Internal Migration and Regional Disparities in India

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1 Internal Migration and Regional Disparities in India Introduction Internal migration is now recognized as an important factor in influencing social and economic development, especially in developing countries. According to census 2001, the total population of India is 1028 million consisting of 532 million males and 496 million females. India is geographically divided into 28 states and 7 Union Territories. There is a tremendous variation in the aggregate population size across the state. It varies from 0.54 million in Sikkim to million in Uttar Pradesh. In 2001, 309 million persons were migrants based on place of last residence, which constitute about 30% of the total population of the country. This figure indicates an increase of around 37 percent from census 1991 which recorded 226 million migrants. Objectives This paper is aimed to address mainly the following aspects of spatial mobility within India during the last intercensal decade of Reasons for migration 2. In-migration, out-migration and net migration levels of all states. 3. State to state migration flows. 4. Some insights on the determinants of internal migration in India. Data Source This paper uses data from census 2001, which was released recently. Census in India collects information on migration based on spatial and temporal aspects. In India, the place of birth and place of last residence of a person provide information on the spatial aspects of movement, while duration of residence provides data on the temporal aspects of migration. The data covers spatial movement of persons within a state or between the states based on crossing geographical / administrative boundaries. Census, however, does not provide economic characteristics of the states. For the economic variables, the paper uses data of various sources, including publications of the Reserve Bank of India, Central Statistical Organization and Planning Commission, India

2 Results Internal migration in India In 2001, 309 million persons were migrants based on place of last residence, which constitute about 30% of the total population of the country. This figure indicates an increase of around 37 percent from census 1991 which recorded 226 million migrants. Out of the total migrants 91 million are males and the rest 218 are females. Thus migrants constitute around 30 percent of the total population, male and female migrants constituting 18 percent and 45 percent of their population respectively. Of the total migrants, 87 percent were migrants within the state of enumeration while 13 percent were interstate migrants. Among the male migrants, 79 percent moved within the state of enumeration while 21 percent moved between states. Among females, 90 percent were intrastate migrants and 10 percent were interstate migrants. In all censuses, rural to rural migration stream has been the most important. Females constitute a significantly higher proportion of rural ward migrants mainly on account of marriage. As regards long distance (inter-state) movement in India, a clear sex differential is found from census Among the male interstate migrants, rural to urban stream emerged as the most prominent accounting for 47 percent. On the other hand, rural to rural has remained the major pattern of female movement, with 36 percent of them migrating from rural to rural areas. Reasons for migration 98 million persons moved during the decade Out of this, 33 million are males and 65 million are females. Of the total intercensal migrants, 83 percent were intrastate migrants and 17 percent were interstate migrants. However, among the males, 74 percent migrated within the state of enumeration while 26 percent moved between states. A corresponding percentage of females (13 percent) were recorded as interstate migrants. This indicates that mobility of Indian population has significantly increased during the 1990s. In census 2001, the reasons for migration have been classified into seven broad groups work/employment, business, education, marriage, moved at birth, moved with family and others.

3 It is observed that employment among males and marriage among females are the main reasons for migration. Associational reasons movement on account of accompanying parents or any other member of the family is elicited second most important reason among both male and female intercensal migrants. Around 44 percent of the total intercensal migrants have moved due to marriages. However, it is predominantly led by females as 65 percent of females have migrated owing to their marriages compared to 2 percent among males. Among male migrants, employment has continued to be the main reason for migration with nearly 40 percent of them accounted by it. When interstate migration is taken into account, employment emerges as the main reason for migration. Nearly 32 percent of all interstate migrants during the intercensal period migrated for the reason of work or employment. This is closely followed by moved with household reason accounting for around 30 percent of the intercensal interstate migrants. However, there is a clear difference between different streams of migration. While nearly 79 percent of females in intrastate rural to rural migrants during the intercensal period reported marriage as the reason for migration, it is only 37 percent among females in the case of urban to urban interstate migrants. Moved with household as a reason also emerges as an important cause for both male and female migration in all streams of migration during the intercensal period. Inter state migration flows Although out-migration and in-migration are enough to measure the amount of net migration, the direction to/from which the migrants moved can be used to explain the structure and pattern of internal migration in a country. Flow matrices are not readily available from the census publications. However a directional flow matrix (28 * 28) between the states can be developed from census data. From the largest three or four magnitudes of out-migration proportions of each state, it is clear that majority of the migrants have moved to neighboring states only. However there are exceptions for this. For Uttar Pradesh, which constitutes 41 percent of all our migrants, migration to Maharashtra accounts for 32 percent even though Maharashtra is not a border state. Likewise, out migrants from Orissa preferred Gujarat and Maharashtra as the destination even when these states are not border states. Out-migration to these states made up to 34 percent of total out-migrants from Orissa.

