Long Distance Connection and WAN

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Long Distance Connection and WAN"

Transcription

1 Lecture 6 Long Distance Connection and WAN Digital Telephone, PCM and Nyquist Sampling Theorem DSU/CSU, T Line Series and OC line Series Local Loop DSL Technologies - ADSL, HDSL, SDSL, VDSL Cable Modem WAN and Packet Switch Switch Addressing and Routing Typical WANs - ARPANET, X.25, Frame Rely, SMDS, ATM Wireless WANs, Cellular Networks

2 Lecture 6 Long Distance Telephone Network and Others - A single LAN can t handle an arbitrary number of computers - A LAN is usually owned by a company, organization, university,, which can t build their own long distance links to connect computers in arbitrary sites - Telephone and other companies offer long distance connections which can be leased to build large computer networks covered many distance sites Telephone Company AD/DA Modem Circuit Switch Analogy Network Circuit Switch Digital Network Modem AD/DA Comp LAN Convert Packet Switch Digital Network Convert Comp LAN Modem Other Company CATV/Power Network Modem Modem Satellite Network... Modem

3 Digital Telephone Network and PCM Lecture 6 Analogy telephone network: transfers analogy voice signal in the frequency range [0, 3.5KHz] Digital telephone network: transfers digital voice signal PCM (Pulse Code Modulation): a standard of conversion from analogy voice to digital voice - Analogy signal is first sampled in sampling interval T or with sampling frequency F=1/T - Nyquist sampling theorem: Original analogy signal can be reconstructed from a sequence of sampled values if F>2B where B is the maximum signal frequency - Sampling frequency of digital voice = 8 KHz - Each sampled value is quantized to an integer in [-127, 127] - Encoding the integer to an 8-bit binary value, PCM hardware is a analogy-to-digital (AD) device - Bit rate of one digital voice channel: 8KHz x 8 bits = 64 Kbps Nyquist Rate F<2B F=2B T T, sampling interval F=1/T, sampling frequency F>2B

4 Lecture 6 DSU/CSU - Computer industry and telephone industry use own standards in different encoding - DSU/CSU perform the conversion between two standards - DSU (Data Service Unit): Translations between two encoding - CSU (Channel Service Unit): management of line termination and diagnose DSU/CSU Gateway

5 Digital Telephone Line Standard Lecture 6 Japan Japan Japan - Specified by the telephone industry in each country, different from the world - Fractional T1= 64, 9.6 or 4.8Kbps, use multiple fractional T1 with multiplxier - Can be leased in two points - Three campus networks in Hosei University are connected by T1 (before 2001) To outside Ichigaya T2 Koganei T1 T1 T1 Tama

6 High Capacity Digital Lines Lecture 6 - Use both electrical signal and optical signal - Electrical standard called Synchronous Transport Signal (STS) - Optical standard called Optical Carrier (OC) - Engineers usually use OC- terminology for everything - OC-3 is popular - OC-3: three OC-1 lines, OC-3C: a single line operating at Mbps Synchronous Optical Networking

7 Lecture 6 Local Loop: Analogy Line, ISDN and DSL Subscribers Analogy line ISDN line DSL line Local Central Office ( CO ) Telephone network Local Loop Analogy line: - Analogy signal (300~3300Hz), modem needed, low speed (34/56Kbps) ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network): - BRI (Basic Rate Interface) = 2B+D, B=64Kbps for data, D=16Kbps for control - PRI (Primary Rate Interface)=23B+64D=1.544Mbps=T1 - called Narrowband ISDN (N-ISDN), relatively slow - B-ISDN (Broadband ISDN), 155 or 622 Mbps to each subscriber xdsl (Digital Subscriber Line) - use existing telephone line to provide high speed transmission, current technology

8 xdsl Technology Lecture 6 xdsl is a family of technologies to use existing analogy telephone line (copper pair) for delivery of high-speed data between a subscriber and telephone central office. Analogy phone 0 Telephone Network Local Central Office (CO) DSL f (KHz) Fa Fb Fc Upstream Downstream xdsl family ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line HDSL: High-rate Digital Subscriber Line SDSL: Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line VDSL: Very high bite rate Digital Subscriber Line xdsl ADSL HDSL SDSL VDSL Bit rate 32K~3M Up 1.5M 1.5M 1.5~2.3M Up 32K~40M Down 1.5M 1.5M 13~52M Down Mode Asymmetric Symmetric Symm Asym wire 1 pair 2 pairs 1 pair 1 pair Length 3.7~5.5km 3.7km 3.0km 1.4km Phone Computer More and latest at Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): 0 Spectrum of copper pair f (KHz) FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing Frequency range (<20KHz) for analogy phone Frequency range (>25Kz) for data transmission Local line quality Low frequency is better than high frequency Characteristic of each line is different from others

9 ADSL Lecture 6 DMT (Discrete MultiTone) by ANSI - FDM and QAM modulation - 31 channels (carriers) for upstream channels (carriers) for downstream Analogy phone f (KHz) M Upstream Downstream 0 Spectrum of copper pair f (KHz) ADSL2/2+, VDSL2, etc. - Concurrent and independent uses of analogy phone and data transmission - Upstream ~few Mbps, Downstream ~tenths M, suited for accessing Internet

