Technology Brief. Implementing DSL Service for ISPs with the SMS. The DSL Opportunity. DSL is Different from Dial

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Technology Brief. Implementing DSL Service for ISPs with the SMS. The DSL Opportunity. DSL is Different from Dial"

Transcription

1 Technology Brief Implementing DSL Service for ISPs with the SMS The DSL Opportunity Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) services represent a major opportunity for dialup-based Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to improve their competitive position by offering broadband connectivity to their subscribers while leveraging their existing provisioning, billing and marketing infrastructure. From the subscriber viewpoint, DSL represents a widely available solution that can deliver broadband multi-media services with download speeds of 384 kbps or more, a significant improvement over 56k modems. As the enduser market awareness of DSL continues to grow, many subscribers are switching to DSL from dialup Internet access. This is especially true of the power users segment, such as small businesses, telecommuters and home office users, who represent the higher end of many ISPs revenue base. Although there are many similarities between delivering Dial and DSL service, in many ways DSL departs from the dial-up network design, since it involves DSL-specific linetermination equipment and introduces network scaling issues, but at the same time offers richer revenue opportunities for the ISP that are made possible by utilizing the greater bandwidth. This white paper provides a background on the issues associated with implementing DSL service for ISPs, in a way that is both cost-effective and scalable from entry-level volumes up through thousands of subscribers, by using the Redback Subscriber Management System as the key network service component. DSL is Different from Dial In the dial world, individual subscribers initiate telephone calls from their modems, which are carried over the telephone network infrastructure (PSTN) and ultimately terminated on an ISP s remote access server (RAS), which then passes traffic to a router for access to the Internet. (Although there are variations on this model involving dial offload and wholesaling the basic model serves for our purpose in comparing with DSL.) Internet Service Provider Remote Access Server CO PSTN CO BGP Router Internet RADIUS AAA Server Single PPP Sessions, Individually Managed Figure 1: Current Dial Access Model 1 Copyright 2003 Redback Networks

2 In the DSL model subscribers connect from their premises via a DSL CPE over copper wire that is physically terminated on their DSL provider s DSL Access Multiplexer (DSLAM), which is located in a telecom central office (CO). The DSL provider, typically a LEC or CLEC acting as a wholesaler, aggregates traffic and sends it to the retail Internet Service provider via a high-speed connection such as a DS-3 or OC-3 circuit over their metro ATM network. As in the dial model the LEC owns the local loop and they provision the DSL service by connecting the copper pair to the DSLAM. In the original DSL model the equivalent to the RAS is missing and traffic is terminated directly on the ISP router. DSL Modem Copper Pair DSL Provider Central Office DSLAM IP Data Network Service Provider BGP Router Internet Voice RADIUS AAA Server Figure 2: Typical End-to-End DSL Architecture To Voice Network Benefits of DSL Service for ISPs From the perspective of an Internet Service Provider, DSL offers a number of key advantages and benefits that improve their competitiveness and enhance their revenue opportunities. These DSL benefits include: High-speed solution for subscribers that makes use of existing copper wiring Differentiation from other ISPs that haven t yet moved to offer DSL Competition against other broadband services, such as wireless and cable modems Opportunity to create a larger geographic service area throughout a Telco LATA A method for building subscriber loyalty, especially among small businesses and power users through value added services on the broadband connection Ingredients for Setting Up DSL Service The implementation of DSL services requires the ISP to address four key areas: Defining the business opportunity for the DSL service offering, including the projected numbers of subscribers, demographics, and growth prospects Contracting for a high-speed circuit from a DSL provider who provides optimal geographic coverage and a beneficial rate structure, to deliver subscriber traffic Implementing a method for terminating the delivery circuit and managing the required volumes of individual DSL subscriber sessions Integrating the DSL subscriber traffic into the existing ISP infrastructure in a manner that enables ongoing scalability of subscribers 2 Copyright 2003 Redback Networks

3 Defining the Business Opportunity The first step for an ISP in offering any new service is taking the time to define the business opportunity. This is a direct outgrowth of any ISP s business, which is to know their subscriber base. In addition to determining the geographic distribution and numbers of subscribers, with DSL it is also necessary to know which of the types of DSL service will appeal to them. Since many DSL providers do not necessarily offer all the different variants of DSL, the type of service a subscriber base needs will form part of the wholesale provider selection criteria. The most popular types of DSL service: IDSL ISDN Digital Subscriber Line: Generic term for a basic symmetrical service that uses digital modems to achieve speeds of up to 144 kbps in both directions over ISDN-loop equivalent distances (about one mile). Easier to provision than other forms of DSL and extends farther but limited bandwidth. ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line: Transmits from 1.5 Mbps to 9 Mbps downstream (to the subscriber) and from 16 kbps to 640 kbps upstream, depending on line distance. This is the most common form of DSL service for residential subscribers who mainly download from the Internet. SDSL Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line: Delivers service from 144kb up to T1 speeds in both directions depending on the service contract. Generally for business where symmetrical speed between branch offices or to customers is required. HDSL High data rate Digital Subscriber Line: DSL CPE on either end of one or more twisted pairs deliver up to T1 or E1 speeds. At present T1 requires two lines and E1 requires three. This is generally a limited availability business service. VDSL Very high data rate Digital Subscriber Line: DSL CPE operating at data rates from 12.9 to 52.8 Mbps with maximum reach ranging from 4500 feet to 1000 feet of 24 gauge twisted pair. Generally used in multi-tenant or multi-dwelling applications. Due to the presence of many competing DSL providers in the market, there are variations on these basic DSL categories, which attempt to differentiate gradations of service capabilities and there are always developments in technology that can lead to new service types. In practice most residential DSL service is ADSL based. Basics of Service Delivery The critical components of successful service establishment: 1) Matching the DSL provider s service offerings to ISPs requirements 2) Determining the size of aggregate pipe that is needed 3) Understanding the relationship between the ISP and the DSL provider Because the various DSL providers serve different local geographic areas and offer different types of DSL service, it is important for the ISP to match their available offerings with the services that a subscriber base really needs. Generally, one of the best methods for assessing the geographic match is to simply get the DSL provider to supply an overview of CO office code prefixes (e.g. the next 3 digits after the area code) for which they offer DSL services. Then it is a relatively straightforward matter to match 3 Copyright 2003 Redback Networks

