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1 WAN Technologies Based on CCNA 4 v3.1 Slides Compiled & modified by C. Pham 1

2 Wide-area Networks (WANs) 2

3 Metropolitan-Area Network (MANs) 3

4 Path Determination 4

5 Internetworking Any internetwork must include the following: Consistent end-to-end addressing Addresses that represent network topologies Best path selection Dynamic or static routing Switching 5

6 Router: core of WAN technologies cisco Routers send packets from one interface/network to another 6

7 WAN Topology Star Topology Full-Mesh Topology Partial-Mesh Topology 7

8 Router Internal Components 8

9 Router Internal Components 9

10 Internal Components of a 2600 Router 10

11 External Connections on a 2600 Router 11

12 Router External Connections 12

13 Computer or Terminal Console Connection 13

14 Modem Connection to Console or Auxiliary Port 14

15 WAN Technology 15

16 WAN Service Providers 16

17 Physical Layer: WANs 17

18 WAN Types 18

19 Router Serial WAN Connectors 19

20 DCE Serial Connections 20

21 WAN Line Types and Bandwidth 21

22 CSU/DSU Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit. 22

23 Modem Transmission 23

24 WAN Standards 24

25 WAN Encapsulation 25

26 WAN Data-Link Protocols 26

27 Circuit Switching 27

28 Packet Switching 28

29 WAN Link Options 29

30 WAN Link Options 30

31 Analog Dialup 31

32 ISDN 32

33 ISDN Router with standard serial interface, connected to a terminal adapter Router with native ISDN BRI U or S/T interface or PRI 33

34 Leased Line Leased lines are not only used to provide direct point-to-point connections between Enterprise LANS, they can also be used to connect individual branches to a packet switched network. 34

35 WAN with X.25 X.25 provides a low bit rate, shared-variable capacity that may either be switched or permanent 35

36 Frame Relay Most Frame Relay connections are based on PVCs rather than SVCs. It implements no error or flow control. This leads to reduced latency. Frame Relay provides permanent shared medium bandwidth connectivity that carries both voice and data traffic. 36

37 ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a technology capable of transferring voice, video, and data through private and public networks. It is built on a cell based architecture rather than on a frame-based architecture. 37

38 DSL DSL uses existing twisted-pair telephone lines to transport high-bandwidth data DSL service is considered broadband, as it uses multiple frequencies within the same physical medium to transmit data 38

39 ADSL Technology Splitter The local loop connects the splitter to the DSLAM DSLAM connected to ISP using ATM technology Voice and data use separate frequency ranges (voice 0-4Khz, data 20Khx 1Mhz) 39

40 Cable Modem Enhanced Cable Modems enable twoway. High speed data transmissions using the same coaxial lines that transmit cable television. 40

41 Cable Data Network Architecture 41

42 Modern WAN 42

43 WANs Operate at the Lower Three Levels of the OSI Model 43

44 Comparing WAN Traffic Types 44

45 Steps In WAN Design 45

46 Three-Layer Design Model The links connecting the various sites in an area that provide access to the enterprise network are called the access links or access layer of the WAN. Traffic between areas is distributed by the distribution links, and is moved onto the core links for transfer to other regions, when necessary. 46

47 Advantages of the Hierarchical Approach Scalability: networks can grow without sacrificing control or manageability Ease of Implementation: clear functionality at each layer Ease of troubleshooting: Isolation of problems in the network is easier Predicatability network modelling and caapacity plannng easier Protocol Support: mixing current and future applications and protocols is easier Manageability: all the above improve the manageability of the network 47

48 Internet for WAN Connectivity 48

49 One-Layer Hierarchy 49

50 Using the Internet as an Enterprise WAN Enterprise WANs will have connections to the Internet. This poses security problems but also provides an alternative for inter-branch traffic. VPN technologies can solve security issues 50

51 TCP/IP Model 51

52 Encapsulation 52

53 Summary 53

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