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1 DSLAM [دانشگاه جامع علمی کاربردی گنبد کاووس [ ٢ دانشگاه جامع علمی کاربردي گنبد کاووس 2 چیست و چگونه کار میکند تهیه و تنظیم : ابوذر نوروزي - محسن فیروزیان استاد : خانم مهندس دانشی پاییز 93 1

2 DSLAM مخفف Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer دستگاه فوقدر مراکز اراي ه دهنده سرویس DSL نصب و امکان اراي ه خدمات مبتنی بر DSL را فراهم می نماید DSLMاتصالات مربوط به تعدادي از مشترکین را گرفته و آنها را به یک اتصال با ظرفیت بالا براي ارسال بر روي اینترنت تبدیل می نماید. دستگاههاي DSLAM داراي انعطاف لازم در خصوص استفاده از خطوط DSL متفاوت پروتکل هاي متفاوت و مدولاسیون متفاوت می باشند. در برخی از مدل هاي فوق امکان انجام عملیات خاصی نظیر اختصاص پویاي آدرس هاي IPبه مشترکین نیز وجوددارد. یکی از تفاوت هاي مهم بین ADSL و مودم هاي کابلی نحوه برخورد و رفتار DSLAM است. کاربران مودم هاي کابلی از یک شبکه بسته بصورت اشتراکی استفاده می نمایند. در چنین مواردیکه همزمان با افزایش تعداد کاربران کارآي ی آنها تنزل پیدا خواهد کرد ADSL.براي هر یک از کاربران یک ارتباط اختصاصی ایجاد و آن را به DSLAM متصل می نماید. بدین ترتیب همزمان با افزایش کاربران کارآي ی مربوطه تنزل پیدا نخواهد کرد. وضعیت فوق تا زمانیکه کاربران از تمام ظرفیت موجود خط ارتباطی با اینترنت استفاده نکرده باشند ادامه خواهد یافت. در صورت استفاده از تمام ظرفیت خط ارتباطی اینترنت مراکز اراي ه دهنده سرویس DSL می توانند نسبت به ارتقاء خط ارتباطی اینترنت اقدام تا تمام مشترکین متصل شده به DSLAM داراي کارآي ی مطلوب در زمینه استفاده از اینترنت گردند. 2

3 DSLAM [دانشگاه جامع علمی کاربردی گنبد کاووس [ ٢ به صورت لایه 2 (بریج) و هم به صورت لایه 3 دستگاهی است با برند هاي مختلف مانند زیمنس هواوي زیسا کامترند که هم در بازارموجود میباشد.عموما ماژولار است ولی مدلهاي غیرماژولارهم وجوددارد.مدلهاي ماژولار عموما از کارتهاي پروسسور و پاور از یک مودم برد کارت مشترکین (مثلا 24 و پایه بر پورت 48 پورت) تشکیل اتصال.G ساخته شده است.ودر حالت بدون تغییر CO یافته.معمولا پاور 48 ولتدارند و کارتهاي مشترکین تنظیم گردیده up میشود. سمت مشترك و dslam و همچنین VPI و VCI یکسان لینک Encapsulationدر.با تنظیم یکسان هوآوي DSLAM آلکاتل DSLAM 3

4 DSLAM [دانشگاه جامع علمی کاربردی گنبد کاووس [ ٢ DSLAM OUTDOOR 4

5 تا سرعت 8 مگابیت در ADSL2+ تا سرعت 2 مگابیت در ثانیه براي مشترك امکان دریافت وجود دارد و در adsl ر.از ظرفیت سیمهاي مسی مازاد بر حجم استفاده شده توسط بوق براي انتقال داده استفاده مینماید DSLAM.ثانیه هر کارت مشترك بسته به تعداد پورت زوج سیم مسی توسط اینترفیسیکه در این خصوص تعبیه شده دریافت مینماید.سر دیگر سیمها به یک ترمینال مخصوص متصل میشود.این ترمینال براي هر مشترك 2 زوج سیم را تحویل میدهد ترکیب کرده و یک زوج سیم - 1 زوج سیم که از DSLAM خارج میشود - 2 زوج سیم بوق که از سالن دستگاه میا ید. این دو مسیر با یک جک اسپلیتر ترکیب میشود ودیتا و بوق توسط یک سیم به سمت مشترك ارسال میشود.مشترك با یک اسپلیتر سمت خود بوق را از دیتا جدا کرده و از سیستم استفاده مینماید. نرم افزار DSLAM یا همان سیستم عامل در برندهاي مختلف متفاوتمیباشد و اصولا یک کنسول رابط مود گرافیکی نیز دارد.که امکاناتی جهت تنظیم دستگاه و پورتها براي کاربر دستگاه فراهم میکند.معمولا قابلیتهایی مانند کنترل پهناي باند براي هر پورت و گراف هاي مختلف را نیز دارا می باشد با گسترش کاربرد اینترنتدر سراسرجهان و نفوذ ابزارهاي ارتباط با اینترنت به تمام بخشهاي زندگی بشري امکانات و فناوريهاي استفاده از اینترنت و ابزارهاي آن نیز به شکل چشمگیري در حال تغییر و تحول است و روزانه ابزارهاي جدیدي براي استفاده کارآمدتر و سریعتر از اینترنت به عنوان بستري براي استفاده از آخرین فناوريهاي روز به کاربران ارایه میشود. شاید بتوان یکی از دلایل این مسي لهرا تاثیر استفاده از اینترنت به عنوان ابزاري براي رشد و توسعه کشورها دانست. به همینخاطر است که میزان استفاده از اینترنت توسط افراد یک جامعه به عنوان شاخصی براي میزان رشد و پیشرفت کشورها در نظر گرفته میشود و هر چه میزان استفاده از اینترنت توسط افراد و سازمانهاي یک کشور بیشتر باشد آن کشور توسعهیافتهتر خواهد بود. چه آن که دسترسی سریع به اطلاعات به عنوانکلیديترین عاملدرعصر حاضر همیشه مورد توجه افراد و سازمانها و موسسات بوده است. بر این اساس استفاده از ابزارهاي کارآمد براي اتصال به اینترنت و بهرهگیري از امکانات اینترنت براي دسترسی بسیار سریع به آخرین اطلاعات و دانش روز امري بسیار ضروري است. استفاده از فناوري ADSL که براي برقراري ارتباط پرسرعت و 5

