DigiPoints Volume 1. Student Workbook. Module 4 Bandwidth Management

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "DigiPoints Volume 1. Student Workbook. Module 4 Bandwidth Management"

Transcription

1 Bandwidth Management Page 4.1 DigiPoints Volume 1 Module 4 Bandwidth Management Summary This module will cover Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). TDM technology allows many users to access a particular media simultaneously separated only by time. At the end of this module, the student will be able to describe what a multiplexer does, the meaning of TDM, the concept of time slots, how synchronization is maintained between terminals, and the relationship between input and output lines in a system. T1 lines, the most common example of TDM, as well as concentrators will also be covered. The purpose is to learn the appropriate application of each and to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each type of device. Module Objectives Upon successful completion of this module the student should be able to: Describe the function of a multiplexer. Describe a timeslot. Describe how the output line rate is related to the input line rates. Calculate bit rates, line rates, and bit duration time. Explain the importance of clocking in a digital system. Explain TDM, the characteristics of a TDM frame, and one of the inefficiencies found in a TDM system. Describe the function of a Statistical Multiplexer. Compare and contrast a TDM versus a STATMUX Describe a T1 in terms of input bit rates, output bit rate, frames, framing bits, and control and supervision bits. Describe the concept of bit robbing. Identify a T1 Superframe and describe what it provides to the service provider. Describe a T1 Extended Superframe and explain what it provides the service provider and the customer. Describe a 64 kb/s clear channel. Explain what AMI is, and why it is used. Explain the concept and reasons for BNZS. Explain what a concentrator does; compare and contrast it with a TDM multiplexer.

2 Bandwidth Management Page 4.2 Prerequisites Read, Modules 1 4.

3 Bandwidth Management Page 4.3 What are examples of shared or community usage that save money? Why is this done? How much bandwidth can a pair of copper wires carry? How much bandwidth can a coaxial cable carry? What type of device can we use to efficiently use this bandwidth? In other words, how can we get multiple channels or customers on one big pipe? What were the modulation techniques that were discussed in Module 2?

4 Bandwidth Management Page 4.4 Amplitude Sample Interval: 125 µsec or What are the steps in converting an analog signal to a digital signal? How often is a sample taken? How long does the sampling time last?

5 Bandwidth Management Page 4.5 TIMESLOTS Time Timeslot 1 Timeslot 2 Timeslot 3 Timeslot 4 Timeslot N What can be carried in these time slots? How many times per second would a voice grade signal have a Timeslot? The PAM signal was output as a PCM signal. How many bits did it require to encode the PAM sample? If there are 8000 samples of 8 bits each, for a voice grade line, how many bits are transmitted each second?

6 Bandwidth Management Page 4.6 If 24 voice grade signals are being sampled, what is the output line rate in b/s? So, how many bits are in one cycle, that is, how many bits are being formed into a frame during each sampling cycle? If one frame bit is added to every frame, how many bits per frame? What is the output line rate now?

7 Bandwidth Management Page 4.7 A B C A4 B4 C4 INPUT LINES A3 B3 C3 MUX s1 Control and Timing Unit CTU C2 B2 A2 FR C1 B1 OUTPUT LINE A1 FR Why is the clock important? What are the functions of the CTU? What is the purpose of the clock? What does it do? What is the relationship between the input and output line rates?

8 Bandwidth Management Page 4.8 Synchronous TDM Line Samples from the A Input Line C4 B4 A4 FR C3 B3 A3 FR C2 B2 A2 FR C1 B1 A1 FR Frame 4 Frame 3 Frame 2 Frame 1 Output Line What is the difference between a framing bit and an information bit? How does the far end know when a frame begins? What prevents cross talk between the different messages? Why would this technique be more efficient then using asynchronous transmission?

9 Bandwidth Management Page 4.9 Variable Bit Rates on Synchronous TDM A B C D A4 A3 B4 B3 C4 C3 C P 4 C P 3 I D L E INPUT LINES MUX s1 Control and Timing Unit CTU C P 2 C2 B2 A2 FR C P 1 C1 OUTPUT LINE B1 A1 FR What was one of the limitations we discussed last time with synchronous TDM? What is being carried in the idle timeslot?

10 Bandwidth Management Page 4.10 Scary Thought Usage studies have found that, on average, most buffered terminals require actual communications line time less than 1% of the time they are in use. On average, 99% of the time the input lines are sending 0s. What does this mean, what is the significance of it?

11 Bandwidth Management Page 4.11 STATISTICAL MULTIPLEXER the STATMUX How does it do this: Dynamically allocate timeslots based on need What is needed: Buffers Processing Power What does the STATMUX do that the TDM does not? What is another name for STATMUX? What two things does a STATMUX need in order to do what it does? What could be the disadvantages of a STATMUX? What are the advantages of using an Asynchronous TDM? Which input signal to a STATMUX, synchronous or asynchronous, would have priority and why? What is the relationship of the output rate to the input rate for a synchronous TDM? How does that compare with an asynchronous TDM?