4 existing and/or projected subscriber populations against the providers serviceavailability data. An ISP is essentially contracting for the DSL provider to aggregate the individual subscribers and to deliver those subscriber circuits via an aggregated circuit, such as a full or fractional DS-3 or maybe multiple T1 lines for smaller volumes of subscribers. Basically, this bandwidth estimation process involves the combination of the following four key factors: The projected total number of subscribers Number of subscribers using each type of service & their individual peak bandwidth requirements (e.g. 256 kbps consumer service vs. 768 kbps business service vs. 1.5 Mbps T1 replacement service) The aggregate of their simultaneous peak bi-directional bandwidth requirements if everyone was on line at the same time (e.g. number of consumers ADSL users times 256 kbps + number of business users times 768 kbps.) The upper-bound over-subscription factor that will still allow acceptable quality of service levels based upon estimates subscribers expectations. The over-subscription estimate will be a critical factor in determining both the size and the average utilization of an aggregate circuit from the DSL provider. For instance, with no over-subscription factor, a single 45 Mbps DS-3 circuit would only support about 175 ADSL users at 256 kbps each. Of course, most of the time such an aggregate circuit would be substantially under utilized. On the other hand, using a 5-to-1 over-subscription ratio can boost the number of subscribers to more than 1000 sharing the same DS-3, thereby greatly lowering the cost per user and greatly increasing the circuit s overall utilization. The balancing issue is the point at which overall bandwidth constraints don t satisfy the users level of service expectation. Such service expectations are likely to vary greatly between power users and casual users and an ISP should consider implementing a tiered service offering. Once a DSL provider that best fits overall requirements is identified and the aggregate size of the pipe has been estimated, the next step is to define and negotiate the parameters of the contractual arrangement. While DSL providers don t publicly indicate what specific items they are willing to negotiate, it is important to keep in mind that many aspects of the service can be tailored to meet the ISP s requirements. For instance, many DSL providers will consider waiving the engineering and installation charges for a DS-3 circuit in exchange for a commitment as short as one year. In essence, they are counting on achieving a pass-through benefit from the same increased level of subscriber loyalty and stability that the ISP is expecting to achieve through offering DSL to their customers. In addition, many DSL providers are willing to start out by provisioning only a portion of the DS-3 circuit s total bandwidth capacity. Obviously, this could give a very attractive entry point and incremental growth path to match the circuit costs with the actual numbers of subscribers at any point. Cost-Effective and Scalable Circuit Termination Once the DSL circuit is defined and ordered, the next major issue is how to terminate all the subscribers sessions in a cost effective manner that is consistent with the existing 4 Copyright 2003 Redback Networks

5 ISP network infrastructure. Because the DSL model does not have a direct equivalent to the Remote Access Server, ISPs often have simply tried to use their backbone routers to terminate a DSL provider s DS-3 circuit. This creates problems in two key areas: inadequacy of the router to handle the traffic, and complexity in moving the traffic onto the ISP infrastructure. Routers are designed to dynamically communicate with thousands of networks via a limited number of individual connections. Router designs were never intended to terminate thousands of simultaneous individual connections or subscribers. Over the years, IP router designs have been optimized for use in dynamic clustered topologies that scale overall system performance by adding interconnected routers, rather than by scaling the number of connections to a specific router. In essence, routers are optimized to communicate with thousands of networks, but by actually connecting to only a relatively few neighboring routers at a time. Introducing the Redback Subscriber Management System The Subscriber Management System (SMS) was designed in response to ISP s requirements for terminating 1000s and even tens of thousands of individual DSL subscriber sessions. It fits in the network operational model in a similar role to the dial Network Access Server however the SMS is designed specifically to address the issue of broadband subscriber management. The Subscriber Management System provides an intelligent solution for terminating high-speed circuit connections, such as DSL, from the subscriber side, and creating groomed IP streams optimized for backbone routers. Essentially, the SMS aggregates T1, DS-3 and/or OC-3 circuits full of subscriber sessions on the frontside and outputs groomed IP streams on the backside. DSL Modem Copper Pair Central Office DSLAM IP Data Internet Service Provider RedBack SMS Mbps Ethernet BGP Router Internet Voice RADIUS AAA Server Figure 3: DSL Architecture with SMS Used at ISP POP Using an SMS improves the flexibility of DSL provider choices as well as it allows an ISP to provision services from two or more DSL providers, in order to compensate for gaps in geographic coverage and/or service offerings. Without an SMS, the termination and management of traffic from different DSLAMs can be problematic as it would require multiple termination devices and the associated purchase and management costs. On the other hand, an SMS can simultaneously accept high concentrations of traffic from multiple DSLAMs, while independently performing all of the aggregation, management and conversion functions necessary to output router-ready IP streams to the backbone. Another advantage of using an SMS is the ability to terminate either ATM or Frame Relay streams, depending upon which mode the DSL provider supports. Rather than having to limit their DSL provider choices or to invest in redundant internal switches to handle ATM and Frame Relay, the ISP can invest in a single SMS with confidence that 5 Copyright 2003 Redback Networks

