LOS INDICADORES DE CIENCIA, TECNOLOGÍA E INNOVACIÓN EN EL OECD SCOREBOARD: UNA VISIÓN GLOBAL Y SOBRE MÉXICO

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1 LOS INDICADORES DE CIENCIA, TECNOLOGÍA E INNOVACIÓN EN EL OECD SCOREBOARD: UNA VISIÓN GLOBAL Y SOBRE MÉXICO Segundo Taller de Indicadores de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Ciudad de México, 3-31 de enero de 214 Fernando GALINDO-RUEDA Head of S&T Indicators Unit Economic Analysis and Statistics Division Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry

2 Science, Technology, Industry Scoreboard 213 INNOVATION FOR GROWTH Wide-ranging resource book of indicators Drawn on inputs from OECD working parties Evidence base tool for policy makers Broad geographical scope New, experimental indicators Web book Additional data and visualisation online

3 STI Scoreboard 213 chapter contents 1. Knowledge economies trends and features 2. Building knowledge 3. Connecting to knowledge 4. Targeting new growth areas 5. Unleashing innovation in firms 6. Competing in the knowledge economy 7. Participating in the global economy

4 Where people lost their jobs, Relative contribution to change in total employment, by major sectors of economic activity % Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining, manufacturing and utilities Construction Wholesale, retail, hotels, food services and transport Information and communication Finance, insurance and real estate activities Professional, scientific, technical and other business services Public administration, education, health and other services ,25 4,679 2,222 Gains, thousands Losses, thousands -6,453-1, ,85-6,581

5 Labour turnover, by educational attainment, 211 Individuals less than one year in their current job, as a percentage of employment % 3 All employed individuals Tertiary education Low or no formal education

6 Foreign demand sustains a significant fraction of domestic jobs Jobs in the business sector embodied in foreign final demand, 28 As a percentage of total business sector employment %

7 Professionals and technicians, 212 As a percentage of total employment Professionals (ISCO 2) Technicians and associate professionals (ISCO 3) % 6 ISCO-8 classification ISCO-88 classification Share of women in HRST workforce 4 2

8 Graduation rates at doctorate level, 2 and 211 As a percentage of population in the reference age cohort % Percentage of doctorate degrees awarded to women 1

9 R&D trends Gross domestic expenditures on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP China Japan Mexico United States EU28 OECD % Source: OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, MSTI 213(2).

10 R&D efforts across OECD and partner economies R&D in OECD and key partner countries, 211 Researchers, per thousand employment 16. R&D expenditures in 25 USD - constant prices and PPP 1 billion BRIICS North America EU Other OECD members ISL FIN 1 billion billion DNK 12. KOR SVK GRC POL NOR USA PRT BEL FRA SVN CAN AUT IRL AUS NZL DEU LUX GBR EST ESP RUS NLD HUN CZE CHE ITA SWE JPN TUR 2. MEX ZAF BRA CHN IDN CHL IND Gross domestic expenditures on R&D as a percentage of GDP

11 Business R&D intensity and government support to business R&D, 211

12 Currently, many governments subsidise R&D through their tax system Implied tax subsidy rates on R&D expenditures, 213 New OECD estimates of the value of tax support firms may receive for one of R&D investment

13 Several countries provide a more generous treatment for SMEs Tax subsidy rates on R&D expenditures, 213 Extra subsidy provided to R&D in SMEs

14 Tax subsidy varies if profits are too low refunds and carryovers are sometimes offered Tax subsidy rates on R&D expenditures, 213 Canada and France allow full refund but only for SMEs Norway allows full refund of (capped) incentives, for both large firms and SMEs. Austria allows full refund

15 These estimates provide a more complete picture of government support Government support of business R&D, 211: direct funding and R&D tax incentives As percentage of GDP

16 which lead to different international rankings Government support of business R&D, 211: direct funding and R&D tax incentives As percentage of GDP

17 What are the trends? Change in government support of business R&D through direct funding and tax incentives, The economic crisis has slowed down the move towards more R&D tax incentives

18 R&D budgets for energy and the environment, 22 and 212 As a percentage of total employment Environment Energy Environment and Energy, 22 %

19 Patents in environmental technologies, As percentage of PCT applications in each economy % 15 Energy generation from renewable and non-fossil sources General environmental management Energy efficiency in buildings and lighting Emissions abatement and fuel efficiency Tech. with contribution to emissions mitigation Tech. specific to climate change mitigation Combustion tech. with mitigation potential Environment-related patents (1998-2) 1 5