12 Bandwidth Management Page 4.12 STATISTICAL MULTIPLEXER EVALUATION CRITERIA Overall Operation Transmission Efficiency A Delay Protocol handling Throughput Routing Synchronous and Asynchronous operation Programmability Switching capability Port contention Automatic speed changing Multiple output lines for backup or sharing Pricing Ease of Operation Buffer Management Size of buffer pool: Should be 6-8 times the output line capacity for dynamic allocation of input channels to timeslots. Buffer allocation by channel or group of channels Buffer capability to absorb peak transmission bursts Operations/Maintenance Local and remote loopbacks Generation of test messages Memory and component checks. Self tests on boot up Fault isolation to circuit board level Understandability of indicators to an operator Availability of messages and statistics for user analysis The following formulas provide a way to quantify transmission efficiency: Gross Efficiency = (Total bit carrying capacity of incoming lines/bit carrying capacity of output line) x 100% User Protocol Efficiency = (Total single channel bit carrying capacity/bit carrying capacity of output line) x 100% High speed Link Efficiency = (Data actually being sent over the output line/bit carrying capacity of the output line) x 100% True Efficiency = (Total bit carrying capacity actually being input on the low speed channels/actual bit carrying capacity of the output line) x 100%

13 Bandwidth Management Page 4.13 T-1 Frame 8 bits per channel 1 Framing Bit Channels 1-24 Each channel has 8 bits When was T1 technology first implemented? What types of traffic or information were the first T1 systems designed to carry? How many bits were used to encode the PAM sample into a PCM signal? What is the size of the T1 frame, how many bits in a frame? What is the bit rate of a T1? What is the bit rate of each of the 24 channels? What is bit robbing, why is it used, and what are the disadvantages of using it?

14 Bandwidth Management Page 4.14 T-1 Superframe 1 Framing Bit Channels 1-24 Each channel has 8 bits 1 Frame = 24 channels + 1 framing bit = 193 bits Superframe A B First of 12 frames (193 bits) Signalling Frames (Bit robbing occurs in these frames) How big is a T1 superframe? What is the problem for data now? What is the advantage of having a superframe? Can it provide 64 kb/s clear channel service? What is significant about the 6th and 12th frame of a Superframe?

15 Bandwidth Management Page 4.15 T-1 Extended Superframe 1 Framing Bit Channels 1-24 Each channel has 8 bits 1 Frame = 24 channels + 1 framing bit = 193 bits Extended Superframe A B C D First of 24 frames (193 bits) Signalling Frames (Bit robbing occurs in these frames) What was the driving force for the development of the T1 Extended Superframe (ESF)? Bit robbing takes place in which frames? What is the advantage of the ESF? Does it give 64 kb/s clear channel?

16 Bandwidth Management Page 4.16 Extended SuperFrame (ESF) Format Use of the Framing Bit Frame Number Sequence m 1 m 0 m 2 m 0 m 3 m 1 m 4 m 0 m 5 m 1 m 6 m 1 Messaging m m m m m m m m m m m m Synchronization CRC Signal Frame A B C D Message Bit (m) for the Facility Data Link Framing Pattern Sequence (001011) Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC-6) (6 BITS) How can the signaling frames 6, 12, 18, & 24 also be used to carry CRC and synchronization information? How can a bit be robbed twice? What is the purpose of CRC? What does the Facility Data Link do? Where is the framing sequence found?

17 Bandwidth Management Page 4.17 Alternate Mark Inversion What is the average voltage on the T1 line? Why would it be desirable to have an average voltage = 0 on the line? How does the system utilize the bits for timing?

18 Bandwidth Management Page 4.18 Line Code Restrictions B8ZS Digital signal given to the carrier by the customer: Digital signal as modified by the carrier equipment, to create bipolar violations V V The substituted B8ZS Code How many consecutive 0s can a T1 receiver tolerate before losing synchronization? How does the B8ZS line code restriction work?

19 Bandwidth Management Page 4.19 Multiplexers and Concentrators in Series Concentrator Multiplexer Multiplexer Concentrator Concentrator OUTPUT INPUTS What does a concentrator do? What is the advantage of the arrangement shown above?

20 Bandwidth Management Page 4.20 Study Questions 1. What function does a multiplexer perform? 2. What is a timeslot? 3. How is the output line rate related to the input line rates? 4. What is the importance of clocking in a digital system? 5. Explain what TDM is, the characteristics of a TDM frame, and one of the inefficiencies found in a TDM system. 6. Explain why a telephone party line is not multiplexing.

21 Bandwidth Management Page Give the constraints on the amount of bandwidth that can be gained by multiplexing. 8. What must be added to a time division multiplexer to make it a statistical multiplexer, and what is the function of this addition? 9. What is the function of bit robbing in a T1 frame? 10. In the T1 Superframe, where are the signaling bits contained? 11. List what has been gained by going to the Superframe and the Extended Superframe.

