ProCurve Networking by HP Student guide Technical training. WAN Technologies Version 5.21

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1 ProCurve Networking by HP Student guide Technical training WAN Technologies Version 5.21

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3 Contents Overview Introduction... 1 Course Objectives... 1 Prerequisites... 2 Course Module Overviews... 2 Module 1: Overview of WAN Connections Objectives... 1 Introduction... 2 A WAN Connection Defined... 4 Basic Elements of a WAN Connection... 5 Physical Transmission Media and Infrastructure... 6 Types of WAN Circuits... 7 PSTN (United States and Canada)... 9 Public Telephone and Telegraph (PTT) Companies The Local Loop Local Loop Transmission Media Electrical Specifications and Related Technologies Digital Signal Zero (DS0) Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Digital Signal Hierarchies Digital Signal X (DSX) CEPT Digital Signal Hierarchy Japanese Digital Signal Hierarchy Encoding Schemes Data-Link Layer Protocols Module 1 Summary Module 2: Data-Link Layer Protocols Objectives... 1 Overview of the Data-Link Layer... 2 Data-Link Layer Protocols in the WAN... 3 High-Level Data Link Control... 5 Point-to-Point Protocol Suite... 7 Phases of a PPP Session... 9 Configuration Options Link Control Protocol Configuration Options Rev HP Restricted i

4 WAN Technologies Authentication Protocols PAP CHAP EAP NCP Compression Control Protocol Encryption Control Protocol Overview of Link-Aggregation Protocols Multilink PPP Bandwidth Allocation Protocol Bandwidth Allocation Protocol Frames BAP Configuration Options Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol Tunneling Overview Generic Routing Encapsulation PPTP L2TP Module 2 Summary Module 3: Carrier Line WAN Connections Objectives... 1 Overview of Carrier Line WAN Connections... 2 Carrier Line WAN Connections... 4 Physical Infrastructure Common to Carrier Line Local Loops... 5 DSU... 7 CSU... 8 Capabilities of WAN Routers Characteristics of a T1 WAN Connection T1 CSU/DSU Connections Characteristics of an E1 WAN Connection E1 DSU Connections Characteristics of a J1 WAN Connection T1 WAN Connection over SONET (Japan) Characteristics of a T3 WAN Connection T3 CSU/DSU Connections Characteristics of an E3 WAN Connection E3 DSU Connections Characteristics of a DS3 WAN Connection (Japan) DS3 WAN Connection over SONET (Japan) Fiber Optic Carrier Networks SONET and SDH Digital Hierarchies Fiber Optic Media and Connectors Module 3 Summary ii HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

5 Contents Module 4: ISDN WAN Connections Objectives... 1 ISDN Overview... 2 ISDN WAN Connection... 4 Basic Rate Interface... 6 Primary Rate Interface... 8 Options for Higher Transmission Speeds ISDN Equipment at the Subscriber s Premises ISDN Interfaces Protocols for ISDN Standards Ordering ISDN Recording Information About the ISDN Service Module 4 Summary Module 5: DSL WAN Connections Objectives... 1 Overview of DSL WAN Connections... 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of xdsl... 4 xdsl Adoption: Number of xdsl Lines... 6 Broadband Density... 8 xdsl WAN Connection... 9 Two Groups of xdsl Symmetric xdsl Asymmetric xdsl ADSL Overview ADSL Modulation Techniques CAP Modulation DMT Modulation ADSL Components Physical Infrastructure of ADSL WAN Connection ADSL Internet Connection Protocols for ADSL ADSL Lite and RADSL ADSL ADSL ADSL Standards Module 5 Summary Rev HP Restricted iii

6 WAN Technologies Module 6: Frame Relay Objectives... 1 Overview of Frame Relay... 2 Frame Relay WAN Connection... 4 Frame Relay Physical Access Options... 6 Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)... 8 Committed Information Rate Excess Information Rate Congestion Management: DE Bit Congestion Management: FECN and BECN Frame Relay Standards Frame Relay Signaling Protocols Service Level Agreements Module 6 Summary Module 7: Virtual Private Networks Objectives... 1 Defining VPNs... 2 Types of VPNs... 3 IPSec Versus PPTP... 4 IPSec Standard... 5 IPSec Security Protocols... 6 Security Associations... 7 IPSec Modes... 8 Tunnel Mode... 9 Transport Mode IPSec Standard Key Management Process IPSec Standard Authentication Process Key Management and Authentication Digital Certificates Extended Authentication RADIUS Server Extended Authentication TACACS+ Server IPSec Standard Encryption Process Symmetric Key Encryption Asymmetric Key Encryption How IPSec Sends a Packet PPTP Module 7 Summary iv HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