6 they ve not sacrificed any of their future flexibility. From an investment flexibility standpoint, the SMS concept enables an ISP to initially deploy a minimal system configuration with a single I/O card to handle the incoming DS-3 and outgoing Fast Ethernet connections, and then to smoothly scale up the system as required to match actual growth. The SMS s level of capacity should provide ample growth for even the most ambitious ISP. At the same time, the ISP s initial investment in an SMS remains comparable with that of a standard mid-sized router and offers increasingly better cost/benefit ratios as the system requirements scale upward. Fast and Easy Circuit Set-up When it comes to setting up new circuits, the SMS is designed for optimal ease of administration, with a short straightforward recipe, regardless of whether the DS-3 feed is carrying ATM or Frame Relay traffic. An example of the required steps, using an industry familiar command line interface, are as follows: ATM Circuit Set-up: 1. Plug in the circuit 2. Set Clock Source to: Line 3. Set Cell Delineation to match the telco switches requirements (e.g. PLCT ) 4. Turn Scrambling On or Off as required 5. Configure the PVC 6. Configure the Subscriber Frame Relay Circuit Set-up: 1. Set Interface Type (typically to DTE) 2. Set LMI Type (typically to ANSI ) 3. Set Clock Source to: Line 4. Configure the PVC 5. Configure the Subscriber Integrating DSL within the ISP Infrastructure Beyond circuit termination, there is also the issue of how to manage hundreds or thousands of new subscribers from an accounting, authentication and access standpoint. This essentially comes down to how the ISP s existing RADIUS functionality, currently utilized by the dial RAS, is deployed in a broadband environment. By acting as a standard RADIUS client, the SMS provides the network administrator with seamless manageability over all DSL subscribers, bringing them directly under the umbrella of established user-management methods. The SMS integrates seamlessly with an ISP s existing RADIUS AAA systems, greatly simplifying the task of managing subscriber access and security and accounting and integrating with existing billing systems. In addition, an SMS can simultaneously create and manage multiple RADIUS-compliant authentication domains. This allows an ISP to automatically direct any user s session to any one of multiple IP networks or services. This capability, called multiple contexts, is a major breakthrough because it overcomes the previous requirement to have each DSL circuit logically nailed up to a fixed connection in the router environment. Essentially, 6 Copyright 2003 Redback Networks

7 the SMS now allows any user session to enjoy the kind of dynamic connections previously achievable only in the low-speed dial-up model. The Subscriber Management System effectively provides three critical benefits: 1. The scalability of a specialized ATM termination device with the capacity to simultaneously handle many thousands of subscribers 2. The routing functionality of multiple routers to optimally direct subscriber traffic into the backbone environment (each SMS context represents a virtual IP router) 3. The ability to dynamically direct user-level protocols (such as PPP) across the entire Subscriber-to-Router virtual connection. In addition, the integration between the SMS and RADIUS server allows for setting up highly efficient traffic-shaping profiles that smoothly match the IP traffic to the specific service provisioned by each ATM virtual circuit. Because the relatively unlimited bandwidth of the backbone and LAN must be trimmed to fit within the constraints of each subscriber s DSL bandwidth, traffic shaping can be a critical factor to avoid over-running the parameters established for the WAN link. By setting up Service Profiles within the SMS for each of the connection services offered, the ISP can quickly create a key component of the overall traffic management structure. With an SMS, the ISP has a wide degree of flexibility to shape traffic by a variety of criteria, such as per-port, per-pvc, per-subscriber, etc. Both receive and transmit traffic can be shaped via policing and rate-limiting functions. If appropriate, the SMS traffic shaping capabilities could even be used to migrate away from standard flat-rate DSL services by overlaying shaping parameters for usage rate structures or even tiered services that reflect different gradations of QoS commitments. The Bottom Line The bottom line is that the ability to offer a range of DSL connectivity options is quickly becoming a requirement for remaining competitive as an Internet Service Provider. The good news is that even a small to mid-sized ISPs can now cost effectively institute a competitively rich set of DSL services without an insurmountable investment in multiple new routers or a complex re-engineering of their existing network infrastructures. By following the logical steps of understanding their customer base and mapping those needs to the available DSL offerings, ISPs can readily define and negotiate appropriate provider relationships to support both their initial requirements and growth projections. Then, by deploying scalable Subscriber Management Systems to terminate and manage the hundreds to thousands of incoming DSL subscriber circuits, ISPs can immediately begin taking advantage of the new revenues from offering DSL services. 7 Copyright 2003 Redback Networks

Connection Services. Hakim S. ADICHE, MSc

Connection Services. Hakim S. ADICHE, MSc Connection Services Hakim S. ADICHE, MSc adiche@ccse.kfupm.edu.sa Department of Computer Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Connection Services Different connectivity

More information

Cable subscribers are connected directly to high speed lines while ADSL subscribers are connected directly to medium speed lines

Cable subscribers are connected directly to high speed lines while ADSL subscribers are connected directly to medium speed lines ADSL vs Cable Cable subscribers are connected directly to high speed lines while ADSL subscribers are connected directly to medium speed lines Cable subscribers share the line connecting them to neighbourhood

More information

Public Network. 1. Relatively long physical distance 2. Requiring a service provider (carrier) Branch Office. Home. Private Network.

Public Network. 1. Relatively long physical distance 2. Requiring a service provider (carrier) Branch Office. Home. Private Network. Introduction to LAN TDC 363 Week 4 Connecting LAN to WAN Book: Chapter 7 1 Outline Wide Area Network (WAN): definition WAN Topologies Choices of WAN technologies Dial-up ISDN T1 Frame Relay DSL Remote

More information

Table 1: Comparison of different types of DSL Technologies

Table 1: Comparison of different types of DSL Technologies Table 1: Comparison of different types of DSL Technologies DSL Type Symmetric/Asymmetric Loop Range (kft) Downstream (Mbps) Upstream (Mbps) IDSL symmetric 18 0.128 0.128 SDSL symmetric 10 1.544 1.544 HDSL

More information

Analysis of xdsl Technologies

Analysis of xdsl Technologies International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering 897 Available Online at www.ijecse.org ISSN- 2277-1956 Analysis of xdsl Technologies Dimple Saproo 1, Megha Goyal 2, Asha Bhagashra

More information

Exam questions. 1. Which of the following are true regarding xdsl? Choose three. It uses a portion of the existing phone line.