4 A close look at the pattern of each state s out-migration is as follows. 56 percent of outmigrants from Uttar Pradesh have gone to Maharashtra, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. In the case of Bihar, nearly 50 percent out-migrants have moved to Jharkhand, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Out-migrants from these two states made up to 70 percent of total out-migrants. More than one-third of Tamil Nadu migrants moved to Karnataka. The rest of the out-migrants have chosen mainly Kerala, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. More than three-fourth of out-migrants from Andhra Pradesh have moved to the border states namely, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. For the outmigrants from Rajasthan, destinations are Maharashtra, Haryana, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Turning to Kerala, about 48 percent have moved to the neighboring states, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. However, a slightly more than one-fourth of the out-migrants from Kerala have moved to Maharashtra, which is not a bordering state. Overall it is observed that majority of the out-migrants have moved to the bordering states. Nevertheless, it is observed that migration to non bordering states has also been significant. Here, one has to remember the enormous variations in the geographical sizes of Indian states. With the distance covered by an inter-district migrant in state like Rajasthan, a migrant in smaller states can reach another state, thus qualifying as interstate migration. From the flow matrix, Maharashtra emerges the most favored destination for migration. Half of the entire interstate migrants have moved to Maharashtra. Gujarat and Haryana are the other preferred destinations with nearly 30 percent of the migrants moving to these states. The three states, thus, attracted 80 percent of all interstate migrants during the intercensal period Inter-state migration: socio-economic determinants. There is growing evidence in India to suggest that the country is moving fast in the overall development. Structural transformation in the 1990s has propelled the growth of the economy further. The percentage of people below poverty line has reduced and per capita consumption has improved simultaneously. Although Indian economy is predominantly agricultural, the proportion of work force engaged in agricultural activities has fallen significantly. This reduction is perhaps, a sign of enhanced job opportunities in other sectors.

5 With this scenario of an optimistic economic growth at the national level, an attempt is made to relate the levels of migration of each state with some social and economic indicators. The following variables have been considered for the preliminary analysis: - proportion urban, per capita income, proportion of non agricultural workers, density, economic dependency ratio, average earnings of rural labor, sex ratio, proportion age and sex ratio of age Zero order correlation coefficients of these variables with migration levels is expected to provide some insights on the mechanisms of push pull factors of spatial mobility in India. The measurement errors in both the sets of variables, socio economic variables as well as migration, cannot be summarily ruled out, although efforts will be made to maximize the reliability. Further, from the host of socio economic variables, some variables are considered for a linear regression analysis with the levels of in-migration. A quick look at the flow matrix shows that the poorest states in terms of state s per capita income have moved to states with high per capita income. The mean per capita income of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the decade is Rs.3209 and Rs.6757 respectively. But the preferred destination states, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana have high per capita income of Rs.16254; Rs and Rs respectively. On the other hand, Punjab with a higher per capita income of Rs has not attracted migrants in the decade. In overall, it is found that states with less per capita income has migrated to states with higher per capita income, higher wages and better opportunities. References Bhagat, R.B., Conceptual Issues in Measurement of Internal Migration in India. IUSSP XXV th International Conference, Contributed Papers, France, July Census of India Soft copy, India D-series, Migration Tables. Registrar General and Census commisioner, India.

6 Chakravarty, B The Census and the NSS Data on Internal Migration, in Ashish Bose, Davendra B. Gupta, and Gaurisankar Raychaudhuri (eds.), Population Statistics in India. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Chatterjee, Atreyi, and Ashish Bose Demographic Data on Internal Migration and Urbanisation from Census and NSS An Appraisal, in Ashish Bose, Davendra B. Gupta, and Gaurisankar Raychaudhuri (eds.), Population Statistics in India. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Government of India. Indian Labour Statistics (various Issues), Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour, Government of India. Nair, P.S., and Narain, V., Internal Migration in India: Demographic Knowledge and Policy Issues. IUSSP Seminar on Policy Formulation, Implementation and Evaluation: The case of East, South and South East Asia, Contributed Papers, Bombay, India, January Premi, M. K., India. In Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly (eds.), International Handbook on Internal Migration. New York: Greenwood Press. R.B.I., Handbook of Statistics on the Indian Economy (various Issues), Reserve Bank of India. Singh, D.P., Internal Migration in India: Demography India 27(1): U.N Readings in Population Research and Methodology, The United Nations Population Fund, New York. Zachariah, K.C., Internal Migration in India from the Historical standpoint, Invited Paper, 34 th Session, I.S.I., Ottawa, Canada. Zachariah, K.C Historical Study of Internal Migration in the Indian Sub Continent, Research Monograph 1, Demographic Training and Research Centre, Bombay.

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