Appendix D T1 Overview

Appendix D T1 Overview Appendix D T Overview GENERAL T refers to the primary digital telephone carrier system used in North America. T is one line type of the PCM T-carrier hierarchy listed in Table D-. T describes the cabling,

More information

- T-Carrier Technologies -

- T-Carrier Technologies - 1 T-Carrier Fundamentals - T-Carrier Technologies - T-Carrier systems provide digitized communication for voice or data traffic across a telephone provider s network. The T-Carrier specification defines

More information

BROADBAND AND HIGH SPEED NETWORKS

BROADBAND AND HIGH SPEED NETWORKS BROADBAND AND HIGH SPEED NETWORKS INTRODUCTION TO MUTIPLEXING Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link INTRODUCTION

More information

1. Overview. 2. F-bit Utilization

1. Overview. 2. F-bit Utilization 1. Overview... 1 2. F-bit Utilization... 1 3. T1 Line Signal... 2 4. T1 Alarm Conditions... 3 5. 64 kbps Channel Characteristics... 3 6. Timeslot Handling... 3 7. Unframed Mode... 4 1. Overview The T1

More information

T1 Installation and Maintenance

T1 Installation and Maintenance T1 Installation and Maintenance INTRODUCTION T1 also known as Digital Signal level 1(DS1) is a digital technology that was created during the 1960s to carry voice and data services. The original focus

More information

Physical Layer, Part 2 Digital Transmissions and Multiplexing

Physical Layer, Part 2 Digital Transmissions and Multiplexing Physical Layer, Part 2 Digital Transmissions and Multiplexing These slides are created by Dr. Yih Huang of George Mason University. Students registered in Dr. Huang's courses at GMU can make a single machine-readable

More information

FURTHER READING: As a preview for further reading, the following reference has been provided from the pages of the book below:

FURTHER READING: As a preview for further reading, the following reference has been provided from the pages of the book below: FURTHER READING: As a preview for further reading, the following reference has been provided from the pages of the book below: Title: Broadband Telecommunications Handbook Author: Regis J Bud Bates Publisher:

More information

Physical Layer Part 2. Data Encoding Techniques. Networks: Data Encoding 1

Physical Layer Part 2. Data Encoding Techniques. Networks: Data Encoding 1 Physical Layer Part 2 Data Encoding Techniques Networks: Data Encoding 1 Analog and Digital Transmissions Figure 2-23.The use of both analog and digital transmissions for a computer to computer call. Conversion

More information

Chapter 4 T1 Interface Card

Chapter 4 T1 Interface Card Chapter 4 T1 Interface Card GENERAL This chapter describes DTE interface options that may be required if application requirements change. It also describes software configuration for the T1 interface card.

More information

T1 Networking Made Easy

T1 Networking Made Easy T1 Networking Made Easy 1 THE T1 CARRIER 3 WHAT DOES A T1 LOOK LIKE? 3 T1 BANDWIDTH 3 T1 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 4 T1 FRAMING 5 LINE CODE 6 T1 NETWORKING 6 TELCOS 6 PSTN ACCESS WITH A T1 8 SUMMARY OF

More information

T1 Basics. T1 Basics. Introduction. Why is T1 in Demand? Overview. Simplification

T1 Basics. T1 Basics. Introduction. Why is T1 in Demand? Overview. Simplification 1 Introduction When a technology gains rapid acceptance, it often reaches buzzword status before the details are commonly understood. So it is with T1: although it is an important part of many communications

More information

SRX 210 Services Gateway T1 Interface Configuration

SRX 210 Services Gateway T1 Interface Configuration SRX 210 Services Gateway T1 Interface Configuration To configure a T1 interface: 1. Select Configuration > Quick Configuration > Interfaces if the Interfaces Quick Configuration page is not displayed.

More information

Objectives. Lecture 4. How do computers communicate? How do computers communicate? Local asynchronous communication. How do computers communicate?

Objectives. Lecture 4. How do computers communicate? How do computers communicate? Local asynchronous communication. How do computers communicate? Lecture 4 Continuation of transmission basics Chapter 3, pages 75-96 Dave Novak School of Business University of Vermont Objectives Line coding Modulation AM, FM, Phase Shift Multiplexing FDM, TDM, WDM

More information

TCOM 370 NOTES 99-6 VOICE DIGITIZATION AND VOICE/DATA INTEGRATION

TCOM 370 NOTES 99-6 VOICE DIGITIZATION AND VOICE/DATA INTEGRATION TCOM 370 NOTES 99-6 VOICE DIGITIZATION AND VOICE/DATA INTEGRATION (Please read appropriate parts of Section 2.5.2 in book) 1. VOICE DIGITIZATION IN THE PSTN The frequencies contained in telephone-quality

More information

(Refer Slide Time: 2:10)

(Refer Slide Time: 2:10) Data Communications Prof. A. Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture-12 Multiplexer Applications-1 Hello and welcome to today s lecture on multiplexer

More information

ITEM M -- INSTALL FIELD FRACTIONAL T-1 MULTIPLEXER ITEM M -- FURNISH AND INSTALL TOC FRACTIONAL T-1 MULTIPLEXER

ITEM M -- INSTALL FIELD FRACTIONAL T-1 MULTIPLEXER ITEM M -- FURNISH AND INSTALL TOC FRACTIONAL T-1 MULTIPLEXER DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of installing Field T-1 communications equipment consisting of Fractional T-1 Multiplexer/Demultiplexers (Fractional ADM Multiplexers) equipped with electrical interface

More information

CHAPTER 8 MULTIPLEXING

CHAPTER 8 MULTIPLEXING CHAPTER MULTIPLEXING 3 ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.1 Multiplexing is cost-effective because the higher the data rate, the more cost-effective the transmission facility.. Interference is avoided under frequency