20 Biotechnology R&D Biotechnology R&D in the business sector, 211 Total biotechnology R&D expenditures, millions USD PPP (left-hand scale) Millions USD PPP 3, Biotechnology R&D as a percentage of total business expenditures on R&D (right-hand scale) % 2 2,5 2, 1,5 1,

21 13 5 Nanotechnology R&D Nanotechnology R&D in the business sector, 211 Total nanotechnology R&D expenditures, millions USD PPP (left-hand scale) Millions USD PPP 1,8 Nanotechnology R&D as a percentage of total business expenditures on R&D (right-hand scale) % 6 1,

22 Product innovation and R&D performance in firms Product innovation, by R&D status, 28-1 % 1 Non R&D-active product innovators Product innovators (as % of all R&D-active firms) R&D-active product innovators Product innovators (as % of all non R&D-active firms)

23 Firms collaborating on innovation activities, by size, 28-1 As a percentage of product and/or process innovative firms in each size category % Large firms SMEs

24 Firms collaborating on innovation with higher education or public research institutions, by firm size, 28-1 As a percentage of product and/or process innovative firms in each size group category % Large firms SMEs

25 Business-funded R&D in the higher education and government sectors, 21 and 211 As a percentage of R&D performed in these sectors %

26 The quantity and quality of scientific production, Number of documents and percentage of world's top-cited % 25 Number of publications (Thousands) Percentage of excellence Number of publications (thousands)

27 Collaboration and citation impact The impact of scientific production and the extent of international scientific collaboration, Normalised Impact 2. Number of articles World 5 articles 1 articles 5 articles JPN BRIICS North America EU Other OECD members USA KOR AUS GBR CAN FIN ISR DEU ITA FRA ESP GRC CZE NLD SVN ZAF HUN DNK SWE BEL NOR IRL AUT NZL EST PRT CHL CHE ISL IDN LUX.8 TUR BRA MEX SVK.6 CHN IND POL.4 RUS International collaboration among institutions (%)

28 Mobile scientists: The 9 largest bilateral flows involve the US International flows of scientific authors, Selected bilateral flows, by first and last affiliation Bilateral flows Total bilateral flows (x + y) Pairs, ordered by net flow direction F o r D E U C H E, t h e l o z e n g e s h o w s that C H E g a i n s 3 1 % o f t o t a l b i l a t e ra l f l o w s. %

29 Mobility patterns vary across economies International mobility of scientific authors, selected economies As a percentage of authors with two or more publications, by last reported affiliation % 1 4 New inflows Returnees Stayers

30 Mobility patterns: Latin American countries International flows of scientific authors, Shares of bilateral flows in percentages by first and last affiliation Inflows into: From: 3566 MEX CAN ESP FRA GBR USA Other CHL BRA DEU ESP FRA GBR MEX USA Other BRA CAN DEU ESP FRA GBR ITA PRT USA Other Outflows from: To: 3376 MEX CAN ESP FRA GBR USA Other CHL BRA DEU ESP FRA GBR MEX USA Other BRA CAN DEU ESP FRA GBRITA PRT USA Other % 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 1% BRA CAN CHL DEU ESP FRA GBR ITA MEX PRT USA Other Source: OECD, calculations based on Scopus Custom data, Elsevier, version 5.212, January 214. Interactive scientist mobility charts in

31 The impact of internationally mobile scientists, inflows versus outflows, Based on citation impact and changes in the affiliation of scientific authors Median impact of outflows 1.3 CHE Average flows, inflows plus outflows, of scientific authors 1 NLD 1 ITA AUT FRA CAN DEU DNK SWE FIN USA GBR 1.1 POL CHN IND ARG TUR CHL ZAF PRT KOR JPN GRC NZL BEL NOR ESP TWN AUS HKG SGP BRA MEX RUS: Inflows impact=.71 CZE Median impact of inflows

32 What is the impact of mobility? Impact of scientific authors, by category of mobility, Based on the median source-normalized impact per paper (SNIP) selected countries Stayers Returnees New inflows Outflows Impact factor

33 Public perception of science, 21 "Have the benefits of scientific research outweighed the harmful results?" Benefit much outweighs harm Benefit slightly outweighs harm Benefit = Harm Harm slightly outweighs benefit Harm strongly outweighs benefit Don t know As a percentage of respondents

34 Sugerencias para la discusión Cómo mejorar la copertura de México en futuros Scoreboards? Qué indicadores (existentes y por desarollar) son relevantes para México y merecen mayor énfasis? Gracias por su atención

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