10 Lecture 6 Cable Modem Technology Cable TV already brings high bandwidth coax into houses Conventional Cable TV is one direction - Signal broadcast at central location - Amplifiers boost signal through network - Amplifiers are unidirectional CATV Center M M Solutions: - Alternate upstream path - e.g., dialup - Replaced by bi-directional amplifiers Amplifier M - Cable Modem Cable modems encode and decode data from cable TV coax - One in cable TV center connects to network - One in home connects to computer Users share the cable - Each subscriber is assigned an address - TDM is used like multiple computers in LAN TV Upstream Downstream (shared by multiple users) TV f (MHz)

11 Lecture 6 Cable Modem Connections Hybrid Fibre-Coaxial (HFC)

12 Lecture 6 Cable Modem Connections

13 Lecture 6 FTTX - Fiber To The X Fiber to the x

14 Lecture 6 WAN and Switch WAN Wide Area Network: A network that can span a large geographic area, e.g., multiple cities, countries or continents. WAN building blocks: (1) Long-distance connection (e.g., T1/T3 lines, OC1/OC3 lines, etc.) (2) Packet switch - A hardware device connected to other switches and computers - Has CPU, memory, I/O interface, etc. - Handles packet WAN, Wiki Packet Header Frame Data or Payload Trailer Dest Addr Sour Addr

15 Lecture 6 Illustration of A WAN Animation - Place one or more switches at each site - Interconnect switches: LAN technology for local connections Leased digital lines for long distance connections Leased Line - Interconnections depend on traffic amount and reliability requirement - Packet is sent from source, travels switch-to-switch, and delivered to destination - Switch stores packet in memory, examines address, and forwards it toward destination

16 Lecture 6 Addressing in WAN - Each computer has a unique address - It is a two-part hierarchical address including 2 integers: [Integer1, Integer2] Integer1 for switch number Integer2 for computer number

17 Lecture 6 Next-Hop Forwarding and Routing Table Routing table of switch 2 - Packet switch must choose outgoing connection for forwarding If destination is local computer, packet switch delivers computer port If destination is attached another switch, this packet switch forwards to next hop through connection to another switch - Packet switch doesn't keep complete information about all possible destination - A routing table just keeps next hop - For each packet, packet switch looks up destination in its routing table and forwards through connection to next hop - Next hop to destination does not depend on source of packet - Called source independence

18 Routing Table and Graph Lecture 6 Graph: Node models switch Edge models connection Routing tables without default routes Routing tables with default routes - Each switch or node has a routing table: Left entry right entry destination switch edge number pair - Default route can remove duplicate routes, reduce memory and improve performance

19 Routing Table Computation Lecture 6 - Static routing table: fixed in switch booting and does not change - Dynamic routing table: initialized in booting and alters as conditions in the network change Shortest path computation: - Label on edge represents distance - Possible distance metric: geographic distance, economic cost, capacity, etc - Shortest means the minimum sum of distances in all paths between two nodes - Darkened path is minimum from node 4 to node 5 Algorithms for computing shortest paths - Dijkstra s algorithm - Distance Vector (DV) algorithm Dijkstra's algorithm Distance Vector Routing

20 History of WAN Technologies Lecture 6 ARPANET - The first WAN, began in 1960s, low speed: 56Kbps - Funded by Advanced Research Projects Agency, an organization of US Defense Department - Incubator for many of current ideas, algorithms and internet technologies X.25 - Early standard for connection-oriented networking from ITU, which was originally CCITT - Early commercial service, more popular in Europe - Predates computer connections, used for terminal/timesharing connection Frame Relay - Telco service for delivering blocks of data - Connection-based service; - Typically 56Kbps or 1.5Mbps; can run to 100Mbps -SMDS - Switched Multi-megabit Data Service - Connectionless service; any SMDS station can send a frame to any other station - Typically Mbps ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode - Designed as single technology for voice, video, data,... - Low jitter (variance in delivery time) and high capacity - Uses fixed size, small cells - 48 bytes data, 5 bytes header - Can connect multiple ATM switches into a network - Potential in future B-ISDN - Can be worked as a LAN

21 Wireless Networks Lecture 6 Wireless LANs Wireless WANs Satellite Networks Cellular Networks Region BS: Base Station BS BS BS TAXI City BS BS BS laptops, PDAs Campus BS BS In-Building F: Carrier Frequency

22 Cellular Wireless Networks Lecture 6 Geographic region divided into cells Frequencies/timeslots/codes reused at spatially-separated locations. Co-channel interference between same color cells. Cllular Network:

23 Cellular Phone Networks Lecture 6

24 Lecture 6 Handoff in Cellular Networks Base stations/main stations coordinate handoff and control functions Shrinking cell size increases capacity, as well as networking burden

25 4 Generations of Data Communications Lecture 6

26 Data Transmission Speeds Lecture 6 4G WWAN:

27 Exercise 6 1. For an analogy TV signal, its frequency range is in [0, 6MHz]. To transmit the TV signal across a digital network, it is necessary to convert the analogy signal to a digital TV signal. What is the minimum sampling frequency in such conversion? Suppose that every sample will be encoded into 16 bits binary value (this is called TV PCM coding). Calculate bit rate of the digital TV signal after PCM coding. 2. Summarize the features and performance of typical long-distance connection technologies including T and OC series services, conventional modem, ISDN, xdsl and Cable modem. 3. Explain why bit rates of the upstream and the downstream in ADSL are not fixed? 4. In a packet switch network, the address of each computer consists two parts: one identifies a switch and other identifies a computer attached to that switch. Why? 5. Suppose that a packet switch network with a five nodes is given below. Give a routing table for each of the five nodes