More information

Telecommunication systems. Telecommunication system

Telecommunication systems. Telecommunication system Telecommunication systems Telecommunication system The public-switched telephone network (PSTN) was originally analogue, but during the last 30 years it has been transformed into an almost fully digital

More information

TUTORIAL FOR CHAPTER 8

TUTORIAL FOR CHAPTER 8 TUTORIAL FOR CHAPTER 8 PROBLEM 1) The informaiton in four analog signals is to be multiplexed and transmitted over a telephone channel that has a 400 to 3100 Hz bandpass. Each of the analog baseband signals

More information

Appendix C GSM System and Modulation Description

Appendix C GSM System and Modulation Description C1 Appendix C GSM System and Modulation Description C1. Parameters included in the modelling In the modelling the number of mobiles and their positioning with respect to the wired device needs to be taken

More information

Digital Link Presents:

Digital Link Presents: T1-Service Digital Link Presents: T1 FRAME 1 2 3 24 F DS0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 T1 Fundamentals 1 T1 Fundamentals i Copyright 1996, Digital Link Digital Link Corporation World copyright reserved. No part of

More information

Analog vs. Digital Transmission

Analog vs. Digital Transmission Analog vs. Digital Transmission Compare at two levels: 1. Data continuous (audio) vs. discrete (text) 2. Signaling continuously varying electromagnetic wave vs. sequence of voltage pulses. Also Transmission

More information

technical note T1 Basics

technical note T1 Basics technical note T Basics T Basics hen a technology gains rapid acceptance, it often reaches buzzword status before the details are commonly understood. So it is with T: although it is an important part

More information

Multiplexing on Wireline Telephone Systems

Multiplexing on Wireline Telephone Systems Multiplexing on Wireline Telephone Systems Isha Batra, Divya Raheja Information Technology, Dronacharya College of Engineering Farrukh Nagar, Gurgaon, India ABSTRACT- This Paper Outlines a research multiplexing

More information

TCOM 370 NOTES 99-7 DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION

TCOM 370 NOTES 99-7 DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION TCOM 370 NOTES 99-7 DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION Synchronization and Related Topics DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION (BASEBAND) "Data" in general is a sequence of binary digits. It may represent a sequence of alphanumeric

More information

Digital Transmission (Line Coding)

Digital Transmission (Line Coding) Digital Transmission (Line Coding) Pulse Transmission Source Multiplexer Line Coder Line Coding: Output of the multiplexer (TDM) is coded into electrical pulses or waveforms for the purpose of transmission

More information

Configuring E1 and T1 Interfaces

Configuring E1 and T1 Interfaces 4 Configuring E1 and T1 Interfaces Contents Overview of E1 and T1 WAN Connections.......................... 4-3 Elements of an E1- or T1-Carrier Line.......................... 4-3 Connecting Your Premises

More information

Cisco CCNA Optional Semester 4 Labs Wide Area Networking LAB 1 T1 TSU WAN LINK OVERVIEW - Instructor Guide (Estimated time: 30 minutes)

Cisco CCNA Optional Semester 4 Labs Wide Area Networking LAB 1 T1 TSU WAN LINK OVERVIEW - Instructor Guide (Estimated time: 30 minutes) CNAP @ VCC 1 of 8 LAB 1 T1 TSU WAN LINK OVERVIEW - Instructor Guide (Estimated time: 30 minutes) Objectives: Understand the function of a T1 Service Unit (TSU) in network telecommunications Connect routers

More information

SRX 210 Services Gateway T1/E1 Mini-Physical Interface Module

SRX 210 Services Gateway T1/E1 Mini-Physical Interface Module SRX 210 Services Gateway T1/E1 Mini-Physical Interface Module The T1/E1 Mini-PIM provides the physical connection to T1 or E1 network media types and also performs T1 or E1 framing and line-speed signaling.

More information

Channelized E1 and Channelized T1 Setup Commands

Channelized E1 and Channelized T1 Setup Commands Channelized E1 and Channelized T1 Setup Commands This chapter describes the function and displays the syntax for channelized E1 and channelized T1 setup commands. For more information about defaults and

More information

Configuring E1 and T1 Interfaces

Configuring E1 and T1 Interfaces 4 Configuring E1 and T1 Interfaces Contents Overview of E1 and T1 WAN Connections.......................... 4-3 Elements of an E1- or T1-Carrier Line.......................... 4-3 Connecting Your Premises

More information

The Conversion Technology Experts. Media Conversion: Cost-Effectively Integrating T1 into your Fiber Network

The Conversion Technology Experts. Media Conversion: Cost-Effectively Integrating T1 into your Fiber Network The Conversion Technology Experts Media Conversion: Cost-Effectively Integrating T1 into your Fiber Network Media Conversion: Cost Effectively Integrating T1 into Your Fiber Network Revealing some simple

More information

Signal Encoding Techniques

Signal Encoding Techniques CSE 3461/5461: Introduction to Computer Networking & Internet Technologies Signal Encoding Techniques Presentation C Study: 5.1, 5.2 (pages 151-155 only), 5.3, 5.4 (Figure 5.24 only) Gojko Babić 09-04-2012

