units 94 units 56 units Fuel Fuel Power Plant 32% efficiency (Including T&D) Onsite Boiler 80% efficiency 30 units Electricity Heat 45 units CHP 75% efficiency Fuel 100 units 100 units Total Efficiency ~ 50% Total Efficiency ~ 75%

10 ..and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions 94 units 56 units Fuel Fuel Power Plant 32% efficiency (Including T&D) Onsite Boiler 80% efficiency 30 units Electricity Heat CHP 75% efficiency Fuel 100 units 45 units Total Efficiency ~ 50% Total Efficiency ~ 75% 30 to 55% less greenhouse gas emissions

11 Defining Combined Heat & Power (CHP) The on-site simultaneous generation of two forms of energy electricity) from a single fuel/energy source Conventional CHP (also referred to as Topping Cycle CHP or Direct Fired CHP) (heat and Separate Energy Delivery: Electric generation 33% Thermal generation - 80% Combined efficiency 45% to 55% CHP Energy Efficiency (combined heat and power) 70% to 85%

12 Defining Combined Heat & Power (CHP) The on-site simultaneous generation of two forms of energy electricity) from a single fuel/energy source Waste Heat to Power CHP (also referred to as Bottoming Cycle CHP or Indirect Fired CHP) (heat and HRSG/Steam Turbine Organic Rankine Cycle Backpressure Turbine Steam Turbine Electricity Heat Fuel first applied to produce useful thermal energy for the process Waste heat is utilized to produce electricity and possibly additional thermal energy for the process Heat recovery steam boiler Simultaneous generation of heat and electricity Waste heat from the industrial process No additional fossil fuel combustion (no incremental emissions) Fuel Energy Intensive Industrial Process Heat produced for the industrial process Normally produces larger amounts electric generation (often exports electricity to the grid; base load electric power)

13 Prime Movers Gas Combustion Turbines > 1 MW Microturbines 35 kw 1 MW IC Engines 30 kw 6 MW Fuel Cells kw 75% - 60% HEAT 25% - 40% Electricity

14 Thermally Activated Technologies Technologies: Hot Water HEX Boilers/Steam Generators Organic Rankin Cycle Backpressure Turbines Absorbers Steam Turbines Desiccants Adsorbers Applications: Process Heat Space Heat Domestic Hot Water Cooling Freezing Dehumidification Power Generation

15 CHP Can Be a Cost-Effective Source of New Power Thermal Recovery Utilization Source: ICF, DOE

16 What Are the Benefits of CHP? CHP is more efficient than separate generation of electricity and heat Higher efficiency translates to lower operating cost, (but requires capital investment) Higher efficiency reduces emissions of all pollutants CHP can also increase energy reliability and enhance power quality On-site electric generation reduces grid congestion and avoids distribution costs

17 Case Studies: Addressing Coal Emissions Kent State University Kent, OH Capacity: 12 MW Fuel: Natural Gas Prime Mover: Comb. Turbines 5MW and 1 x 7MW) Installed: 2003, 2005 (1 x 17

18 Case Studies: Reliability / Multi-Fuel Bay View Wastewater Treatment Plant Toledo, OH Capacity: 10 MW Fuel: Biogas / LFG / NG Prime Mover: Comb. Turbine Installed:

19 Case Studies: Partnership w/ Municipality U.S. Energy Partners, LLC & City of Russell Russell, KS Capacity: 15 MW Fuel: Natural Gas Prime Mover: Comb Turbine Installed: 2002 Source: 19

20 Presbyterian Homes 2.4 MW Nursing Home Facility kw Recip Engines Natural Gas Fueled Recaptures 8,000 lbs/hr low pressure steam 225 tons of Absorption Cooling Ice storm in winter of 1998 knocked out power for 9 hours. 600 senior residents were transferred to safety CHP installed to avoid future outages The environment we provide to elderly adults had everything to do with our decision to pursue power generation. Loss of power isn t an option. Lives depend on it. - Keith Stohlgren, V/P Operations We had no power for nine hours one cold, winter day during an ice storm. The loss of power forced us to take immediate, aggressive measures to ensure the comfort and safety of our residents. Nancy Heald Tolan, Director of Facilities Management

21 NYC Co-Op City Bronx, New York City within a city - 60,000 residents, 330 acres, 14,000+ apartments, 35 high rise buildings One of the largest housing cooperatives in the world; 10 th largest city in New York State 40 MW cogeneration plant maintained power before, during and after the storm (heat & power)

22 Mission-Critical Operations Danbury Hospital (Danbury, CT) 4.5 MW CHP supplies 371 bed hospital with power and steam to heat buildings, sterilize hospital instruments & produce chilled water for AC $17.5 million investment, 3-4 year payback, cut AC costs 30% Nassau Energy Corp. (Long Island, NY) 57 MW CHP Supplies thermal energy to 530 bed Nassau University Medical Center, Nassau Community College, evacuation center for County No services lost to any major customers during Sandy South Oaks Hospital (Long Island, NY) 1.3 MW CHP Hartford Hospital/Hartford Steam (CT) 14.9 MW CHP Bergen County Utilities Wastewater (Little Ferry, NJ) - CHP (Process sewage for 47 communities) 2.8 MW

23 CHP Applications & Integrated Design Industrial Process Integration, PA Adding second 50 MW CHP Systems for total installed capacity of 100 MW internal use only Total CHP plant will provide most of the plant s electric and thermal energy needs driven by local Shale Gas. Food Processing, CT Food processing plant gets 100% of its power and 80% of its thermal energy from a 4.6 MW CHP plant with duct burner and HRSG.

24 Combined Heat & Power (CHP) vs Separate Heat & Power (SHP) Generalizing the Analysis Site Thermal Electric Demand Q D (45) W ed (30) Ideal Demand Conditions l D (Site) Energy Storage Technologies can be a technique to flatten thermal and electric demand loads and enable a broader application of CHP. Time

25 Using Thermal Storage to Extend CHP Applications (1) Courtesy D. North, J. Andrepoint

26 Using Thermal Storage to Extend CHP Application (2) Courtesy D. North, J. Andrepoint

27 Using Thermal Storage to Extend CHP Applications (3) Courtesy D. North, J. Andrepoint

28 Using Storage to Extend CHP Application (4) Kw e- Thermal Compact Cost-Effective Short Term Electrical Storage Compact Cost-Effective Short Term Thermal Storage Prime Mover Kw (--), Thermal (--) Steady State Outputs Time cycle

29 Economics: Thermal & Electrical Storage Systems

30

31 CHP TAP Technical Development Assistance Screening and Preliminary Analysis Feasibility Analysis Investment Grade Analysis Procurement, Operations, Maintenance, Commissioning Quick screening questions with spreadsheet payback calculator. Uses available site information. Estimate: savings, Installation costs, simple paybacks, equipment sizing and type. 3 rd Party review of Engineering Analysis. Review equipment sizing and choices. Review specifications and bids, Limited operational analysis

32 Next Steps Contact the Mid-Atlantic CHP TAP for assistance in getting your project off the ground!

33 Questions??? Mid-Atlantic Jim Freihaut Pennsylvania State University

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