(Refer Slide Time: 2:10)

(Refer Slide Time: 2:10) Data Communications Prof. A. Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture-12 Multiplexer Applications-1 Hello and welcome to today s lecture on multiplexer

More information

Connection Services. Hakim S. ADICHE, MSc

Connection Services. Hakim S. ADICHE, MSc Connection Services Hakim S. ADICHE, MSc adiche@ccse.kfupm.edu.sa Department of Computer Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Connection Services Different connectivity

More information

Network+ Guide to Networks 6 th Edition. Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks

Network+ Guide to Networks 6 th Edition. Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks Network+ Guide to Networks 6 th Edition Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks Objectives Identify a variety of uses for WANs Explain different WAN topologies, including their advantages and disadvantages Compare

More information

Public Network. 1. Relatively long physical distance 2. Requiring a service provider (carrier) Branch Office. Home. Private Network.

Public Network. 1. Relatively long physical distance 2. Requiring a service provider (carrier) Branch Office. Home. Private Network. Introduction to LAN TDC 363 Week 4 Connecting LAN to WAN Book: Chapter 7 1 Outline Wide Area Network (WAN): definition WAN Topologies Choices of WAN technologies Dial-up ISDN T1 Frame Relay DSL Remote

More information

CTS2134 Introduction to Networking. Module 07: Wide Area Networks

CTS2134 Introduction to Networking. Module 07: Wide Area Networks CTS2134 Introduction to Networking Module 07: Wide Area Networks WAN cloud Central Office (CO) Local loop WAN components Demarcation point (demarc) Consumer Premises Equipment (CPE) Channel Service Unit/Data

More information

Access to Data & Computer Networks Physical Level

Access to Data & Computer Networks Physical Level Lecture 7 Access to Data & Computer Networks Physical Level Serial Interface RS232C, RS232D RS449, X21 Modem Traditional Modem Intelligent modem Wireless Modem Digital Telephony T1 & E1 Systems SONET/SDH

More information

By: Mohsen Aminifar Fall 2014

By: Mohsen Aminifar Fall 2014 By: Mohsen Aminifar Fall 2014 Contact Information: E-Mail: m.aminifar@modares.ac.ir admin@parsenet.ir Phone : 021-22919726 09128442885 Website : http://parsenet.ir http://aminifar.ir SMS Center : 5000262175

More information

Chapter 9 Using Telephone and Cable Networks for Data Transmission

Chapter 9 Using Telephone and Cable Networks for Data Transmission 9-11 TELEPHONE NETWORK Chapter 9 Using Telephone and Cable Networks for Data Transmission 1 McGraw-Hill Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required The for reproduction McGraw-Hill or

More information

Analysis of xdsl Technologies

Analysis of xdsl Technologies International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering 897 Available Online at www.ijecse.org ISSN- 2277-1956 Analysis of xdsl Technologies Dimple Saproo 1, Megha Goyal 2, Asha Bhagashra

More information

Narrowband and Broadband Access Technologies

Narrowband and Broadband Access Technologies Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapters 12 and 16 Access and Interconnection Technologies (slidesets abridged/combined) By Douglas Comer Modified from the lecture slides of Lami Kaya (LKaya@ieee.org)

More information

Chapter 11: WAN. Abdullah Konak School of Information Sciences and Technology Penn State Berks. Wide Area Networks (WAN)

Chapter 11: WAN. Abdullah Konak School of Information Sciences and Technology Penn State Berks. Wide Area Networks (WAN) Chapter 11: WAN Abdullah Konak School of Information Sciences and Technology Penn State Berks Wide Area Networks (WAN) The scope of a WAN covers large geographic areas including national and international

More information

:-------------------------------------------------------Instructor---------------------

:-------------------------------------------------------Instructor--------------------- Yarmouk University Hijjawi Faculty for Engineering Technology Computer Engineering Department CPE-462 Digital Data Communications Final Exam: A Date: 20/05/09 Student Name :-------------------------------------------------------Instructor---------------------

More information

Broadband 101: Installation and Testing

Broadband 101: Installation and Testing Broadband 101: Installation and Testing Fanny Mlinarsky Introduction Today the Internet is an information superhighway with bottlenecks at every exit. These congested exits call for the deployment of broadband

More information

Telecommunications systems (Part 2)

Telecommunications systems (Part 2) School of Business Eastern Illinois University Telecommunications systems (Part 2) Abdou Illia, Spring 2007 (Week 12, Thursday 3/29/2007) T-1 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Cellular Telephone System Integrated

More information

Residential Broadband: Technologies for High-Speed Access To Homes

Residential Broadband: Technologies for High-Speed Access To Homes Residential Broadband: Technologies for High-Speed Access To Homes Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@CIS.Ohio-State.Edu http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/cis788-97/ Email questions to mbone@netlab.ohio-state.edu

More information

Analog vs. Digital Transmission

Analog vs. Digital Transmission Analog vs. Digital Transmission Compare at two levels: 1. Data continuous (audio) vs. discrete (text) 2. Signaling continuously varying electromagnetic wave vs. sequence of voltage pulses. Also Transmission