Exam questions. 1. Which of the following are true regarding xdsl? Choose three. It uses a portion of the existing phone line. Nguyen Khac Quyet - Take Exam Exam questions Time remaining: 00: 08: 31 1. Which of the following are true regarding xdsl? Choose three. It uses a portion of the existing phone line It is symmetrical It

More information

CTS2134 Introduction to Networking. Module 07: Wide Area Networks

CTS2134 Introduction to Networking. Module 07: Wide Area Networks CTS2134 Introduction to Networking Module 07: Wide Area Networks WAN cloud Central Office (CO) Local loop WAN components Demarcation point (demarc) Consumer Premises Equipment (CPE) Channel Service Unit/Data

More information

ADSL or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Backbone. Bandwidth. Bit. Bits Per Second or bps

ADSL or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Backbone. Bandwidth. Bit. Bits Per Second or bps ADSL or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Backbone Bandwidth Bit Commonly called DSL. Technology and equipment that allow high-speed communication across standard copper telephone wires. This can include

More information

XDSL and DSLAM Access Technologies

XDSL and DSLAM Access Technologies XDSL and DSLAM Access Technologies Abstract What are the differences between the different forms of xdsl technology, such as ADSL and HDSL? How are they implemented. What are the limitations? What are

More information

1.264 Lecture 34. Telecom: Connecting wired LAN, WAN. Next class: Green chapter 17. Exercise due before class

1.264 Lecture 34. Telecom: Connecting wired LAN, WAN. Next class: Green chapter 17. Exercise due before class 1.264 Lecture 34 Telecom: Connecting wired LAN, WAN Next class: Green chapter 17. Exercise due before class 1 Exercise Your transportation brokerage company also handles billing for freight shipments,

More information

Reducing Cost of Ownership in a DSL Access Network

Reducing Cost of Ownership in a DSL Access Network Reducing Cost of Ownership in a DSL Access Network A Market Insight from Net to Net Technologies Ltd EMEA V.0 Page of 8 Introduction The Internet access market is becoming a utility market. The Incumbent

More information

Network+ Guide to Networks 6 th Edition. Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks

Network+ Guide to Networks 6 th Edition. Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks Network+ Guide to Networks 6 th Edition Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks Objectives Identify a variety of uses for WANs Explain different WAN topologies, including their advantages and disadvantages Compare

More information

November 2013. Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs

November 2013. Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs November 2013 S P E C I A L R E P O R T Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs Table of Contents Introduction... 3 What Are VPNs?... 4 What Are MPLS VPNs?... 5 What Are the Benefits of MPLS VPNs?... 8 How Do

More information

E1-E2 (EB) Chapter 8A. Broadband Services

E1-E2 (EB) Chapter 8A. Broadband Services E1-E2 (EB) Chapter 8A Broadband Services 8A. Broadband and Broadband Services 8A.1 Introduction In toady s globally networked society through internet, there is always increasing demand for higher capacity

More information

Intel System Engineers Documents. DSL General Overview

Intel System Engineers Documents. DSL General Overview Intel System Engineers Documents DSL General Overview Alex Lattanzi SC LAR Whatt IIs Brroadband? Broadband describes a number of different technologies that deliver digital data to homes and businesses

More information

Broadband 101: Installation and Testing

Broadband 101: Installation and Testing Broadband 101: Installation and Testing Fanny Mlinarsky Introduction Today the Internet is an information superhighway with bottlenecks at every exit. These congested exits call for the deployment of broadband

More information

DSL Variations. NEXTEP Broadband White Paper. Broadband Networks Group. Definitions and differences of Digital Subscriber Line variations.

DSL Variations. NEXTEP Broadband White Paper. Broadband Networks Group. Definitions and differences of Digital Subscriber Line variations. NEXTEP Broadband White Paper DSL Variations Definitions and differences of Digital Subscriber Line variations. A NEXTEP Broadband White Paper May 2001 Broadband Networks Group DSL Variations EXECUTIVE

More information

Chapter 2 - The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models

Chapter 2 - The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models Chapter 2 - The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models TCP/IP : Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol OSI : Open System Interconnection RFC Request for Comments TCP/IP Architecture Layers Application

More information

VDSL (VERY HIGH DATA BIT RATE DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE)

VDSL (VERY HIGH DATA BIT RATE DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE) 1 VDSL (VERY HIGH DATA BIT RATE DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE) INTRODUCTION 1. Recent events in the telecommunications environment are giving rise to a new class of service providers, setting the stage for how

More information

FACT SHEET DATA SOLUTIONS WHOLESALE BUSINESS DSL

FACT SHEET DATA SOLUTIONS WHOLESALE BUSINESS DSL RELIABLE AND DEDICATED END-TO-END NETWORK ACCESS SOLUTION Wholesale Business DSL is a Telstra Wholesale broadband service designed to provide customers with a fast, dedicated end-to-end network access

More information

WANs connect remote sites. Connection requirements vary depending on user requirements, cost, and availability.

WANs connect remote sites. Connection requirements vary depending on user requirements, cost, and availability. WAN Review A WAN makes data connections across a broad geographic area so that information can be exchanged between distant sites. This topic defines the characteristics of a WAN. WAN Overview WANs connect

More information

Introduction to Meg@POP

Introduction to Meg@POP Introduction to Meg@POP SingTel Meg@POP is a comprehensive suite of IP services for businesses which need a secured connection to multiple locations, parties or services in Singapore. It provides a simple

More information

Truffle Broadband Bonding Network Appliance

Truffle Broadband Bonding Network Appliance Truffle Broadband Bonding Network Appliance Reliable high throughput data connections with low-cost & diverse transport technologies PART I Truffle in standalone installation for a single office. Executive

More information

Broadband Bonding Network Appliance TRUFFLE BBNA6401

Broadband Bonding Network Appliance TRUFFLE BBNA6401 Broadband Bonding Network Appliance TRUFFLE BBNA6401 White Paper In this brief White Paper we describe how the TRUFFLE BBNA6401 can provide an SMB with faster and more reliable Internet access at an affordable

More information

Vision. Paradyne Confidential & Proprietary Page 2

Vision. Paradyne Confidential & Proprietary Page 2 Building One Access Network For Voice, Video & Data Ralf Sattler (Senior Sales Engineer) Vision Paradyne builds dependable equipment used by service providers to deliver voice, video and data services

More information

How DSL Works. by Curt Franklin

How DSL Works. by Curt Franklin by Curt Franklin How DSL Works When you connect to the Internet, you might connect through a regular modem, through a localarea network connection in your office, through a cable modem or through a digital

More information

of Network Access ASC Broadband Services Access Platform The New Edge Advanced Switching Communications

of Network Access ASC Broadband Services Access Platform The New Edge Advanced Switching Communications Broadband Services Access Platform The New Edge of Network Access Advanced Switching Communications Market Situation The explosion of the Internet and customer demand for bandwidth is revolutionizing service