7 Contents Module 8: Firewalls Objectives... 1 Defining Firewalls... 2 Firewall Architecture... 4 Dual-Homed Host Firewall Architecture... 5 Screened Host Firewall Architecture... 6 Screened Subnet Firewall Architecture... 7 Types of Firewalls... 8 Packet-Filtering Firewalls... 9 Circuit-Level Gateways Application-Level Gateways Stateful-Inspection Firewalls Network Address Translation (NAT) Single IP Address Translation Static and Dynamic NAT Port Address Translation (PAT) NAT Traversal (NAT T) What to Block Module 8 Summary Module 9: Quality of Service and Advanced WAN Routing Objectives... 1 Traffic Congestion Quality of Service... 2 Quality of Service Mechanisms... 3 DiffServ Packet Marking... 5 DiffServ Per Hop Behaviors... 7 Class-Based Queuing... 9 Weighted Random Early Discard (WRED) Committed Access Rate (CAR) Generic Traffic Shaping and Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Evaluating Traffic for QoS VLAN Support Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) Exterior Routing Protocols Exterior Gateway Protocol Border Gateway Protocol Module 9 Summary Rev HP Restricted v

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9 Course Overview Introduction The ProCurve WAN Technologies course is designed to help support engineers and systems engineers understand the technologies used to create WAN connections. It outlines the basic elements required to create a WAN connection and provides an in-depth explanation of different types of WAN connections. In addition, this course describes Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), which create secure, private communication across an existing public network. Because VPNs connect a trusted network to an untrusted network primarily the Internet this course also explains the firewall technologies that companies can use to protect their network. Finally, this course discusses quality of service (QoS) mechanisms and advanced routing technologies such as exterior routing protocols. Course Objectives After completing this course, you should be able to: Describe the basic elements of a WAN connection Explain the role that public carrier networks play in creating WAN connections Define data-link layer protocols and explain the role they play in creating WAN connections Describe the specific characteristics and the physical infrastructure of carrier line WAN connections Describe the specific characteristics and the physical infrastructure of Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) WAN connections Describe the specific characteristics of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) WAN connections Describe the physical infrastructure of Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) WAN connections and describe how data is transmitted from the customer s premises to the broadband network and the Internet Explain the relationship between Frame Relay and WAN connections Describe how data travels through a Frame Relay network Rev HP Restricted Overview - 1

10 WAN Technologies Prerequisites Define a VPN and explain how Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is used to create VPNs Describe the firewall architectures that can be used to provide security for a company s internal network Explain what QoS means and describe methods of enforcing QoS: classifying traffic, policing traffic, shaping traffic, and managing congestion Explain the purpose of exterior routing protocols and describe the way they work Before taking this class, you should complete the HP ProCurve Adaptive Edge Fundamentals course and the HP ProCurve RSE course. For more information about HP ProCurve training, visit Course Module Overviews This course contains the following modules: Module 1 provides the foundation for understanding WAN connections. It introduces the three basic elements required for a WAN connection and describes the role each element plays in creating that connection. Module 2 describes the data-link layer protocols that control the transfer of data over a WAN connection. In particular, this module focuses on two generalpurpose, data-link layer protocols High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). This module also describes a network-layer tunneling protocol called Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE). Module 3 explains the specific characteristics and the physical infrastructure of carrier line WAN connections. This module also describes fiber optic carrier networks and the standards most commonly used to create them. Module 4 describes ISDN WAN connections. It explains the two types of ISDN services available and the equipment required at the subscriber s site. This module also outlines the information subscribers need to order an ISDN WAN connection. Module 5 provides an overview of the different types of DSL technologies used to create WAN connections. It then focuses on ADSL connections, explaining the physical infrastructure and the data flow from the customer s premises to the public carrier network and the Internet. This module also describes the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ enhancements. Module 6 explains the relationship between Frame Relay and WAN connections. It also describes the equipment necessary to create a Frame Relay network and the options offered by various Frame Relay carriers. Overview - 2 HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

11 Course Overview Module 7 introduces another method of connecting two sites VPNs. It explains how VPNs create secure, private communication across an existing public network and then describes how IPSec can be used to connect private networks or remote users to the corporate network. Module 8 explains how firewalls can be used to protect a trusted network from an untrusted network. It describes the firewall architectures that you can use to protect your network and explains how different types of firewalls work. Module 9 defines QoS and describes some QoS mechanisms that you can use to manage traffic across a WAN connection. It also explains why WAN routers should support features such as virtual LAN (VLAN) tagging and Virtual Redundancy Routing Protocol (VRRP). In addition, this module describes exterior routing protocols and CIDR. Rev HP Restricted Overview - 3

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13 Overview of WAN Connections Module 1 Objectives This module introduces the basic elements of WAN connections and describes the role each element plays in creating that connection. After completing this module, you should be able to: Describe the three basic elements of a WAN connection Describe how public carrier networks are used to create a WAN connection Identify the three types of circuits used to create a WAN connection Describe how local loops connect the subscriber s premises to public carrier networks Identify the electrical signaling specifications and related technologies used in public carrier networks Explain the differences and similarities between T-, E-, and J-carrier WAN connections Rev HP Restricted 1 1