More information

Chapter 9A. Network Definition. The Uses of a Network. Network Basics

Chapter 9A. Network Definition. The Uses of a Network. Network Basics Chapter 9A Network Basics 1 Network Definition Set of technologies that connects computers Allows communication and collaboration between users 2 The Uses of a Network Simultaneous access to data Data

More information

Residential Broadband: Technologies for High-Speed Access To Homes

Residential Broadband: Technologies for High-Speed Access To Homes Residential Broadband: Technologies for High-Speed Access To Homes The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1277 1277 http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ 1 Overview 56 kbps Modems, ISDN ADSL, VDSL

More information

ADSL part 2, Cable Internet, Cellular

ADSL part 2, Cable Internet, Cellular ADSL part 2, Cable Internet, Cellular 20 June 2016 Lecture 12 20 June 2016 SE 428: Advanced Computer Networks 1 Topics for Today ADSL Cable Internet Cellular Radio Networks 20 June 2016 SE 428: Advanced

More information

Public Switched Telephone System

Public Switched Telephone System Public Switched Telephone System Structure of the Telephone System The Local Loop: Modems, ADSL Structure of the Telephone System (a) Fully-interconnected network. (b) Centralized switch. (c) Two-level

More information

Fundamentals of Telecommunications

Fundamentals of Telecommunications Fundamentals of Telecommunications Professor of CIS Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@ACM.Org http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ 1 Overview Time Division Multiplexing T1, T3, DS1, E1 T1 Framing Echo Cancellation

More information

The Telephone Network

The Telephone Network The Telephone Network 1 2 PSTN public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the largest and most widespread communications network in the world For computer communications used to link remote sites of organisation

More information

Next Generation of High Speed. Modems8

Next Generation of High Speed. Modems8 Next Generation of High Speed Modems High Speed Modems. 1 Traditional Modems Assume both ends have Analog connection Analog signals are converted to Digital and back again. Limits transmission speed to

More information

Telecommunications, Networks, and Wireless Computing

Telecommunications, Networks, and Wireless Computing Objectives Telecommunications, Networks, and Wireless Computing 1. What are the features of a contemporary corporate telecommunications system? On what major technology developments are they based? 2.

More information

TELECOMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS ADVISORY COMMITTEE TSAC WORKING GROUP ON NEW STANDARDS AND POLICY (NSP)

TELECOMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS ADVISORY COMMITTEE TSAC WORKING GROUP ON NEW STANDARDS AND POLICY (NSP) TELECOMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS ADVISORY COMMITTEE TSAC WORKING GROUP ON NEW STANDARDS AND POLICY (NSP) Introduction Development of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Technology This paper introduces the development

More information

1.264 Lecture 34. Telecom: Connecting wired LAN, WAN. Next class: Green chapter 17. Exercise due before class

1.264 Lecture 34. Telecom: Connecting wired LAN, WAN. Next class: Green chapter 17. Exercise due before class 1.264 Lecture 34 Telecom: Connecting wired LAN, WAN Next class: Green chapter 17. Exercise due before class 1 Exercise Your transportation brokerage company also handles billing for freight shipments,

More information

ADSL or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Backbone. Bandwidth. Bit. Bits Per Second or bps

ADSL or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Backbone. Bandwidth. Bit. Bits Per Second or bps ADSL or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Backbone Bandwidth Bit Commonly called DSL. Technology and equipment that allow high-speed communication across standard copper telephone wires. This can include

More information

WAN Data Link Protocols

WAN Data Link Protocols WAN Data Link Protocols In addition to Physical layer devices, WANs require Data Link layer protocols to establish the link across the communication line from the sending to the receiving device. 1 Data

More information

Multimedia Communications Multimedia Technologies & Applications. Prof. Dr. Abdulmotaleb El Saddik

Multimedia Communications Multimedia Technologies & Applications. Prof. Dr. Abdulmotaleb El Saddik Multimedia Communications Multimedia Technologies & Applications Prof. Dr. Abdulmotaleb El Saddik Multimedia Communications Research Laboratory School of Information Technology and Engineering University

More information

Cable subscribers are connected directly to high speed lines while ADSL subscribers are connected directly to medium speed lines

Cable subscribers are connected directly to high speed lines while ADSL subscribers are connected directly to medium speed lines ADSL vs Cable Cable subscribers are connected directly to high speed lines while ADSL subscribers are connected directly to medium speed lines Cable subscribers share the line connecting them to neighbourhood

More information

XDSL and DSLAM Access Technologies

XDSL and DSLAM Access Technologies XDSL and DSLAM Access Technologies Abstract What are the differences between the different forms of xdsl technology, such as ADSL and HDSL? How are they implemented. What are the limitations? What are

More information

Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition. Chapter 7 WANs, Internet Access, and Remote Connectivity. Objectives

Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition. Chapter 7 WANs, Internet Access, and Remote Connectivity. Objectives Network+ Guide to Networks, Fourth Edition Chapter 7 WANs, Internet Access, and Remote Connectivity Objectives Identify a variety of uses for WANs Explain different WAN topologies, including their advantages

More information

WAN Technology. Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com

WAN Technology. Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com WAN Technology Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com Introduction A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and often uses transmission facilities provided

More information

EECC694 - Shaaban. Transmission Channel

EECC694 - Shaaban. Transmission Channel The Physical Layer: Data Transmission Basics Encode data as energy at the data (information) source and transmit the encoded energy using transmitter hardware: Possible Energy Forms: Electrical, light,

More information

Intel System Engineers Documents. DSL General Overview

Intel System Engineers Documents. DSL General Overview Intel System Engineers Documents DSL General Overview Alex Lattanzi SC LAR Whatt IIs Brroadband? Broadband describes a number of different technologies that deliver digital data to homes and businesses

More information

Chapter 2 from Tanenbaum - modified. The Physical Layer. Ref: A.S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 4 th Ed., Prentice-Hall, 2003, ISBN: 0-13-038488-7.