More information

Building Next Generation DSL Networks with the Redback Service Gateway

Building Next Generation DSL Networks with the Redback Service Gateway Building Next Generation DSL Networks with the Redback Service Gateway Providers must respond to the growing adoption of DSL by building an advanced architecture that supports a diversity of services,

More information

Technical Paper. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): Using Next Generation Technologies to Expand Traditional Infrastructures

Technical Paper. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): Using Next Generation Technologies to Expand Traditional Infrastructures Technical Paper Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): Using Next Generation Technologies to Expand Traditional Infrastructures USB ADSL Modem Contents Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): Using Next Generation Technologies

More information

Chapter 9. Internet. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 10-1

Chapter 9. Internet. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 10-1 Chapter 9 Internet Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 10-1 Outline 9.2 - How the Internet Works - Basic Architecture - Connecting to an ISP - Internet Today 9.3 - Internet Access Technologies - DSL

More information

Acterna DSL Services Tester TPI 350+ Application Highlights

Acterna DSL Services Tester TPI 350+ Application Highlights Acterna TPI 350+ DSL Test Set Product Highlights Field engineered, rugged construction, lightweight design, and batterypowered operation Automated testing capabilities minimize training costs and testing

More information

Wholesale IP Bitstream on a Cable HFC infrastructure

Wholesale IP Bitstream on a Cable HFC infrastructure Wholesale IP Bitstream on a Cable HFC infrastructure In order to understand the issues related to an ISP reselling Cable Based Internet access it is necessary to look at similarities and dissimilarities

More information

Voice and Delivery Data Networks

Voice and Delivery Data Networks Voice and Delivery Data Networks Chapter 11 Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Identify the basic elements of a telephone system Describe the composition of the telephone

More information

Chapter 5. Data Communication And Internet Technology

Chapter 5. Data Communication And Internet Technology Chapter 5 Data Communication And Internet Technology Purpose Understand the fundamental networking concepts Agenda Network Concepts Communication Protocol TCP/IP-OSI Architecture Network Types LAN WAN

More information

Broadband ASAP. System 7.1A Core Software. Bridging the Digital Divide. Product Guide

Broadband ASAP. System 7.1A Core Software. Bridging the Digital Divide. Product Guide Product Guide Broadband ASAP System 7.1A Core Software TM Bridging the Digital Divide Over 40% of all network subscribers will get their broadband serv i c e s outside of Central Office (CO) service areas

More information

By: Mohsen Aminifar Fall 2014

By: Mohsen Aminifar Fall 2014 By: Mohsen Aminifar Fall 2014 Contact Information: E-Mail: m.aminifar@modares.ac.ir admin@parsenet.ir Phone : 021-22919726 09128442885 Website : http://parsenet.ir http://aminifar.ir SMS Center : 5000262175

More information

Converged TDM and IP- Based Broadband Solutions White Paper. OnSite OS-10 Multi-Service over SDH Provisioning

Converged TDM and IP- Based Broadband Solutions White Paper. OnSite OS-10 Multi-Service over SDH Provisioning Converged TDM and IP- Based Broadband Solutions White Paper OnSite -10 Multi-Service over SDH Provisioning Copyright Copyright 2009, Patton Electronics Company. All rights reserved. Printed in the USA.

More information

Overview of WAN Connections Module 1

Overview of WAN Connections Module 1 Overview of WAN Connections Module 1 Objectives This module introduces the basic elements of WAN connections and describes the role each element plays in creating that connection. After completing this

More information

WAN Data Link Protocols

WAN Data Link Protocols WAN Data Link Protocols In addition to Physical layer devices, WANs require Data Link layer protocols to establish the link across the communication line from the sending to the receiving device. 1 Data

More information

VoIP Solutions Guide Everything You Need to Know

VoIP Solutions Guide Everything You Need to Know VoIP Solutions Guide Everything You Need to Know Simplify, Save, Scale VoIP: The Next Generation Phone Service Ready to Adopt VoIP? 10 Things You Need to Know 1. What are my phone system options? Simplify,

More information

WHITEPAPER MPLS: Key Factors to Consider When Selecting Your MPLS Provider

WHITEPAPER MPLS: Key Factors to Consider When Selecting Your MPLS Provider WHITEPAPER MPLS: Key Factors to Consider When Selecting Your MPLS Provider INTRODUCTION Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), once the sole domain of major corporations and telecom carriers, has gone mainstream

More information

R2. The word protocol is often used to describe diplomatic relations. How does Wikipedia describe diplomatic protocol?

R2. The word protocol is often used to describe diplomatic relations. How does Wikipedia describe diplomatic protocol? Chapter 1 Review Questions R1. What is the difference between a host and an end system? List several different types of end systems. Is a Web server an end system? 1. There is no difference. Throughout

More information

IP-VPN Architecture and Implementation O. Satty Joshua 13 December 2001. Abstract

IP-VPN Architecture and Implementation O. Satty Joshua 13 December 2001. Abstract Abstract Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are today becoming the most universal method for remote access. They enable Service Provider to take advantage of the power of the Internet by providing a private

More information

If access to DOIT is necessary, then VPN must be implemented.