14 ProCurve WAN Technologies Introduction Companies that have multiple offices need a cost-effective, efficient means to exchange data between those offices. Many companies have created intranets or extranets, which enable users at different locations to view, upload, and download information. However, intranets and extranets are only a partial solution to the problem because the sharing of data is limited to what can be posted on the intranet or extranet. Each office must maintain its own database, and users cannot access data stored at other locations. For example, the accounting department at each office must have a separate database, which cannot be shared over an intranet. Security is also an issue because the intranet must be connected to the Internet, in order to serve multiple locations. The various offices connected through the intranet can be protected by firewalls, but firewalls are not impervious to attacks. For many companies, a Wide Area Network (WAN) is a better and more costeffective solution for connecting multiple branch offices to a main office. A WAN allows companies to exchange all types of information, including voice and data. Combining voice and data traffic can reduce operating expenses for many companies. 1 2 HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

15 Overview of WAN Connections This course focuses on WAN connections created using public carrier networks. Businesses, organizations, and government entities use public carrier networks to create WAN connections for three primary reasons: Using public carrier network infrastructure is almost always more cost effective than using privately owned infrastructure. Public carrier networks allow many subscribers to share the costs of installing, managing, and maintaining the infrastructure required to create WAN connections. Using privately owned infrastructure to create long-distance and international WAN connections is impractical, sometimes even impossible, and cost prohibitive. WAN connections that use privately owned infrastructure are generally limited to relatively short distances, and installing them is beyond the capacity of all but the largest organizations. WAN connections created through public carrier networks are substantially similar to WAN connections created using privately owned infrastructure in terms of security and performance. Public carrier networks also provide levels of reliability and redundancy that privately owned infrastructure typically cannot provide. WAN routers connect the LANs at each location, identify the traffic addressed to another LAN, and route the traffic to the next hop. As explained throughout this course, WAN routers support a variety of WAN connection types, including: Dedicated T-, E-, and J-carrier lines Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Rev HP Restricted 1 3

16 ProCurve WAN Technologies A WAN Connection Defined In the most general sense, a WAN is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. For the purposes of this course, however, a WAN is defined as a network created to connect two or more LANs. WAN connections can connect LANs located in the same city or around the world. As the figure shows, a public carrier network is commonly used to create WAN connections between LANs in different parts of the world. Public carrier networks include the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), which serves the United States and Canada, and Public Telephone and Telegraph (PTT) companies, which serve Mexico, Europe, Asia, South America, and other parts of the world. 1 4 HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

17 Overview of WAN Connections Basic Elements of a WAN Connection All WAN connections consist of three basic elements: The physical transmission media. Electrical signaling specifications for generating, transmitting, and receiving signals through various transmission media. Data-link layer protocols that provide logical flow control for moving data between peers in the WAN. (Peers are the devices at either end of a WAN connection.) As the figure shows, physical transmission media and electrical specifications are part of the physical layer (which is layer one) of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, and data-link layer protocols are part of the data-link layer (which is layer two). This module focuses on the physical transmission media, the electrical signaling specifications, and the related OSI layer-one technologies that are used to create WAN connections through public carrier networks. Data-link layer protocols are explained in detail in Module 2: Data-Link Layer Protocols. Rev HP Restricted 1 5

18 ProCurve WAN Technologies Physical Transmission Media and Infrastructure The first basic element of a WAN connection is the physical transmission medium. The most common physical transmission medium used in public carrier networks is twisted-pair copper wire, originally installed for Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) connections. Twisted pair is currently used in the last mile of 90 percent of all WAN connections. Other physical transmission media include coaxial copper cable, fiber optic cable, and the Earth s atmosphere, which carries signals by such means as infrared and microwave transmissions. The physical transmission media are a large part of what is commonly called infrastructure. Infrastructure also includes telecommunications switching and routing equipment. WAN connections can be created using public carrier network infrastructure, privately owned infrastructure, or a combination of the two. 1 6 HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

19 Overview of WAN Connections Types of WAN Circuits As the figure shows, three types of circuits are used to create WAN connections through public carrier networks: Dedicated circuits Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) Switched virtual circuits (SVCs) Dedicated Circuits Dedicated circuits are permanent circuits dedicated to a single subscriber. The connection is always active. The subscriber purchases dedicated time slots, or channels, that provide a specific amount of bandwidth that is always available for the subscriber to use. The channels in a dedicated circuit are created using time division multiplexing (TDM), which is discussed later in this module. In addition to providing guaranteed bandwidth at all times, dedicated circuits provide the most secure and reliable WAN connections available. Rev HP Restricted 1 7