More information

PA-MC-T3 Multi-Channel T3 Synchronous Serial Port Adapter Enhancement

PA-MC-T3 Multi-Channel T3 Synchronous Serial Port Adapter Enhancement PA-MC-T3 Multi-Channel T3 Synchronous Serial Port Adapter Enhancement This feature module describes the PA-MC-T3 Multi-Channel T3 port adapter (PA-MC-T3 [=]), which can now be configured as either customer

More information

Solution. (Chapters 5-6-7-8) Dr. Hasan Qunoo. The Islamic University of Gaza. Faculty of Engineering. Computer Engineering Department

Solution. (Chapters 5-6-7-8) Dr. Hasan Qunoo. The Islamic University of Gaza. Faculty of Engineering. Computer Engineering Department The Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Data Communications ECOM 4314 Solution (Chapters 5-6-7-8) Dr. Hasan Qunoo Eng. Wafaa Audah Eng. Waleed Mousa 1. A cable

More information

T1 Network Technology. Essentials for Successful Field Service Technicians

T1 Network Technology. Essentials for Successful Field Service Technicians T 1 Te s t i n g : Te c h n o l o g y T1 Network Technology a n d A p p l i c a t i o n s Essentials for Successful Field Service Technicians Introduction The public wireless telephony business has gone

More information

Chapter 6 Bandwidth Utilization: Multiplexing and Spreading 6.1

Chapter 6 Bandwidth Utilization: Multiplexing and Spreading 6.1 Chapter 6 Bandwidth Utilization: Multiplexing and Spreading 6.1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Note Bandwidth utilization is the wise use of

More information

SIP Trunking and Voice over IP

SIP Trunking and Voice over IP SIP Trunking and Voice over IP Agenda What is SIP Trunking? SIP Signaling How is Voice encoded and transported? What are the Voice over IP Impairments? How is Voice Quality measured? VoIP Technology Confidential

More information

Application Note: Extending a TSP s Analog Capabilities Using an Access Bank I

Application Note: Extending a TSP s Analog Capabilities Using an Access Bank I 22116 23 rd Drive SE Bothell, WA 98021-4413, USA Toll free 800-426-3926 425-487-1515 Fax 425-487-2288 E-mail info@teltone.com www.teltone.com Application Note: Extending a s Analog Capabilities Using an

More information

Lecture 21 ISDN Integrated Digital Network.

Lecture 21 ISDN Integrated Digital Network. Lecture 21 ISDN is an acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network. ISDN was developed to cater the needs of users who want high data rate, since conventional telephone line is not capable of providing

More information

EECC694 - Shaaban. Transmission Channel

EECC694 - Shaaban. Transmission Channel The Physical Layer: Data Transmission Basics Encode data as energy at the data (information) source and transmit the encoded energy using transmitter hardware: Possible Energy Forms: Electrical, light,

More information

DigiPoints Volume 1. Student Workbook. Module 5 Growing Capacity Through Technology

DigiPoints Volume 1. Student Workbook. Module 5 Growing Capacity Through Technology Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 1 DigiPoints Volume 1 Module 5 Growing Capacity Through Technology Summary This module covers the North American Digital Hierarchy (NADH), the European Digital

More information

TAM1500-12 12-Port T1 Access Multiplexer

TAM1500-12 12-Port T1 Access Multiplexer TAM1500-12 12-Port T1 Access Multiplexer Interface Module User Guide CAUTION Net to Net Technologies strongly recommends the use of proper electrostatic discharge (ESD) precautions when handling this equipment.

More information

WAN Technology. Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com

WAN Technology. Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com WAN Technology Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com Introduction A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and often uses transmission facilities provided

More information

Switch Fabric Implementation Using Shared Memory

Switch Fabric Implementation Using Shared Memory Order this document by /D Switch Fabric Implementation Using Shared Memory Prepared by: Lakshmi Mandyam and B. Kinney INTRODUCTION Whether it be for the World Wide Web or for an intra office network, today

More information

51-10-50 Circuit-Switched Router Connections Nathan J. Muller

51-10-50 Circuit-Switched Router Connections Nathan J. Muller Previous screen 51-10-50 Circuit-Switched Router Connections Nathan J. Muller Payoff LAN managers will find that routers supporting dial backup, bandwidth-on-demand, and dial-on-demand enable more flexible

More information

Sol: Optical range from λ 1 to λ 1 +Δλ contains bandwidth

Sol: Optical range from λ 1 to λ 1 +Δλ contains bandwidth 1. Use Figure 3.47 and Figure 3.50 to explain why the bandwidth of twisted-wire pairs and coaxial cable decreases with distance. Figure 3.47 figure 3.50 sol: The bandwidth is the range of frequencies where

More information

Starlink 9003T1 T1/E1 Dig i tal Trans mis sion Sys tem

Starlink 9003T1 T1/E1 Dig i tal Trans mis sion Sys tem Starlink 9003T1 T1/E1 Dig i tal Trans mis sion Sys tem A C ombining Moseley s unparalleled reputation for high quality RF aural Studio-Transmitter Links (STLs) with the performance and speed of today s

More information

Multiplexing. Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single physical medium.