If access to DOIT is necessary, then VPN must be implemented. MCI DSL is Internet only access. If access to DOIT is necessary, then VPN must be implemented. The following link will bring you to the VPN request form that must be filled out completely, preferably by

More information

MPLS: Key Factors to Consider When Selecting Your MPLS Provider Whitepaper

MPLS: Key Factors to Consider When Selecting Your MPLS Provider Whitepaper MPLS: Key Factors to Consider When Selecting Your MPLS Provider Whitepaper 2006-20011 EarthLink Business Page 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), once the sole domain of major corporations

More information

FACT SHEET DATA SOLUTIONS DSL INTERNET GRADE

FACT SHEET DATA SOLUTIONS DSL INTERNET GRADE OFFER CUSTOMERS THE CONVENIENCE OF ALWAYS ON CONNECTIVITY Telstra Wholesale's DSL Internet Grade lets our customers tap into the rapidly growing residential and small business market by on-selling broadband

More information

VENDOR NAME: Verizon Business VZB Communications, Inc. SERVICE/PRODUCT NAME: xdsl Service: Internet DSL Office and Office Enhanced

VENDOR NAME: Verizon Business VZB Communications, Inc. SERVICE/PRODUCT NAME: xdsl Service: Internet DSL Office and Office Enhanced DOIT MASTER AGREEMENT NUMBER: B-03-013 DAS APPROVAL DATE: 11/6/13 VENDOR NAME: Verizon Business VZB Communications, Inc. SERVICE/PRODUCT NAME: xdsl Service: Internet DSL Office and Office Enhanced SERVICE/PRODUCT

More information

Choosing Ethernet Services

Choosing Ethernet Services Choosing Ethernet Services IS ETHERNET THE RIGHT CHOICE FOR YOUR NETWORK? Business Ethernet Including Ethernet over Copper (EoC) and Ethernet over Digital Signal Cross-connect (EoDSx) Delivers Cost- Effective,

More information

WHITE PAPER: Broadband Bonding for VoIP & UC Applications. In Brief. mushroomnetworks.com. Applications. Challenge. Solution. Benefits.

WHITE PAPER: Broadband Bonding for VoIP & UC Applications. In Brief. mushroomnetworks.com. Applications. Challenge. Solution. Benefits. In Brief Applications UC & VoIP Challenge Cut telecom cost by finding an alternative to costly MPLS Improve Internet connectivity speeds Fortify business continuity Solution Mushroom Networks Truffle Internet

More information

Broadband Service Architecture for Access to Legacy Data Networks over ADSL Issue 1

Broadband Service Architecture for Access to Legacy Data Networks over ADSL Issue 1 Technical Report TR-012 Broadband Service Architecture for Access to Legacy Data s over ADSL Issue 1 June 1998 Abstract: This Technical Report specifies an interoperable end-to-end architecture to support

More information

Data Sheet. M o r e... making networks better

Data Sheet. M o r e... making networks better making networks better Data Sheet Networks Unlimited 5 The Colonnades London Road Pulborough West Sussex RH20 1AS Tel:+44 (0)1798 873 001 Fax:+44 (0)1798 873 002 Web: www.netunlim.com Email:sales@netunlim.com

More information

Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition. Chapter 7 WANs, Internet Access, and Remote Connectivity. Objectives

Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition. Chapter 7 WANs, Internet Access, and Remote Connectivity. Objectives Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition Chapter 7 WANs, Internet Access, and Remote Connectivity Objectives Identify a variety of uses for WANs Explain different WAN topologies, including their advantages

More information

Virtual Leased Line (VLL) for Enterprise to Branch Office Communications

Virtual Leased Line (VLL) for Enterprise to Branch Office Communications Virtual Leased Line (VLL) for Enterprise to Branch Office Communications Reliable high throughput data connections with low-cost & diverse transport technologies Executive Summary: The Truffle Broadband

More information

MITEL. NetSolutions. Flat Rate MPLS VPN

MITEL. NetSolutions. Flat Rate MPLS VPN MITEL NetSolutions Flat Rate MPLS VPN A Comprehensive, Intelligent Network-based Solution Businesses today demand an ever-evolving list of requirements of their networks. From connecting branch locations

More information

Requirements & Reference Models for ADSL Access Networks: The SNAG Document

Requirements & Reference Models for ADSL Access Networks: The SNAG Document Technical Report TR-010 Requirements & Reference Models for ADSL Access Networks: The SNAG Document June 1998 Abstract: This document outlines architectural requirements and reference models for ADSL services

More information

Delivering High Speed Data Services with Net to Net Technologies Digital Subscriber Line Technology

Delivering High Speed Data Services with Net to Net Technologies Digital Subscriber Line Technology White Paper A Business Case for Competitive Local Exchange Carriers Delivering High Speed Data Services with Net to Net Technologies Digital Subscriber Line Technology Overview Digital Subscriber Line

More information

Business Services. Is Ethernet the Right Choice for Your Network? Learn More: Call us at 877.634.2728. www.megapath.com

Business Services. Is Ethernet the Right Choice for Your Network? Learn More: Call us at 877.634.2728. www.megapath.com Business Services Is Ethernet the Right Choice for Your Network? Learn More: Call us at 877.634.2728. www.megapath.com Is Ethernet the Right Choice for Your Network? Business Ethernet including Ethernet

More information

TELECOMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS ADVISORY COMMITTEE TSAC WORKING GROUP ON NEW STANDARDS AND POLICY (NSP)

TELECOMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS ADVISORY COMMITTEE TSAC WORKING GROUP ON NEW STANDARDS AND POLICY (NSP) TELECOMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS ADVISORY COMMITTEE TSAC WORKING GROUP ON NEW STANDARDS AND POLICY (NSP) Introduction Development of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Technology This paper introduces the development

More information

Telecommunications systems (Part 2)

Telecommunications systems (Part 2) School of Business Eastern Illinois University Telecommunications systems (Part 2) Abdou Illia, Spring 2007 (Week 12, Thursday 3/29/2007) T-1 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Cellular Telephone System Integrated

More information

Appendix A: Basic network architecture

Appendix A: Basic network architecture Appendix A: Basic network architecture TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOCAL ACCESS NETWORKS Traditionally, telecommunications networks are classified as either fixed or mobile, based on the degree of mobility afforded

More information

Glossary of Telco Terms

Glossary of Telco Terms Glossary of Telco Terms Access Generally refers to the connection between your business and the public phone network, or between your business and another dedicated location. A large portion of your business

More information

Broadband Symmetric Q&A

Broadband Symmetric Q&A Broadband Symmetric Q&A 1. What is SHDSL technology? SHDSL is the acronym for Symmetric High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line. SHDSL is one of a number of services that utilise digital subscriber line

More information

Introduction to ADSL. NEXTEP Broadband White Paper. Broadband Networks Group. A primer on Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line transmission technology.