20 ProCurve WAN Technologies Dedicated circuits are used to create the following point-to-point WAN connections: Carrier lines (which are explained later in this module and in Module 3: Carrier Line WAN Connections) DSL connections (which are explained in Module 5: DSL WAN Connections) Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) PVCs are also permanent circuits dedicated to a single subscriber. The connection is always active. However, because multiple virtual circuits share a physical circuit, there is no guarantee that any specific amount of bandwidth will be available at any specific time. Sometimes there may not be any bandwidth available on the physical circuit because the physical circuit is saturated. When the physical circuit is saturated, the traffic is temporarily stored at a switching point until bandwidth becomes available. When bandwidth becomes available, the stored traffic is forwarded to its destination. This process is referred to as store-and-forward processing, or packet switching, which is the same processing method used on LANs. PVCs provide an average bandwidth guarantee through statistical multiplexing (STM), which underlies packet switching technology. Because PVCs are more cost effective for the public carrier, PVCs are usually less expensive for the subscriber than dedicated circuits. PVCs are commonly used for Frame Relay, which is explained in detail in Module 6: Frame Relay. Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) SVCs are identical to PVCs in all respects, except that they are temporary physical circuits. SVCs are activated when a subscriber initiates a connection to transmit data. When all data have been transmitted, the connection is deactivated, and the physical circuit resources are made available to other subscribers. SVCs are used to create dial-up WAN connections, including ISDN WAN connections, which are explained in Module 4: ISDN WAN Connections. 1 8 HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

21 Overview of WAN Connections PSTN (United States and Canada) In the United States and Canada, most WAN connections are created through the PSTN. As the figure shows, the PSTN consists of local exchange carriers (LECs) and interexchange carriers (IXCs). (LECs are also referred to as telcos.) Local Exchange Carriers LECs operate the infrastructure that provides access to the PSTN in a limited geographic area. The area served by a LEC is referred to as a local access and transport area (LATA). LECs include incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs) and competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs). ILECs are the Regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs) that provide service in a specific LATA. For example, SBC is the current ILEC in California. ILECs were created in 1983 when the U.S. government deregulated the telecommunications industry and mandated the breakup of AT&T. Deregulation also led to the creation of CLECs, which provide the same services as ILECs and compete with ILECs in specific geographic areas. For example, Covad Communications is a CLEC that competes with SBC in California. Rev HP Restricted 1 9

22 ProCurve WAN Technologies Interexchange Carriers IXCs aggregate voice and data traffic from numerous LECs. They operate the infrastructure that connects LATAs to the interlatas that move traffic throughout the United States and Canada. AT&T, Sprint, and MCI are all IXCs based in the United States. IXCs are commonly referred to as long-distance carriers. IXCs also provide the infrastructure that enables PSTN subscribers to create WAN connections to PTT networks in Europe, Asia, South America, and other parts of the world HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

23 Overview of WAN Connections Public Telephone and Telegraph (PTT) Companies In most countries outside of the United States and Canada, the public telephone network is owned and operated by government-owned monopolies called PTTs. As the figure shows, a PTT operates the entire telecommunications infrastructure within a country s borders. For example, British Telecom (BT) provides border-toborder service in the United Kingdom, while Deutsche Telecom (DTAG) provides this service in Germany. PTTs provide both the local-access and long-distance transport infrastructure needed to create WAN connections through the public carrier network. As the figure shows, carrier interconnects link individual PTTs to provide an international public carrier system. Rev HP Restricted 1 11

24 ProCurve WAN Technologies The Local Loop The connection between a subscriber s premises and the public carrier s nearest central office (CO) is referred to as the local loop. The local loop includes the entire telecommunications infrastructure such as repeaters, switches, cable, and connectors required to connect a subscriber s premises to the CO. A line of demarcation (demarc) separates a subscriber s wiring and equipment from that of the public carrier. Each party owns, operates, and maintains the wiring and equipment on its side of the demarc. Public carrier networks were originally designed to carry analog voice calls. Therefore, copper wire is the most common physical transmission medium used on the local loop. Because of the limits in the signal-carrying capacity of copper wire, local loops that use copper wire are the slowest, least capable component of a WAN connection. Public carriers are beginning to install coaxial and fiber optic cable in local loops to meet ever-increasing bandwidth demands. Local loop connection types include carrier lines, which are described in Module 3: Carrier Line WAN Connections. Local loop connection types also include ISDN and DSL. ISDN and DSL are digital technologies designed to maximize the limited capabilities of existing local loop copper wiring. ISDN and DSL are discussed briefly in the next two sections HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

25 Overview of WAN Connections ISDN Local Loops ISDN provides integrated voice and data services by means of a fully digital local loop. An ISDN connection requires Category-3 (CAT-3) or higher twisted pair and is delivered by means of an SVC. ISDN is a local loop-only technology. When ISDN traffic reaches the public carrier s nearest CO, it is converted for transport through existing public carrier infrastructure. ISDN is available in two levels of service: Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and Primary Rate Interface (PRI). BRI service provides 128 Kbps of bandwidth. PRI service provides Mbps in total bandwidth in T-carrier systems and Mbps in total bandwidth in E-carrier systems. ISDN is discussed in-depth in Module 4: ISDN WAN Connections. DSL Local Loops DSL is a digital service that exists only in the local loop. DSL provides a digital connection between the subscriber and the public carrier s CO. Like ISDN, DSL requires CAT-3 or higher twisted pair wiring. Unlike ISDN, DSL uses PVCs (rather than SVCs), so DSL connections are always active. A DSL modem or WAN router connects the subscriber s premises to the public carrier network. Different types of DSL are available. Each public carrier determines the types of DSL that are available in a local service area. The following are some examples of the types of DSL: Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) High bit rate DSL (HDSL) Symmetric DSL (SDSL) Very high bit rate DSL (VDSL) DSL is discussed in-depth in Module 5: DSL WAN Connections. Rev HP Restricted 1 13