Chapter 2 from Tanenbaum - modified. The Physical Layer. Ref: A.S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 4 th Ed., Prentice-Hall, 2003, ISBN: 0-13-038488-7. Chapter 2 from Tanenbaum - modified The Physical Layer Ref: A.S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 4 th Ed., Prentice-Hall, 2003, ISBN: 0-13-038488-7. Data Communications over Wireless and Digital Wired Systems

More information

Appendix A: Basic network architecture

Appendix A: Basic network architecture Appendix A: Basic network architecture TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOCAL ACCESS NETWORKS Traditionally, telecommunications networks are classified as either fixed or mobile, based on the degree of mobility afforded

More information

INTERNET CONNECTIVITY

INTERNET CONNECTIVITY INTERNET CONNECTIVITY http://www.tutorialspoint.com/internet_technologies/internet_connectivity.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com Here in this tutorial, we will discuss how to connect to internet i.e. internet

More information

Computer Networks. Definition of LAN. Connection of Network. Key Points of LAN. Lecture 06 Connecting Networks

Computer Networks. Definition of LAN. Connection of Network. Key Points of LAN. Lecture 06 Connecting Networks Computer Networks Lecture 06 Connecting Networks Kuang-hua Chen Department of Library and Information Science National Taiwan University Local Area Networks (LAN) 5 kilometer IEEE 802.3 Ethernet IEEE 802.4

More information

Communication Networks. MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela

Communication Networks. MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela Communication Networks MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela Network basic mechanisms Introduction to Communications Networks Communications networks Communications networks are used to transport information (data)

More information

Copyright. Transport networks. Physical layer Transport and access networks. Pag. 1

Copyright. Transport networks. Physical layer Transport and access networks. Pag. 1 Physical layer Transport and access networks Gruppo Reti TLC nome.cognome@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ COMPUTER NETWORK DESIGN Physical layer review - 1 Copyright Quest opera è protetta dalla

More information

Objectives. Lecture 4. How do computers communicate? How do computers communicate? Local asynchronous communication. How do computers communicate?

Objectives. Lecture 4. How do computers communicate? How do computers communicate? Local asynchronous communication. How do computers communicate? Lecture 4 Continuation of transmission basics Chapter 3, pages 75-96 Dave Novak School of Business University of Vermont Objectives Line coding Modulation AM, FM, Phase Shift Multiplexing FDM, TDM, WDM

More information

1.264 Lecture 32. Telecom: Basic technology. Next class: Green chapter 4, 6, 7, 10. Exercise due before class

1.264 Lecture 32. Telecom: Basic technology. Next class: Green chapter 4, 6, 7, 10. Exercise due before class 1.264 Lecture 32 Telecom: Basic technology Next class: Green chapter 4, 6, 7, 10. Exercise due before class 1 Exercise 1 Communications at warehouse A warehouse scans its inventory with RFID readers that

More information

R2. The word protocol is often used to describe diplomatic relations. How does Wikipedia describe diplomatic protocol?

R2. The word protocol is often used to describe diplomatic relations. How does Wikipedia describe diplomatic protocol? Chapter 1 Review Questions R1. What is the difference between a host and an end system? List several different types of end systems. Is a Web server an end system? 1. There is no difference. Throughout

More information

DSL Variations. NEXTEP Broadband White Paper. Broadband Networks Group. Definitions and differences of Digital Subscriber Line variations.

DSL Variations. NEXTEP Broadband White Paper. Broadband Networks Group. Definitions and differences of Digital Subscriber Line variations. NEXTEP Broadband White Paper DSL Variations Definitions and differences of Digital Subscriber Line variations. A NEXTEP Broadband White Paper May 2001 Broadband Networks Group DSL Variations EXECUTIVE

More information

Black Box Explains: DSL

Black Box Explains: DSL Black Box Explains: DSL History It was realized as early as the late eighties, early nineties, that conventional data transmission systems did not meet the requirements of the growing internet community

More information

VDSL (VERY HIGH DATA BIT RATE DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE)

VDSL (VERY HIGH DATA BIT RATE DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE) 1 VDSL (VERY HIGH DATA BIT RATE DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE) INTRODUCTION 1. Recent events in the telecommunications environment are giving rise to a new class of service providers, setting the stage for how

More information

8 Wide Area Network (WAN)

8 Wide Area Network (WAN) Wide Area Network (WAN).1 Introduction Objectives.2 Why need a WAN?.3 Switching Techniques.3.1 Circuit switching network.3.2 Packet switching Network.3.2.1 How Packet Switching Network Works?.3.2.2 Datagram

More information

BROADBAND AND HIGH SPEED NETWORKS

BROADBAND AND HIGH SPEED NETWORKS BROADBAND AND HIGH SPEED NETWORKS INTRODUCTION TO MUTIPLEXING Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link INTRODUCTION