Introduction to ADSL. NEXTEP Broadband White Paper. Broadband Networks Group. A primer on Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line transmission technology. NEXTEP Broadband White Paper Introduction to ADSL A primer on Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line transmission technology. A NEXTEP Broadband White Paper May 2001 Broadband Networks Group Introduction to

More information

Chapter 9A. Network Definition. The Uses of a Network. Network Basics

Chapter 9A. Network Definition. The Uses of a Network. Network Basics Chapter 9A Network Basics 1 Network Definition Set of technologies that connects computers Allows communication and collaboration between users 2 The Uses of a Network Simultaneous access to data Data

More information

Wireless DSL in Action The Advantage of WiMAX based wireless DSL for incumbent and competitive operators. White Paper

Wireless DSL in Action The Advantage of WiMAX based wireless DSL for incumbent and competitive operators. White Paper Wireless DSL in Action The Advantage of WiMAX based wireless DSL for incumbent and competitive operators White Paper The Need to go Wireless In remote areas where wired infrastructure is not available

More information

WAN Technology. Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com

WAN Technology. Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com WAN Technology Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com Introduction A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and often uses transmission facilities provided

More information

Simulation Study on Internet Applications over DSL Access Network: KFUPM Campus as an Example

Simulation Study on Internet Applications over DSL Access Network: KFUPM Campus as an Example Simulation Study on Internet Applications over DSL Access Network: KFUPM Campus as an Example Uthman Baroudi, Saeed Bawazir and Wael Hamri Computer Engineering Department KFUPM, Dhahran Saudi Arabia Email:

More information

DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL) SERVICE GUIDE

DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL) SERVICE GUIDE Title Page DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL) SERVICE GUIDE REGULATIONS, RATES, AND CHARGES Applying to the Provision of DSL For Customers of This DSL Service Guide does not include Internet Access, Content

More information

Getting Broadband. FCC Consumer Facts. What Is Broadband?

Getting Broadband. FCC Consumer Facts. What Is Broadband? Getting Broadband FCC Consumer Facts What Is Broadband? Broadband or high-speed Internet access allows users to access the Internet and Internetrelated services at significantly higher speeds than those

More information

Wireless SDSL for the Business Sector

Wireless SDSL for the Business Sector Wireless SDSL for the Business Sector Broadband Services over BreezeACCESS VL June 2005 Alvarion Ltd. All rights reserved. The material contained herein is proprietary. No part of this publication may

More information

FatPipe Networks www.fatpipeinc.com

FatPipe Networks www.fatpipeinc.com XTREME WHITE PAPERS Overview The growing popularity of wide area networks (WANs), as a means by which companies transact vital information with clients, partners, and colleagues, is indisputable. The business

More information

WAN. Introduction. Services used by WAN. Circuit Switched Services. Architecture of Switch Services

WAN. Introduction. Services used by WAN. Circuit Switched Services. Architecture of Switch Services WAN Introduction Wide area networks (WANs) Connect BNs and LANs across longer distances, often hundreds of miles or more Typically built by using leased circuits from common carriers such as AT&T Most

More information

The Evolution of the U.S. Telecommunications Infrastructure Over the Next Decade

The Evolution of the U.S. Telecommunications Infrastructure Over the Next Decade The Evolution of the U.S. Telecommunications Infrastructure Over the Next Decade BROAD BANDWIDTH THROUGH DSL TTG4: McAdams, Cioffi, Bloom, Hargadon Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) telecommunication service

More information

Broadband Wireless Access Overview

Broadband Wireless Access Overview Broadband Wireless Access Overview 2-way Wireless Internet Wireless Internet serves both business and residential customers using the same infrastructure 1.0 Background The fast paced demand for high-speed

More information

EXPLOITING SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SIP AND RAS: THE ROLE OF THE RAS PROVIDER IN INTERNET TELEPHONY. Nick Marly, Dominique Chantrain, Jurgen Hofkens

EXPLOITING SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SIP AND RAS: THE ROLE OF THE RAS PROVIDER IN INTERNET TELEPHONY. Nick Marly, Dominique Chantrain, Jurgen Hofkens Nick Marly, Dominique Chantrain, Jurgen Hofkens Alcatel Francis Wellesplein 1 B-2018 Antwerp Belgium Key Theme T3 Tel : (+32) 3 240 7767 Fax : (+32) 3 240 8485 E-mail : Nick.Marly@alcatel.be Tel : (+32)

More information

INTERNET CONNECTIVITY

INTERNET CONNECTIVITY INTERNET CONNECTIVITY http://www.tutorialspoint.com/internet_technologies/internet_connectivity.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com Here in this tutorial, we will discuss how to connect to internet i.e. internet

More information

Dedicated Access Solutions for Internet Service Providers

Dedicated Access Solutions for Internet Service Providers White Paper Dedicated Access Solutions for Internet Service Providers INTRODUCTION Revenue from business connections to the Internet represents, on average, almost 60 percent of the total revenue to Internet

More information

Technical Glossary from Frontier

Technical Glossary from Frontier Technical Glossary from Frontier A Analogue Lines: Single Analogue lines are generally usually used for faxes, single phone lines, modems, alarm lines or PDQ machines and are generally not connected to

More information

T1 Networking Made Easy

T1 Networking Made Easy T1 Networking Made Easy 1 THE T1 CARRIER 3 WHAT DOES A T1 LOOK LIKE? 3 T1 BANDWIDTH 3 T1 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 4 T1 FRAMING 5 LINE CODE 6 T1 NETWORKING 6 TELCOS 6 PSTN ACCESS WITH A T1 8 SUMMARY OF

More information

White Paper: Virtual Leased Line

White Paper: Virtual Leased Line Executive Summary: Virtual Leased Line (VLL) for high throughput and high reliability Enterprise Branch Office Communications The Truffle Broadband Bonding Network Appliance enables enterprise branch offices

More information

Fiber to the Home. Definition. Overview. Topics

Fiber to the Home. Definition. Overview. Topics Fiber to the Home Definition Fiber to the home (FTTH) is the ideal fiber-optics architecture. In this architecture, fiber deployment is carried all the way to the customer s home (premises). Overview Today

More information

Carrier Ethernet: New Game Plan for Media Converters

Carrier Ethernet: New Game Plan for Media Converters Introduction IEEE Std. 802.3ah, also referred to as Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) standard, has a well established name within the industry today. It lays out ground rules for implementing Ethernet