26 ProCurve WAN Technologies Local Loop Transmission Media CAT-3 and CAT-5 Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) are the most common types of copper wire used in the local loop. In some applications where signal interference is an issue, Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) is used. In some areas, including parts of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, a pair of coaxial cables is used instead of twisted pair to complete local loop connections. Other transmission media can be used to complete local loops if transmission speed is a primary consideration. For example, fiber optic cable and coaxial cable are both used to create T3 and E3 WAN connections, as discussed in Module 3: Carrier Line WAN Connections HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

27 Overview of WAN Connections Electrical Specifications and Related Technologies An electrical specification defines a set of communication parameters, or rules, that determine the transmission speed through a WAN connection. When engineers create an electrical specification, their objective is to find the best way to reliably transport traffic, as rapidly as possible, through a given transmission media. The electrical specifications used for public carrier networks are based on cooperative standards developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the International Standards Organization (ISO), the Conference of European Postal and Telecommunications (CEPT), ITU-T, and ITU-T s predecessor, the Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone (CCITT). Electrical specifications enable both synchronous and asynchronous communications over a WAN connection. Synchronous communications use a clock signal to precisely coordinate signal transport through the transmission media. Asynchronous communications use start and stop bits, rather than a clock, to coordinate signals. The remainder of this module focuses on the synchronous electrical specifications and related technologies that define the basic unit of bandwidth (the DS0 channel) used in copper-based public carrier networks. Rev HP Restricted 1 15

28 ProCurve WAN Technologies Digital Signal Zero (DS0) DS0 is a digital channel operating at 64 Kbps, the amount of bandwidth required to transmit a single analog voice call through a digital telecommunications network. Based on the ANSI T1.107 specification, DS0 was originally created in the mid 1960s by Bell Laboratories to transport voice traffic over T-carrier systems. PTTs subsequently adopted a modified version of ANSI T1.107, the ITU-T G.703 specification, which is the basis of European and international E-carrier systems. J-carrier systems are also based on a modified version of T1.107 and are similar to T-carrier systems. DS0 is the fundamental unit of bandwidth the fundamental channel in all copper-based T-, E-, and J-carrier systems. In E-carrier systems, DS0 is called E0, and in J-carrier systems, DS0 is called J0. However, the basic signal is virtually identical in all three carrier systems. DS0, E0, and J0 channels all use a process called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) to convert analog (voice) signals into digital signals HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

29 Overview of WAN Connections Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) PCM is the basis of a standard DS0, E0, and J0 channel. PCM converts a continuously variable analog signal, such as a voice telephone call, into a stream of digital bits. As the figure shows, the PCM sampling process creates a digital signal that represents the original analog waveform. The analog signal is converted (modulated) into a digital signal that is sent over the WAN connection. On the receiving side, the digital signal is demodulated (converted) back to an analog signal that closely approximates the original analog waveform. In the PCM sampling process, the analog signal is sampled 8,000 times per second. Each sample is converted into an 8-bit binary code that represents the voltage of the analog waveform at the time the sample was taken. Thus, the PCM process is the mathematical basis for the bandwidth required for a standard DS0, E0, or J0 channel: 8 bits per sample x 8,000 samples per second = 64 Kbps Rev HP Restricted 1 17

30 ProCurve WAN Technologies Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) As the figure shows, TDM creates a high-bandwidth channel by combining, or multiplexing, multiple DS0 signals into a larger, more complex signal. Each DS0 receives an equal time slice within the complex signal in a rotating, repeating sequence, and thus receives an equal amount of bandwidth. On the receiving end, TDM is used to recover the original DS0 signals through a reverse process called demultiplexing. T-carrier and J-carrier systems use TDM to provision 24 DS0 channels for a T1 or J1 WAN connection. E-carrier systems use TDM to provision 32 DS0 channels for an E1 WAN connection. TDM is also used to provision larger channels that use T1/J1/E1 channels as base multiples, as described in the next section HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

31 Overview of WAN Connections Digital Signal Hierarchies Digital signaling hierarchies define the signal multiplexing used in each type of physical carrier and determine the transmission speed for each carrier. Digital signaling hierarchies use small bandwidth channels as base multiples for creating larger bandwidth channels, or carrier signals, in a carrier system. DS0, E0, and J0 channels serve as the base multiples for creating T1, E1, and J1 carrier signals. T1, E1, and J1, in turn, serve as the base multiples for creating the more complex, higher-bandwidth carrier signals used in T2, E2, J2, and higher carrier systems. T-, E-, and J-carrier systems use similar, but not identical, digital signaling hierarchies. T-carrier systems use Digital Signal X (DSX), E-carrier systems use the CEPT digital signal hierarchy, and J-carrier systems use the Japanese signal hierarchy. These signaling hierarchies are described in the following sections. Rev HP Restricted 1 19