6 بدون قطعی با اینترنت طراحی و در اختیار کابران قرار گرفته است میتواند به خوبی پاسخگوي نیازهاي یاد شده باشد و سهولت دسترسی مداوم به اینترنت را براي کاربران با سرعت قابل ملاحظهاي فراهم سازد. با بهرهگیري از فناوري ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line )کاربران قادر خواهند بود تنها با استفاده از یک خط تلفن کامپیوتر و مودم ADSL بدون مشغول کردنخط تلفن به صورتدایمو با سرعتی بالا به اینترنتمتصل شوند. به سخنی دیگر با استفاده از این فناوري امکان استفادهيدو منظوره از یک خط تلفن فراهم میگردد تا ضمن استفاده از خط تلفن براي مکالمههاي تلفنی از آن براي برقراري ارتباط پرسرعت و بدون قطعی با اینترنت و بدون هزینهي پالس تلفن بهره جست. در حقیقت با استفاده از این فناوري میتوان از یک خط تلفن افزون بر انتقال صوت براي انتقال داده نیز استفاده کرد تا ضمن این که خط تلفن به صورت عادي براي کاربردهاي مکالمه و ارسال و دریافت نمابر مورد استفاده قرار میگیرد براي انتقال داده نیز به کار گرفته شود. افزون بر امکان استفاده دو منظوه از یک خط تلفن آنچه که این فناوري را از دیگر فناوريهاي اتصال به اینترنتمتمایز ساخته سرعت بالاي آن است. به گونهاي که میتوان با استفاده از ADSL با سرعتی تا 40 برابر بیشتر از اتصال از طریق شمارهگیري تلفنی به اینترنت متصل شد. در توضیح این فناوري و استفاده دو منظوره از یک خط تلفن باید گفت اساس این فناوري بر مبناي استفاده از فضاي خالی سیمهاي مسی تلفن قرار دارد. بدین ترتیبکهسیم مسی تلفن همانند لولهايست که هنگام استفاده از تلفن براي مکالمههاي صوتی تنها قسمت اندکی از فضاي آن به کار گرفته و مشغول میشود. بر این اساس به سادگی میتوان از فضاي استفاده نشده سیم مسی خط تلفن براي کاربردهاي دیگر همچون انتقال دادهها آن هم با سرعت بالا و همزمان با انتقال اطلاعات صوتی بهره گرفت. نکتهي جالب توجه آنکه براي این کار تنها استفاده از یک دستگاه مودم ADSL و یک دستگاه تفکیککننده Splitter کافیست وکاربران نیازي به استفاده از تجهیزات پیچیده و خاضی براي این منظور ندارند و تنها با به کارگیري این دو و اتصال آنها به رایانه و خط تلفن میتوانند به سادگی به ارتباط پرسرعت با اینترنت دسترسی یابند. نصب و راهاندازي این فناوري به سهولت انجام میشود و پس از به کارگیري آن نیازي به 6

7 شمارهگیري براي اتصال به اینترنت وجود ندارد و با روشن کردن دستگاه کامپیوتر به طور مستقیم اتصال به اینترنت نیز برقرار خواهد بود. در حال حاضر فناوري ADSL امکان دریافت دادهها را با سرعتی تا حد Mbps 8 و ارسال دادهها را با سرعتی تا حد 1 Mbpsفراهم میآورد که بیگمان با پیشرفت دانش و فناوري روز و با توجه به این که فناوري ADSL به سرعت در حال پیشرفت و فراگیر شدن است امکان افزایش این سرعتها نیز وجود دارد. گفتنیست استفاده از راهکار اینترنت پرسرعت( ADSL ) بستر بسیار مناسبی را براي استفاده از آخرین امکانات و فناوريهاي روز دنیا فراهم میسازد و کاربران به دلیل ارتباط پرسرعت و دایمی با اینترنت میتوانند از مجموعهي خدمات تکمیلی ADSL همچون امکان مشاهده فیلمها و برنامههاي تصویري درخواستی از طریق اینترنت و تلویزیون خانگی (Video Demand) on امکان استفاده از بازيهاي اینترنتی (Gaming) و... بهره گیرند. 7

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