More information

Dwindling DSL services give rise to new options

Dwindling DSL services give rise to new options Charter Business : White paper Dwindling DSL services give rise to new options WHITE PAPER There is no question a company s high-speed data connection has become a business lifeline in the Internet age,

More information

Build yourself an ISP

Build yourself an ISP Ouch what just bit me? So you ve been bitten by the Internet bug and want to dive into the world wide web by becoming what is called an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The good news is that it is actually

More information

Dwindling DSL services give rise to new options

Dwindling DSL services give rise to new options Charter Business : White paper Dwindling DSL services give rise to new options WHITE PAPER There is no question a company s high-speed data connection has become a business lifeline in the Internet age,

More information

References and Requirements for CPE Architectures for Data Access

References and Requirements for CPE Architectures for Data Access Technical Report TR-018 References and Requirements for CPE Architectures for Data Access March 1999 '1999 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Forum. All Rights Reserved. ADSL Forum technical reports may

More information

BT Remote Internet. Internet Teleworker. Customer Service Description. June 04. Issue 1. Internet Teleworker Customer Service Description.

BT Remote Internet. Internet Teleworker. Customer Service Description. June 04. Issue 1. Internet Teleworker Customer Service Description. BT Remote Internet Internet Teleworker June 04 2003 BT TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION...3 2 SERVICE SUMMARY...3 3 BENEFITS...4 3.1 SERVICE FEATURES...4 3.2 COVERAGE...4 4 FEATURES...5 4.1 INTERNET TELEWORKER...5

More information

X.25 over IP. The Challenge. How it Works. Solution

X.25 over IP. The Challenge. How it Works. Solution over IP The Challenge Legacy services such as are still in use worldwide for a range of applications. Over the years, many customers have made significant investments in equipment and processes that depend

More information

52-20-02 Inverse Multiplexing ATM, Bit by Bit Robin D. Langdon

52-20-02 Inverse Multiplexing ATM, Bit by Bit Robin D. Langdon 52-20-02 Inverse Multiplexing ATM, Bit by Bit Robin D. Langdon Payoff In the time division multiplexing (TDM) environment, there are many applications that require greater than T1/E1 bandwidth, but where

More information

Broadband Bonding Network Appliance TRUFFLE BBNA6401

Broadband Bonding Network Appliance TRUFFLE BBNA6401 Broadband Bonding Network Appliance TRUFFLE BBNA6401 White Paper In this brief White Paper we describe how the TRUFFLE BBNA6401 can provide an SMB with faster and more reliable Internet access at an affordable

More information

Network support for tele-education

Network support for tele-education Network support for tele-education Aiko Pras Centre for Telematics and Information Technology University of Twente (UT) http://wwwtios.cs.utwente.nl/~pras This paper discusses the state of the art in networking,

More information

ADSL WAN Connections. Contents

ADSL WAN Connections. Contents 7 ADSL WAN Connections Contents ADSL Overview................................................. 7-4 ADSL Technologies.......................................... 7-5 ADSL2 and ADSL2+: Enhancing Transmission

More information

ADSL over ISDN, DAML, and Long Loops

ADSL over ISDN, DAML, and Long Loops Avi Vaidya Vice President and Chief Technology Officer Charles Industries, Ltd. over ISDN, DAML, and Long Loops As new technologies evolve, new challenges arise for telephone companies. Some of these challenges

More information

Application Of Build-in Self Test In Functional Test Of DSL

Application Of Build-in Self Test In Functional Test Of DSL Application Of Build-in Self Test In Functional Test Of DSL YaJun Gu, Ye Qin, ZhiJun Wang, David Wei, Andrew Ho, Stephen Chen, Zhen (Jane) Feng Ph. D., Murad Kurwa No.77 Yong Sheng Road, Malu, Jiading,

More information

BellSouth DSL FAMILY OF PRODUCTS MAKE A. fast move INTO HIGH-SPEED. services. BellSouth Interconnection Services. Your Interconnection Advantage SM

BellSouth DSL FAMILY OF PRODUCTS MAKE A. fast move INTO HIGH-SPEED. services. BellSouth Interconnection Services. Your Interconnection Advantage SM BellSouth DSL FAMILY OF PRODUCTS MAKE A fast move INTO HIGH-SPEED services. BellSouth Interconnection Services Your Interconnection Advantage SM WE MAKE YOUR LAUNCH INTO High-Speed MARKETS simple and swift.

More information

WAN Technologies Based on CCNA 4 v3.1 Slides Compiled & modified by C. Pham

WAN Technologies Based on CCNA 4 v3.1 Slides Compiled & modified by C. Pham WAN Technologies Based on CCNA 4 v3.1 Slides Compiled & modified by C. Pham 1 Wide-area Networks (WANs) 2 Metropolitan-Area Network (MANs) 3 Path Determination 4 Internetworking Any internetwork must include

More information

Objectives. Remote Connection Options. Teleworking. Connecting Teleworkers to the Corporate WAN. Providing Teleworker Services

Objectives. Remote Connection Options. Teleworking. Connecting Teleworkers to the Corporate WAN. Providing Teleworker Services ITE I Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 1 Objectives Providing Teleworker Services Describe the enterprise requirements for providing teleworker services Explain how

More information

ECE 510 -- Chapter 1

ECE 510 -- Chapter 1 ECE 510 -- Chapter 1 Definition: Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Public network technology that delivers high bandwidth over conventional copper wiring at limited distances. There are four major types of

More information

Telecommunications systems (Part 1)

Telecommunications systems (Part 1) School of Business Eastern Illinois University Telecommunications systems (Part 1) (Week 11, Thursday 11/02/2006) Abdou Illia, Fall 2006 Learning Objectives 2 Describe and compare types of connection to

More information

WAN Design Guide The Lower Layers August 2005

WAN Design Guide The Lower Layers August 2005 ProCurve Networking by HP WAN Design Guide The Lower Layers August 2005 Introduction... 5 Secure WAN Design Overview... 5 Understanding the Customer Requirement... 5 Overview of WAN Environments... 7 What

More information