32 ProCurve WAN Technologies Digital Signal X (DSX) DSX is the digital signal hierarchy that defines the signal multiplexing used in T-carrier systems. As the figure shows, DSX specifies that 24 DS0s are multiplexed to create the DS1 carrier signal used in a T1 carrier. A T1 carrier provides a total transmission rate of Mbps (24 x 64 Kbps = 1,536 Kbps + 8 Kbps for framing bits and timing signal synchronization). Similarly, DSX specifies the following: Four DS1 signals are multiplexed to create the DS2 signal used in T2 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps. 28 DS1 signals are multiplexed to create the DS3 signal used in T3 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps. 168 DS1 signals are multiplexed to create the DS4 signal used in T4 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps. 336 DS1 signals are multiplexed together to create the DS5 signal used in T5 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

33 Overview of WAN Connections As the figure shows, DSX specifies the physical carriers used at each level in the hierarchy. (DSX does not define the physical carrier; ANSI T1.107 defines the physical components of T-carrier systems.) When combined, the physical carrier and the DSX hierarchy specify a usable physical layer for each type of carrier in a T-carrier system. DSX defines Digital Signal Designators (DSDs), or signaling methods, used to create the carrier signals used at each level of the hierarchy. DSX also defines DSX interfaces, which describe the physical connections (pinouts) and signaling logic (send timing, receive timing, send data, and receive data) necessary for connected devices to communicate. Rev HP Restricted 1 21

34 ProCurve WAN Technologies CEPT Digital Signal Hierarchy Like the DSX digital signal hierarchy used in T-carrier systems, the CEPT digital signal hierarchy defines the signal multiplexing used to create the signals carried in each E carrier. Unlike DSX, CEPT DSDs are identical to the physical carrier designator. As the figure shows, the CEPT hierarchy multiplexes 32 E0 channels to create the signal that is carried within an E1 physical carrier. An E1 carrier provides a total transmission rate of Mbps. Similarly, the CEPT hierarchy specifies the following: Four E1 signals are multiplexed to create the E2 signal used in E2 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps. 16 E1 signals are multiplexed to create the E3 signal used in E3 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps. 64 E1 signals are multiplexed to create the E4 signal used in E4 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps. 256 E1 signals are multiplexed together to create the E5 signal used in E5 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

35 Overview of WAN Connections Japanese Digital Signal Hierarchy The Japanese digital signal hierarchy defines the signal multiplexing used to create the signals carried in each J carrier. Unlike DSX, Japanese DSDs are identical to the physical carrier designator. As the figure shows, the Japanese hierarchy multiplexes 24 J0 channels to create the J1 carrier signal that is carried within a J1 physical carrier. A J1 carrier provides a total transmission rate of Mbps. Similarly, the Japanese hierarchy specifies the following: Four J1 signals are multiplexed to create the J2 signal used in J2 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps. 30 J1 signals are multiplexed to create the J3 signal used in J3 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps. 240 J1 signals are multiplexed to create the J4 signal used in J4 carriers, which provide a transmission rate of Mbps. In Japan, most PTTs in Japan use the T1 standard for data; the J1 standard is used for voice. The reasons for using the T1 standard will be discussed in Module 3: Carrier Line WAN Connections. Rev HP Restricted 1 23

36 ProCurve WAN Technologies Encoding Schemes Encoding schemes define how digital signals are configured for transport through a physical transmission medium. Encoding schemes use electrical signals to represent the logical 0 and 1 bits in a data stream. The public carrier that provides the local loop service determines the encoding scheme for the WAN connection. All of the subscriber s equipment must be configured to use the public carrier s encoding scheme. Three encoding schemes are widely used in T-, E-, and J-carrier systems. Alternate mark inversion (AMI) Bipolar 8-zero substitution (B8ZS) High-density bipolar of order 3 (HDB3) AMI AMI uses alternating positive and negative voltage (referred to as alternating polarity or bipolarity) to represent logical 1s, and zero voltage to represent logical 0s. Because AMI uses zero voltage for logical 0, it can cause synchronization loss between peers at each end of a WAN connection when a data stream contains a long string of logical 0s HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

37 Overview of WAN Connections B8ZS HDB3 B8ZS is a modified version of AMI. B8ZS prevents the synchronization loss associated with AMI by limiting the number of consecutive 0s in a data stream to eight. When eight zeros are detected, B8ZS replaces them with two successive logical 1s of the same polarity in a process referred to as a bipolar violation. B8ZS is the predominant encoding scheme used in T-carrier systems. HDB3 is based on AMI and prevents synchronization loss in a manner similar to B8ZS. HDB3 limits the number of consecutive zeros in a data stream to four, and it replaces them with three logical 0s and a violation bit with the same polarity as the last AMI logical 1 detected. HDB3 is the predominant encoding scheme used in E-carrier systems. Rev HP Restricted 1 25