More information

1.264 Lecture 21. Telecom network technology: Fiber, satellite, cellular telephony, cable modems, DSL

1.264 Lecture 21. Telecom network technology: Fiber, satellite, cellular telephony, cable modems, DSL 1.264 Lecture 21 Telecom network technology: Fiber, satellite, cellular telephony, cable modems, DSL Network technology We ve just covered the basic components of transmission, switching/ routing and physical

More information

Telecommunications systems (Part 1)

Telecommunications systems (Part 1) School of Business Eastern Illinois University Telecommunications systems (Part 1) (Week 11, Thursday 11/02/2006) Abdou Illia, Fall 2006 Learning Objectives 2 Describe and compare types of connection to

More information

CS 5516 Computer Architecture Networks

CS 5516 Computer Architecture Networks Lecture 11: ISDN & ATM CS 5516 Computer Architecture Networks VA Tech Prof. Roy M. Wnek History of ISDN Traditionally, local loop connectivity has been with an analog signal on copper Inefficient, prone

More information

Chapter 5. Data Communication And Internet Technology

Chapter 5. Data Communication And Internet Technology Chapter 5 Data Communication And Internet Technology Purpose Understand the fundamental networking concepts Agenda Network Concepts Communication Protocol TCP/IP-OSI Architecture Network Types LAN WAN

More information

Data Transmission via Modem. The Last Mile Problem. Modulation of Digital Signals. Modem Standards (CCITT)

Data Transmission via Modem. The Last Mile Problem. Modulation of Digital Signals. Modem Standards (CCITT) The Last Mile Problem LN, MN, WN how to connect private users at home to such networks? Problem of the last mile: somehow connect private homes to the public Internet without laying many new cables By

More information

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) CHAPTER 9 This chapter describes the level of support that Cisco ANA provides for DSL, as follows: Technology Description, page 9-1 Inventory and Information Model Objects (IMOs), page 9-2 Vendor-Specific

More information

Physical Layer. Communication Satellites. ECE 453 Introduction to Computer Networks. Lecture 3 Physical Layer II

Physical Layer. Communication Satellites. ECE 453 Introduction to Computer Networks. Lecture 3 Physical Layer II ECE 453 Introduction to Computer Networks Lecture 3 Physical Layer II 1 Physical Layer Services transmit bits from sender to receiver. Transmission media Guided: twisted pair, coax, fiber Unguided (wireless):

More information

Voice and Delivery Data Networks

Voice and Delivery Data Networks Voice and Delivery Data Networks Chapter 11 Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Identify the basic elements of a telephone system Describe the composition of the telephone

More information

Think! Think! Data communications. Long-Distance. Modems: to analog and back. Transmission Media. The last mile is the hardest for digital information

Think! Think! Data communications. Long-Distance. Modems: to analog and back. Transmission Media. The last mile is the hardest for digital information Data communications Think! Think!?? What makes it possible to communicate from point A to point B?? Long-Distance Transmission Media If you place a call outside the local transport area, an interchange

More information

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS IP Networking Through Telecommunication System System Engineering BSc Full-time Overview Phone Line Modems Accoustic modem PSTN modem ISDN modem ADSL XDSL Acoustic modems Connection

More information

How DSL Works. by Curt Franklin

How DSL Works. by Curt Franklin by Curt Franklin How DSL Works When you connect to the Internet, you might connect through a regular modem, through a localarea network connection in your office, through a cable modem or through a digital

More information

WANs connect remote sites. Connection requirements vary depending on user requirements, cost, and availability.

WANs connect remote sites. Connection requirements vary depending on user requirements, cost, and availability. WAN Review A WAN makes data connections across a broad geographic area so that information can be exchanged between distant sites. This topic defines the characteristics of a WAN. WAN Overview WANs connect

More information

Lecture 21 ISDN Integrated Digital Network.

Lecture 21 ISDN Integrated Digital Network. Lecture 21 ISDN is an acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network. ISDN was developed to cater the needs of users who want high data rate, since conventional telephone line is not capable of providing

More information

THE BCS PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATIONS BCS Level 5 Diploma in IT. October 2009 EXAMINERS' REPORT. Computer Networks

THE BCS PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATIONS BCS Level 5 Diploma in IT. October 2009 EXAMINERS' REPORT. Computer Networks THE BCS PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATIONS BCS Level 5 Diploma in IT October 2009 EXAMINERS' REPORT Computer Networks General Comments The responses to questions were of marginally better quality than April 2009

More information

Electrical Communications. Transmitting Digital Signals

Electrical Communications. Transmitting Digital Signals Electrical Communications Electrical signals on wires Loss, noise added, reflections, interference IMPORTANT: Digital information is transformed into electrical signals in order to be transmitted!!! Example:

More information

Chapter 4 Connecting to the Internet through an ISP

Chapter 4 Connecting to the Internet through an ISP Chapter 4 Connecting to the Internet through an ISP 1. According to Cisco what two things are essential to gaining access to the internet? a. ISPs are essential to gaining access to the Internet. b. No

More information

CSCI 491-01 Topics: Internet Programming Fall 2008

CSCI 491-01 Topics: Internet Programming Fall 2008 CSCI 491-01 Topics: Internet Programming Fall 2008 Introduction Derek Leonard Hendrix College September 3, 2008 Original slides copyright 1996-2007 J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross 1 Chapter 1: Introduction Our