Multiplexing. Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single physical medium. Multiplexing Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single physical medium. The following two factors in data communications lead to

More information

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 4: Medium Access Control October 5, 2004 2004 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Medium Access Control Schemes: FDMA TDMA

More information

Multiplexing, Circuit Switching and Packet Switching. Circuit Switching

Multiplexing, Circuit Switching and Packet Switching. Circuit Switching Multiplexing, Circuit Switching and Packet Switching Circuit Switching Old telephone technology For each connection, physical switches are set in the telephone network to create a physical circuit That

More information

IP Transport over SONET

IP Transport over SONET IP Transport over SONET David A. Border Assistant Professor Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, Ohio 419-372-2461 Fax 419-372-6066 dborder@bgnet.bgsu.edu Gary C. Border President Digital Automation

More information

F2400 FOM II Series Fiber Optic Modem Technical Manual

F2400 FOM II Series Fiber Optic Modem Technical Manual F2400 FOM II Series Fiber Optic Modem Technical Manual T1 Revision B Copyright April 2003 VERSITRON, Inc. 83 Albe Drive / Suite C Newark, DE 19702 www.versitron.com A030430283T PROPRIETARY DATA All data

More information

WAN Data Link Protocols

WAN Data Link Protocols WAN Data Link Protocols In addition to Physical layer devices, WANs require Data Link layer protocols to establish the link across the communication line from the sending to the receiving device. 1 Data

More information

Telecommunication Systems

Telecommunication Systems PUF-HCM Master Informatics Telecommunication Systems RTEL 1 Team teaching Responsible Team: Email Rami Langar Rami Langar (Courses) Su Tam Nguyen (TD) Rami.Langar@lip6.fr guitar1911@yahoo.com RTEL 2 Organisation

More information

Telephone Systems. Home Telephones. Central Office. Local Loop. Wired Telephony

Telephone Systems. Home Telephones. Central Office. Local Loop. Wired Telephony Telephone Systems COMP476 Home Telephones Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) provides a twisted pair connection from your phone to the central office. You own your home wiring and the telephone company

More information

Digital vs. Analog Transmission

Digital vs. Analog Transmission Digital vs. Analog Transmission Two forms of transmission: digital transmission: data transmission using square waves analog transmission: data transmission using all other waves Four possibilities to

More information

Trinity Feature: T1/E1 Configuration

Trinity Feature: T1/E1 Configuration Trinity Feature: Reference Guide Appendix Sales Office: +1 (301) 975-1000 Technical Support: +1 (301) 975-1007 E-mail: support@patton.com WWW: www.patton.com Part Number: 07MTRINT1E1-APD, Rev. C Revised:

More information

FAST TUTORIALS FOR TIME-CHALLENGED TECHNICIANS

FAST TUTORIALS FOR TIME-CHALLENGED TECHNICIANS Tech Notes from a Telephone Engineer FAST TUTORIALS FOR TIME-CHALLENGED TECHNICIANS DDS Description: DDS Digital Data Service Long held industry acronym for transporting digital data at rates of: 2.4kbps,

More information

Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition. Chapter 7 WANs, Internet Access, and Remote Connectivity. Objectives

Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition. Chapter 7 WANs, Internet Access, and Remote Connectivity. Objectives Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition Chapter 7 WANs, Internet Access, and Remote Connectivity Objectives Identify a variety of uses for WANs Explain different WAN topologies, including their advantages

More information

Voice---is analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3-important wave-characteristics:

Voice---is analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3-important wave-characteristics: Voice Transmission --Basic Concepts-- Voice---is analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3-important wave-characteristics: Amplitude Frequency Phase Voice Digitization in the POTS Traditional

More information

Working with T3 and T1: Technology, Troubleshooting and Fault Location

Working with T3 and T1: Technology, Troubleshooting and Fault Location Working with T3 and T1: Technology, Troubleshooting and Fault Location Sunrise Telecom... A Step Ahead 1 Overview This handbook gives you an overview of T3 and T1 technology and equipment. It also shows

More information

Clocking. Clocking in the Digital Network

Clocking. Clocking in the Digital Network Clocking Clocking in the Digital Network Stratum Levels Clocking Distribution Single Point versus Multiple Points Timing Differences Correcting Timing Errors Buffers 1 Clocking The most important aspect

More information

S Transmission Methods in Telecommunication Systems (4 cr)

S Transmission Methods in Telecommunication Systems (4 cr) S-72.245 Transmission Methods in Telecommunication Systems (4 cr) Sampling and Pulse Coded Modulation Sampling and Pulse Coded Modulation Pulse amplitude modulation Sampling Ideal sampling by impulses

More information

E1+Jitter+Wander+Data

E1+Jitter+Wander+Data testing +Jitter+Wander+Data PDH worldwide T-Carrier US and Canada Japan E4 13964 kbps x3 9778 kbps Kbps x3 E3 34368 kbps Kbps T3 44736 kbps 3064 kbps x7 x5 E 8448 kbps Kbps T 631 kbps Kbps x J x3 T1c 315

More information

24-Port Channelized E1/T1 Line Card Overview

24-Port Channelized E1/T1 Line Card Overview CHAPTER -Port Channelized E/T Line Card Overview This chapter describes the Cisco series -port channelized E/T line card (referred to as the -port channelized E/T line card), and contains the following