38 ProCurve WAN Technologies Data-Link Layer Protocols Data-link layer protocols are the third and final element of a basic WAN connection. Data-link layer protocols are found at layer two of the OSI model. They enable flow control, synchronization, integrity checking, and validation for data streams passing between the physical layer and the network layer (layer three in the OSI model). Module 2: Data-Link Layer Protocols explains data-link layer protocols in detail HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

39 Overview of WAN Connections Module 1 Summary In this module, you learned about the following: Three basic elements of a WAN connection: Physical transmission media Electrical signaling specifications Data-link layer protocols Local loops and the public carrier networks that provide them Three types of circuits used to create a WAN connection: Dedicated circuit Permanent virtual circuit Switched virtual circuit Electrical specifications and related technologies: Digital signal hierarchies: DSX, CEPT Digital Signal Hierarchy, and the Japanese Digital Signal Hierarchy Pulse code modulation Time division multiplexing Rev HP Restricted 1 27

40 ProCurve WAN Technologies Learning Check Module HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

41 Overview of WAN Connections 1. What are the three basic elements of a WAN connection? 2. Which type of circuit is used to create T-, E-, and J-carrier lines? a. Switched virtual circuit b. Permanent circuit c. Permanent virtual circuit d. Switched circuit 3. Which digital signaling hierarchy forms the basis of E-carrier lines? a. DSX b. JSX c. CEPT d. EPT 4. How many DS0s are multiplexed into a T1-carrier line? a. 16 b. 24 c. 20 d How many E0s are multiplexed into an E1-carrier line? a. 16 b. 24 c. 20 d How many E1 signals are multiplexed to create the E3 signal used in E3-carrier lines? a. 16 b. 24 c. 20 d. 32 Rev HP Restricted 1 29

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43 Data-Link Layer Protocols Module 2 Objectives This module discusses two general-purpose data-link layer protocols High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). These protocols can be used to control the transfer of data over a WAN connection that is created using the physical media and electrical signaling specifications described in Module 1. This module also describes a network-layer tunneling protocol called Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE). After completing this module, you should be able to: Describe HDLC and its configuration options Describe the PPP suite and the configuration options associated with specific protocols within the suite Identify the phases of a PPP session Describe the purpose of link-aggregation protocols and configuration options associated with Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MP) Describe GRE Rev HP Restricted 2 1

44 ProCurve WAN Technologies Overview of the Data-Link Layer Layer two of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is called the data-link layer. In simplest terms, the data-link layer describes the procedures (called protocols) that control data transfer across the physical infrastructure at layer one. To control data transfer, protocols at this layer perform two important functions: Establish a link between the sending peer and the receiving peer. (Peers are the devices at either end of a point-to-point link.) Reliably transfer data across that link. Data-link layer WAN protocols establish point-to-point links, while data-link layer LAN protocols provide multipoint connections. In other words, only the two endpoints of a WAN connection (usually two WAN routers) communicate with one another, while all nodes in a LAN can communicate with all other nodes. 2 2 HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

45 Data Link Layer Protocols Data-Link Layer Protocols in the WAN As mentioned in Module 1: Overview of WAN Connections, all WAN connections consist of three basic elements: 1. The physical transmission media 2. Electrical signaling specifications for generating, transmitting, and receiving signals through various transmission media 3. Data-link layer protocols that provide logical flow control for moving data between peers in the WAN This course focuses on three technologies that provide the physical-layer elements of a WAN connection: Dedicated carrier lines Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) For each of these WAN connections, a subscriber can choose among several datalink layer protocols. Rev HP Restricted 2 3

46 ProCurve WAN Technologies Most WAN routers prompt you to choose a data-link layer protocol by asking for your method of encapsulation and providing a list of supported data-link layer protocols. Encapsulation, in this sense, is the process of wrapping a network-layer protocol s packet (such as an IP packet) within a data-link layer protocol s frame. Encapsulating network-layer protocols enables their transfer across a point-topoint link. This module discusses two general-purpose data-link layer protocols: High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). PPP is the default encapsulation for many routers and is discussed in depth in this module. However, much of this discussion is informative. Unless you require changes to PPP s default operation, configuring PPP is mostly automatic. In addition to HDLC and PPP, a number of data-link layer protocols such as Link Access Procedure for D-Channel (LAPD), Frame Relay, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) protocols can encapsulate WAN traffic. LAPD is discussed in Module 4: ISDN WAN Connections, and the Frame Relay protocols are discussed in Module 6: Frame Relay. ATM technology is discussed in Module 5: DSL WAN Connections. This module also describes two protocols that enable you to aggregate lines: Multilink PPP (MP) and Multilink Frame Relay (MFR). It then introduces the concept of tunneling and describes a tunneling protocol called Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE). GRE is a network-layer protocol that is generally associated with security in a Virtual Private Network (VPN). VPNs establish secure communications over public networks such as the Internet and are discussed in depth in Module 7: Virtual Private Networks. However, GRE can also be used in private WANs and in conjunction with datalink layer protocols as a solution to the following problems: To provide connectivity for legacy network-layer protocols To route multicast traffic through routers that are not configured for multicasting To connect LANs that use incompatible IP addresses 2 4 HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