More information

VoIP Bandwidth Considerations - design decisions

VoIP Bandwidth Considerations - design decisions VoIP Bandwidth Considerations - design decisions When calculating the bandwidth requirements for a VoIP implementation the two main protocols are: a signalling protocol such as SIP, H.323, SCCP, IAX or

More information

Network Technologies

Network Technologies Network Technologies Telephone Networks IP Networks ATM Networks Three Network Technologies Telephone Network The largest worldwide computer network, specialized for voice ing technique: Circuit-switching

More information

WAN. Introduction. Services used by WAN. Circuit Switched Services. Architecture of Switch Services

WAN. Introduction. Services used by WAN. Circuit Switched Services. Architecture of Switch Services WAN Introduction Wide area networks (WANs) Connect BNs and LANs across longer distances, often hundreds of miles or more Typically built by using leased circuits from common carriers such as AT&T Most

More information

Computers Are Your Future. 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Computers Are Your Future. 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers Are Your Future 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers Are Your Future Chapter 3 Wired and Wireless Communication 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 2 What You Will Learn... ü The definition of bandwidth

More information

DSL: An Overview. By M. V. Ramana Murthy. All Rights Reserved

DSL: An Overview. By M. V. Ramana Murthy. All Rights Reserved By M. V. Ramana Murthy All Rights Reserved COPYRIGHT: This document is a property of MultiTech Software Systems India Pvt. Ltd. No part of this document may be copied or reproduced in any form or by any

More information

Chapter 2 - The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models

Chapter 2 - The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models Chapter 2 - The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models TCP/IP : Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol OSI : Open System Interconnection RFC Request for Comments TCP/IP Architecture Layers Application

More information

11/22/2013 1. komwut@siit

11/22/2013 1. komwut@siit 11/22/2013 1 Week3-4 Point-to-Point, LAN, WAN Review 11/22/2013 2 What will you learn? Representatives for Point-to-Point Network LAN Wired Ethernet Wireless Ethernet WAN ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

More information

Avancerede Datanet. Ole Brun Madsen Professor Department of Control Engineering University of Aalborg. Infrastruktur

Avancerede Datanet. Ole Brun Madsen Professor Department of Control Engineering University of Aalborg. Infrastruktur Department of Control Engineering Distributed Real-time Systems Avancerede Datanet Infrastruktur Ole Brun Madsen Professor Department of Control Engineering University of Aalborg Avancerede Datanet Infrastructure

More information

Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information

Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information Introduction Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information No master/slave relationship between the computers in the network Data Communications.

More information

Objectives. Remote Connection Options. Teleworking. Connecting Teleworkers to the Corporate WAN. Providing Teleworker Services

Objectives. Remote Connection Options. Teleworking. Connecting Teleworkers to the Corporate WAN. Providing Teleworker Services ITE I Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 1 Objectives Providing Teleworker Services Describe the enterprise requirements for providing teleworker services Explain how

More information

Data Transmission. Data Communications Model. CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies. Presentation B

Data Transmission. Data Communications Model. CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies. Presentation B CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies Data Transmission Presentation B Kannan Srinivasan 08/30/2012 Data Communications Model Figure 1.2 Studying Assignment: 3.1-3.4, 4.1 Presentation

More information

Multiplexing on Wireline Telephone Systems

Multiplexing on Wireline Telephone Systems Multiplexing on Wireline Telephone Systems Isha Batra, Divya Raheja Information Technology, Dronacharya College of Engineering Farrukh Nagar, Gurgaon, India ABSTRACT- This Paper Outlines a research multiplexing

More information

WAN Technologies Based on CCNA 4 v3.1 Slides Compiled & modified by C. Pham

WAN Technologies Based on CCNA 4 v3.1 Slides Compiled & modified by C. Pham WAN Technologies Based on CCNA 4 v3.1 Slides Compiled & modified by C. Pham 1 Wide-area Networks (WANs) 2 Metropolitan-Area Network (MANs) 3 Path Determination 4 Internetworking Any internetwork must include

More information

C.Courcoubetis G.D.Stamoulis Spring 2011

C.Courcoubetis G.D.Stamoulis Spring 2011 Broadband (IV): Cable access, Fiber, and other Media C.Courcoubetis G.D.Stamoulis Spring 2011 Introduction C. Courcoubetis, G.D. Stamoulis Broadband 4: Cable, fiber, - 2 Basic access technologies HFC SDV

More information

What s the Internet: nuts and bolts view. What s the Internet: nuts and bolts view. What s the Internet: a service view

What s the Internet: nuts and bolts view. What s the Internet: nuts and bolts view. What s the Internet: a service view What s the Internet: nuts and bolts view millions of connected computing devices: hosts, end-systems pc s workstations, servers PDA s phones, toasters running network apps communication links fiber, copper,

More information

Exam questions. 1. Which of the following are true regarding xdsl? Choose three. It uses a portion of the existing phone line.