More information

CS 5516 Computer Architecture Networks

CS 5516 Computer Architecture Networks Lecture 11: ISDN & ATM CS 5516 Computer Architecture Networks VA Tech Prof. Roy M. Wnek History of ISDN Traditionally, local loop connectivity has been with an analog signal on copper Inefficient, prone

More information

Telecommunications Switching Systems (TC-485) PRACTICAL WORKBOOK FOR ACADEMIC SESSION 2011 TELECOMMUNICATIONS SWITCHING SYSTEMS (TC-485) FOR BE (TC)

Telecommunications Switching Systems (TC-485) PRACTICAL WORKBOOK FOR ACADEMIC SESSION 2011 TELECOMMUNICATIONS SWITCHING SYSTEMS (TC-485) FOR BE (TC) PRACTICAL WORKBOOK FOR ACADEMIC SESSION 2011 TELECOMMUNICATIONS SWITCHING SYSTEMS (TC-485) FOR BE (TC) Department of Electronic Engineering NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi LABORATORY

More information

DXC Family. Multiservice Access Node FEATURES

DXC Family. Multiservice Access Node FEATURES DXC Family Multiservice Access Node FEATURES Digital cross-connection for up to 30 n x 56/64 kbps or T1/E1 over copper or fiber The modular DXC family includes the following chassis types: DXC-30 with

More information

The Common Test Patterns described below are used to test DS1 interfaces upon initial installation and after repair.

The Common Test Patterns described below are used to test DS1 interfaces upon initial installation and after repair. Introduction DS1 test patterns are predetermined, repeating one and zero bit sequences that are translated into pulses according to the line coding rules for AMI and B8ZS. A test pattern is transmitted

More information

Data Transmission via Modem. The Last Mile Problem. Modulation of Digital Signals. Modem Standards (CCITT)

Data Transmission via Modem. The Last Mile Problem. Modulation of Digital Signals. Modem Standards (CCITT) The Last Mile Problem LN, MN, WN how to connect private users at home to such networks? Problem of the last mile: somehow connect private homes to the public Internet without laying many new cables By

More information

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA COMM.ENG INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA 9/6/2014 LECTURES 1 Objectives To give a background on Communication system components and channels (media) A distinction between analogue

More information

Traditional Telephony

Traditional Telephony Traditional Telephony Basic Components of a Telephony Network This topic introduces the components of traditional telephony networks. Basic Components of a Telephony Network 3 A number of components must

More information

Course 12 Synchronous transmission multiplexing systems used in digital telephone networks

Course 12 Synchronous transmission multiplexing systems used in digital telephone networks Course 12 Synchronous transmission multiplexing systems used in digital telephone networks o Disadvantages of the PDH transmission multiplexing system PDH: no unitary international standardization of the

More information

Introduction to WAN Technologies

Introduction to WAN Technologies CHAPTER 3 Chapter Goals Become familiar with WAN terminology. Learn about different types of WAN connections. Become familiar with different types of WAN equipment. This chapter introduces the various

More information

Overview of WAN Connections Module 1

Overview of WAN Connections Module 1 Overview of WAN Connections Module 1 Objectives This module introduces the basic elements of WAN connections and describes the role each element plays in creating that connection. After completing this

More information

Communication Networks. MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela

Communication Networks. MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela Communication Networks MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela Network basic mechanisms Introduction to Communications Networks Communications networks Communications networks are used to transport information (data)

More information

Data Communications Prof. A. Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Data Communications Prof. A. Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Data Communications Prof. A. Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture-14 Interfacing to the Media Hello and welcome to today s lecture on Interfacing

More information

AE64 TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEMS

AE64 TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEMS Q2. a. Draw the schematic of a 1000 line strowger switching system and explain how subscribers get connected. Ans: (Page: 61 of Text book 1 and 56 of Text book 2) b. Explain the various design parameters

More information

Fundamentals of Telecommunications

Fundamentals of Telecommunications Fundamentals of Telecommunications Professor of CIS Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@ACM.Org http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ 1 Overview Time Division Multiplexing T1, T3, DS1, E1 T1 Framing Echo Cancellation

More information

Computers Are Your Future. 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Computers Are Your Future. 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers Are Your Future 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers Are Your Future Chapter 3 Wired and Wireless Communication 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 2 What You Will Learn... ü The definition of bandwidth

More information

Megaplex-2100/2104 Modules ML-1/2E1/T1, MLF-1/2E1/T1

Megaplex-2100/2104 Modules ML-1/2E1/T1, MLF-1/2E1/T1 Data Sheet Megaplex-2100/2104 Modules ML-1/2E1/T1, MLF-1/2E1/T1 Copper or Fiber Optic Interface, Single/Dual E1/T1 Main Link Modules Connecting Megaplex-2100/2104 to various E1 and T1 services One or two

More information

Chapter 3 ATM and Multimedia Traffic

Chapter 3 ATM and Multimedia Traffic In the middle of the 1980, the telecommunications world started the design of a network technology that could act as a great unifier to support all digital services, including low-speed telephony and very

More information

TNE1500-P and TNE1500-S Single Line T1 Network Extender Provider and Subscriber

TNE1500-P and TNE1500-S Single Line T1 Network Extender Provider and Subscriber Installation Instructions TNE1500-P and TNE1500-S Single Line T1 Network Extender Provider and Subscriber CAUTION Net to Net Techlogies strongly recommends the use of proper electrostatic discharge (ESD)

More information

It explains the differences between the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy and the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.