47 Data Link Layer Protocols High-Level Data Link Control HDLC is one of the oldest data-link layer protocols for the WAN. In fact, it predates the PC and was originally developed for mainframe environments. Because of this, HDLC was originally designed for use with primary and secondary devices, such as a mainframe with dumb terminals. Although HDLC has been updated for use in the PC environment, you may encounter the following terms, which originate from its early use: Normal Response Mode (NRM) A secondary device can transmit only when the primary device specifically instructs it to do so. Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM) A secondary device can initiate a transmission; however, the primary device controls the establishment and termination of the link. Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM) Devices at both ends of a connection are configured to be both primary and secondary devices and can establish a link, transmit data without permission, and terminate a link. Rev HP Restricted 2 5

48 ProCurve WAN Technologies HDLC uses three different types of frames: Unnumbered frames establish a link. Supervisory frames carry error and flow control information. Information frames carry the network-layer packets across the WAN link. 2 6 HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

49 Data Link Layer Protocols Point-to-Point Protocol Suite Although PPP is the name of a single protocol, most often PPP refers to an entire suite of protocols that are related to PPP. Most of the PPP suite is shown above. Specific protocols are briefly mentioned in this section to give you an overview of PPP; these protocols are then described in more depth in later sections. Every PPP connection requires the peers to exchange frames from at least three protocols and to exchange them in a particular order: 1. Link Control Protocol (LCP) 2. One type of Network Control Protocol (NCP) the one appropriate to the data being delivered 3. PPP Link Control Protocol Other than PPP itself, LCP is probably the most important protocol in the PPP suite. LCP frames are used to establish, configure, and maintain the link between peers. LCP frames must establish a link between peers before a PPP frame can be transferred across that link. Rev HP Restricted 2 7

50 ProCurve WAN Technologies Network Control Protocols After LCP establishes a link, peers must exchange NCP frames before PPP frames can carry information over the link. Basically, NCPs carry information about how to control or manage other protocols, primarily network-layer protocols. The network-layer protocol used by the information in the PPP frame determines which type of NCP frames must be exchanged. For example, if the PPP frames are carrying IP packets, then IP Control Protocol (IPCP) frames must be exchanged before the PPP frames can be sent. Point-to-Point Protocol PPP frames carry the actual information being transferred over the link from the upper layers of the OSI model. In PPP terminology, this information is called a datagram. Optional Protocols in the Suite The remaining protocols in the PPP suite are optional. Examples of these optional protocols include: Encryption Control Protocol (ECP) is an NCP that can configure options for encrypting PPP datagrams. Link Quality Reporting (LQR) is a link configuration protocol that monitors how many frames are being dropped on the link. All authentication protocols provide different ways to authenticate passwords on links configured to require passwords. 2 8 HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

51 Data Link Layer Protocols Phases of a PPP Session As the figure shows, a PPP session is divided into phases during which the various protocols may exchange frames. A PPP session proceeds in the following way: 1. During the link dead phase, the physical layer is unavailable, and there is no activity. If a peer wants to begin a session, it signals the physical layer and waits for the physical layer to indicate that it is now up. The session then enters the link establishment phase. 2. Peers exchange LCP frames during the link establishment phase. If the peers successfully establish a link, the session enters the authentication phase. 3. During the authentication phase, peers exchange authentication protocol frames. (Although authentication is optional, the session passes through this phase whether or not authentication was chosen.) If the sending peer authenticates successfully or if no authentication is necessary, the session then enters the network-layer protocol phase. Rev HP Restricted 2 9

52 ProCurve WAN Technologies 4. During the network-layer protocol phase, peers exchange NCP frames and PPP frames. More than one protocol per session can be used during this phase. For example, peers might exchange IPCP frames, then send PPP frames with IP datagrams, then exchange AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP) frames, then send PPP frames with AppleTalk datagrams, and so on. 5. During the link termination phase, peers exchange LCP link-termination frames. The session is then terminated and returns to the link dead phase HP Restricted Rev. 5.21

53 Data Link Layer Protocols Configuration Options You can configure WAN routers (or other devices) to use optional protocols in the PPP suite. In addition, many protocols in the PPP suite, such as LCP, allow you to manually configure options. To choose a setting for an option, you may need to know a value assigned to the setting. For example, one of the authentication protocols discussed later in this module, the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, allows you to choose among several authentication algorithms. To use the algorithm called MS-CHAP, you may need to know it has been assigned the value of 128 (although it is more likely that the router s software developers will provide a text option from which to choose). All values associated with PPP are controlled by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and are updated at this URL: When one of the peers in a PPP session has been configured to use protocols or options that are not used by default, the peers negotiate these options. They do so by exchanging configuration frames for the protocol in question. The figure shows a simplification of this frame-exchange process. Rev HP Restricted 2 11

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