Exam questions. 1. Which of the following are true regarding xdsl? Choose three. It uses a portion of the existing phone line. Nguyen Khac Quyet - Take Exam Exam questions Time remaining: 00: 08: 31 1. Which of the following are true regarding xdsl? Choose three. It uses a portion of the existing phone line It is symmetrical It

More information

A General Glossary of Telecommunications Terminology

A General Glossary of Telecommunications Terminology 1 A General Glossary of Telecommunications Terminology Analog Electronic transmission of voice and data accomplished by adding signals of varying frequency, or amplitude, to carrier waves of a given frequency

More information

ECE 510 -- Chapter 1

ECE 510 -- Chapter 1 ECE 510 -- Chapter 1 Definition: Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Public network technology that delivers high bandwidth over conventional copper wiring at limited distances. There are four major types of

More information

Local Area Network By Bhupendra Ratha, Lecturer School of Library and Information Science Devi Ahilya University, Indore Email: bhu261@gmail.com Local Area Network LANs connect computers and peripheral

More information

Broadband Technology Clinic. Burlington Telecom Advisory Board

Broadband Technology Clinic. Burlington Telecom Advisory Board Broadband Technology Clinic Burlington Telecom Advisory Board 1 What are the Defining Characteristics of a Broadband Service? Speed - Throughput capability both down and upstream Performance - Latency

More information

Telephone Systems. Home Telephones. Central Office. Local Loop. Wired Telephony

Telephone Systems. Home Telephones. Central Office. Local Loop. Wired Telephony Telephone Systems COMP476 Home Telephones Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) provides a twisted pair connection from your phone to the central office. You own your home wiring and the telephone company

More information

Chapter 13: Internet Connectivity

Chapter 13: Internet Connectivity Chapter 13: Internet Connectivity Complete CompTIA A+ Guide to PCs, 6e To configure an internal external modem To explain basic handshaking between a DTE device and a DCE device To use Windows tools when

More information

EE3414 Multimedia Communication Systems Part I

EE3414 Multimedia Communication Systems Part I EE3414 Multimedia Communication Systems Part I Spring 2003 Lecture 1 Yao Wang Electrical and Computer Engineering Polytechnic University Course Overview A University Sequence Course in Multimedia Communication

More information

ZHONE VDSL2 TECHNOLOGY. Access Technology for the Future. November 2009 CONTENTS

ZHONE VDSL2 TECHNOLOGY. Access Technology for the Future. November 2009 CONTENTS ZHONE VDSL2 TECHNOLOGY Access Technology for the Future November 2009 CONTENTS Introduction 2 VDSL2 technology 2 VDSL2 Deployments: Zhone findings 4 Zhone s VDSL2 solutions 6 Conclusion 8 Access for a

More information

Evolution from Voiceband to Broadband Internet Access

Evolution from Voiceband to Broadband Internet Access Evolution from Voiceband to Broadband Internet Access Murtaza Ali DSPS R&D Center Texas Instruments Abstract With the growth of Internet, demand for high bit rate Internet access is growing. Even though

More information

Chapter 1: roadmap. Access networks and physical media

Chapter 1: roadmap. Access networks and physical media Chapter 1: roadmap 1.1 What is the nternet? 1.2 Network edge 1.3 Network core 1.4 Network access and physical media 1.5 nternet structure and SPs 1.6 elay & loss in packet-switched networks 1.7 Protocol

More information

CS423: Lectures 2-4, Physical Layer. George Varghese. April 16, 2008

CS423: Lectures 2-4, Physical Layer. George Varghese. April 16, 2008 CS423: Lectures 2-4, Physical Layer George Varghese April 16, 2008 What does the Physical Layer Do? bits SENDER PHYSICAL LAYER RECEIVER 1 RECEIVER 1 RECEIVER 1 A possibly faulty, single-hop, bit pipe that

More information

ADSL over ISDN, DAML, and Long Loops

ADSL over ISDN, DAML, and Long Loops Avi Vaidya Vice President and Chief Technology Officer Charles Industries, Ltd. over ISDN, DAML, and Long Loops As new technologies evolve, new challenges arise for telephone companies. Some of these challenges

More information

Introduction to computer networks and Cloud Computing

Introduction to computer networks and Cloud Computing Introduction to computer networks and Cloud Computing Aniel Nieves-González Fall 2015 Computer Netwoks A computer network is a set of independent computer systems that are connected by a communication

More information

Protocols. Packets. What's in an IP packet

Protocols. Packets. What's in an IP packet Protocols Precise rules that govern communication between two parties TCP/IP: the basic Internet protocols IP: Internet Protocol (bottom level) all packets shipped from network to network as IP packets

More information

Telecommunication Systems

Telecommunication Systems PUF-HCM Master Informatics Telecommunication Systems RTEL 1 Team teaching Responsible Team: Email Rami Langar Rami Langar (Courses) Su Tam Nguyen (TD) Rami.Langar@lip6.fr guitar1911@yahoo.com RTEL 2 Organisation

More information

Wired & Wireless LAN Connections

Wired & Wireless LAN Connections Lecture 5 Wired & Wireless LAN Connections Network Interface Card (NIC) Ethernet Wiring - Thick Ethernet - Thin Ethernet - Star (Hub) Ethernet Extending LAN - Fiber Modem - Repeater - Bridge - Switch Short

More information

Getting Broadband. FCC Consumer Facts. What Is Broadband?

Getting Broadband. FCC Consumer Facts. What Is Broadband? Getting Broadband FCC Consumer Facts What Is Broadband? Broadband or high-speed Internet access allows users to access the Internet and Internetrelated services at significantly higher speeds than those

More information

Introduction to WAN Technologies

Introduction to WAN Technologies CHAPTER 3 Chapter Goals Become familiar with WAN terminology. Learn about different types of WAN connections. Become familiar with different types of WAN equipment. This chapter introduces the various

More information