It explains the differences between the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy and the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. TECHNICAL TUTORIAL Subject: SDH Date: October, 00 Prepared by: John Rumsey SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. Introduction. The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH). The Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

More information

Artisan Technology Group is your source for quality new and certified-used/pre-owned equipment

Artisan Technology Group is your source for quality new and certified-used/pre-owned equipment Artisan Technology Group is your source for quality new and certified-used/pre-owned equipment FAST SHIPPING AND DELIVERY TENS OF THOUSANDS OF IN-STOCK ITEMS EQUIPMENT DEMOS HUNDREDS OF MANUFACTURERS SUPPORTED

More information

NXU RoIP Link to Eliminate Voice-Grade Leased Line

NXU RoIP Link to Eliminate Voice-Grade Leased Line NXU RoIP Link to Eliminate Voice-Grade Leased Line Purpose This Application Note will describe a method at which Network Extension Units (NXUs) can be utilized on an existing digital network to eliminate

More information

Three Network Technologies

Three Network Technologies Three Network Technologies Network The largest worldwide computer network, specialized for voice ing technique: Circuit-switching Internet The global public information infrastructure for data ing technique:

More information

1+1 PROTECTION WITHOUT RELAYS USING IDT82V2044/48/48L & IDT82V2054/58/58L HITLESS PROTECTION SWITCHING

1+1 PROTECTION WITHOUT RELAYS USING IDT82V2044/48/48L & IDT82V2054/58/58L HITLESS PROTECTION SWITCHING 1+1 PROTECTION WITHOUT RELAYS USING IDT82V2044/48/48L & IDT82V2054/58/58L APPLICATION NOTE AN-357 1.0 INTRODUCTION In today's highly competitive market, high quality of service, QOS, and reliability is

More information

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Transmission Methods

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Transmission Methods Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Transmission Methods 1. Overview... 1 2. SHDSL Transmission Methods... 1 SHDSL Transmission System Versions... 1 SHDSL Transmission Subsystem Structure... 1 SHDSL Modulation

More information

Network+ Guide to Networks 6 th Edition. Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks

Network+ Guide to Networks 6 th Edition. Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks Network+ Guide to Networks 6 th Edition Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks Objectives Identify a variety of uses for WANs Explain different WAN topologies, including their advantages and disadvantages Compare

More information

Advanced Signal Processing 1 Digital Subscriber Line

Advanced Signal Processing 1 Digital Subscriber Line Advanced Signal Processing 1 Digital Subscriber Line Biljana Badic e-mail: zoom2@sbox.tu-graz.ac.at 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n As a transmission technology, digital subscriber line was originally developed

More information

EPL 657 Wireless Networks

EPL 657 Wireless Networks EPL 657 Wireless Networks Some fundamentals: Multiplexing / Multiple Access / Duplex Infrastructure vs Infrastructureless Panayiotis Kolios Recall: The big picture... Modulations: some basics 2 Multiplexing

More information

Inter-Tel 3000 T1 Technical Training Self-Study Course

Inter-Tel 3000 T1 Technical Training Self-Study Course Inter-Tel 3000 T1 Technical Training Self-Study Course Inter-Tel, Inc. 2007 All rights reserved. Table of Contents ABOUT THIS COURSE...1 Taking the Course...1 Taking the Exam...1 INTRODUCTION TO INTER-TEL

More information

Clearing the Way for VoIP

Clearing the Way for VoIP Gen2 Ventures White Paper Clearing the Way for VoIP An Alternative to Expensive WAN Upgrades Executive Overview Enterprises have traditionally maintained separate networks for their voice and data traffic.

More information

Intraplex T1 CrossConnect System & Server Installation and Operation Manual Issue 1.1, December 2001

Intraplex T1 CrossConnect System & Server Installation and Operation Manual Issue 1.1, December 2001 Intraplex T1 CrossConnect System & Server Installation and Operation Manual Copyright 2000 by. All rights reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without prior written permission is prohibited,

More information

How To. Configure E1 links. Introduction. What information will you find in this document?

How To. Configure E1 links. Introduction. What information will you find in this document? How To Configure E1 links Introduction E1 is the European digital transmission format standard, traditionally used for inter-pbx traffic, where a large number of calls warrant a leased line between two

More information

Dedicated Access Solutions for Internet Service Providers

Dedicated Access Solutions for Internet Service Providers White Paper Dedicated Access Solutions for Internet Service Providers INTRODUCTION Revenue from business connections to the Internet represents, on average, almost 60 percent of the total revenue to Internet

More information

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION )454 6 TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU $!4! #/--5.)#!4)/. /6%2 4(% 4%,%0(/.%.%47/2+ ")43 0%2 3%#/.$ $50,%8 -/$%- 34!.$!2$):%$ &/2 53% ). 4(% '%.%2!,

More information

Power network telecommunication

Power network telecommunication www.siemens.com Power network telecommunication Teleprotection Answers for infrastructure and cities. Binary I/O The best protection against high-voltage grid failures When it comes to managing power networks,

More information