DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF LAW INFORMATION PACKAGE

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1 DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF LAW INFORMATION PACKAGE March

2 CONTENTS 1. OVERVIEW- FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT TOURISTICAL VISITS TO TURKEY A. Do I need a visa to visit Turkey? B. Is it safe to travel in Turkey? C. When is the best time to travel in Turkey? D. What are the Average Air and Water Temperatures for Turkey's Major Cities? E. What are the most popular travel destinations in Turkey? F. What attractions does Turkey offer retared to religious history and issues of faith? I. Christianity II. Judaism III. Islam G. How can I travel in Turkey? I. By Plane II. By Bus III. By Train IV. Transportation From and To the Airport H. How can I travel to eastern or southeastern Turkey? I. How should visitors dress in Turkey? J. How can I arrange to hire a guide? K. Should I exchange money before I go to Turkey? L. Are any vaccinations required for tourists entering Turkey? M. Is it safe to drink tap water in Turkey? 2

3 N. What is a Turkish bath (Hamam)? O. What to buy in Turkey and where to buy it? P. Where can I find information on Festivals, Fairs and other Events in Turkey? 2. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT TURKEY A. An Outline of Turkish History from its Inception to 1923 B. Detailed History of the Independance War I. The First World War and the Mondros Cease-Fire Agreement II. Efforts to Disintegrate the empire III. Subversive Organizations IV. The National War V. Erzurum and Sivas Congresses VI. National Pact VII. The Turkish Grand National Assembly VIII. The First and Second Battles of Inönü IX. The Battle of the Commander-in-Chief X. Proclamation of the Republic and the Reforms C. From 1923 to the Present I. Overview II. Domestic and Foreign Policy During the Atatürk Period. III. The Đnönü Period and the Difficult Years During the War. IV. Transition to the Multiparty Period. V. The 27 May Movement and the Interim Period. VI. The Active 1960s and the AP Period. VII. The 12 March Period and the Transformation in the CHP. 3

4 VIII. The Ecevit Administrations and the Nationalist Front Periods. IX. The 12 September Regime ( ). X. The First and Second Özal Governments. XI. The Gulf Crisis. 3. THE JUDICIARY IN TURKEY XII. The Transformation in the ANAP and the Period of Coalitions. A. The Court System B. Developments in the Legal Field C. The Constitutional Court D. The Courts of Justice and the Court of Appeals E. The Administrative Courts and the Council of State F. Military Courts and the Military Court of Appeals G. The Supreme Military Administrative Court H. Court of Jurisdictional Disputes I. The Court of Accounts J. The Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors K. The Judicial System in Turkey 4. ĐZMĐR IN BRIEF 5. BEAUTIFUL ĐZMĐR - IN DETAIL A. What's the weather like? B. History C. Historical Sites D. Sightseeing Places E. Beaches of Izmir, Wind Surfing and Diving Facilities F. Alternative Tourism in Izmir G. Hotels H. Universities 4

5 I. Festivals in Izmir J. Izmir International Fair K. Consulates and Honorary Consulates 6. GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING THE UNIVERSITY A. MISSION B. HISTORY C. TOP MANAGEMENT D. COMMUNICATION E. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OFFICE F. FURTHER INFO FOR INCOMING STUDENTS 7. DEÜ FACULTY OF LAW A) General Info B) Services Available at the Campus C) Location D) Communication E) HEAD ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANS OF THE FACULTY F) ACADEMIC YEAR ECTS SCHEDULE G) EXAM AND GRADING SYSTEM H) CONTENTS OF THE LECTURES 5

6 1. OVERVIEW- Frequently Asked Questions About Touristical Visits to Turkey 1 A. Do I need a visa to visit Turkey? B. Is it safe to travel in Turkey? C. When is the best time to travel in Turkey? D. What are the Average Air and Water Temperatures for Turkey's Major Cities? E. What are the most popular travel destinations in Turkey? F. What attractions does Turkey offer retared to religious history and issues of faith? I. Christianity II. Judaism III. Islam G. How can I travel in Turkey? I. By Plane II. By Bus III. By Train IV. Transportation From and To the Airport H. How can I travel to eastern or southeastern Turkey? I. How should visitors dress in Turkey? J. How can I arrange to hire a guide? K. Should I exchange money before I go to Turkey? L. Are any vaccinations required for tourists entering Turkey? M. Is it safe to drink tap water in Turkey? N. What is a Turkish bath (Hamam)? O. What to buy in Turkey and where to buy it? P. Where can I find information on Festivals, Fairs and other Events in Turkey? A. Do I need a visa to visit Turkey? Visa Requirements All foreign students who study at Turkish universities are required to get an educational visa which is issued by the Turkish Embassy in their home country. The acceptance letter, which is required to get the educational visa, is provided by the Faculty. The students should apply for the educational visa with the following: Passport Application form taken from Turkish Embassy. 1 6

7 1 photograph. Proof of their student status in their home country (taken from the school they are currently enrolled) The acceptance letter from the Faculty (sent directly to the Embassy) Turkish missions abroad are listed at Residence Permit Foreigners who live in Turkey longer than 3 months have to get a residence permit from the Security Department. Students apply for the residence permit after they come to Turkey. They need four coloured photographs, their passports and the application form. They also need to get a legal document showing their address in Turkey (taken from the local administrative officer) B. Is it safe to travel in Turkey? Turkey is one of the safest countries in the world in which to travel, and its crime rate is low in comparison to many Western European countries. Interpol ranked Turkey as the safest holiday destination in Europe for travelers. Naturally, we recommend that travelers to Turkey exercise the same precautions they would elsewhere, and be aware of security concerns that affect all international travelers. The Turkish Government takes air safety very seriously, and maintains strict oversight, particularly on international flights. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has places Turkey's civil aviation authority in Category 1-in full compliance with international aviation safety standards in overseeing Turkey's air carrier operations. In the days following the September 11 attacks, Turkish Airlines was one of the first international airlines cleared by the FAA to fly into the United States. C. When is the best time to travel in Turkey? The high season for travel in Turkey generally runs between mid-april and late-october. During the off-season, temperatures are much cooler and snow is possible in mountainous areas. Many visitors enjoy the spring and fall, with their mild weather and small crowds. Coastal regions are particularly popular with tourists during the summer. These include resort areas along the Aegean and Mediterranean coast with beaches and yachting facilities. The coastline, especially between Izmir and Antalya, features numerous coves and bays and many nearby ancient cities and is perfect for yachting. A large number of international-quality marinas provide services for the yachtsman. For active travelers, swimming, fishing, waterskiing, surfing and diving are available. Turkey also enjoys many spectacular rivers. They are ideal for canoeing, skiing and rafting. Mountaineering is also popular in mountain ranges throughout Turkey in spring and summer. 7

8 The high plateaus of the Eastern Black Sea Region are covered by colorful flowers and green pasture during spring and summer. Naturalists will enjoy the diversity of fauna and flora as well as the heart-stopping splendor of the surrounding landscape. Central and Eastern Turkey can receive large accumulations of snow, and snow skiing is a favorite winter pastime. Turkey has several ski centers, which are generally open from December through April depending on snow conditions. D. What are the Average Air and Water Temperatures for Turkey's major cities? Temperatures are given in oc (degrees Celsius) in Turkey, which can be converted to of (degrees Fahrenheit) with the formula: of = (9/5)oC + 32 Average Air and Water Temperatures For Major Cities in Of Antalya Izmir Istanbul Trabzon Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Air Water Air Water Air Water Air Water Ankara Air Erzurum Air Diyarbakir Air The web site of the General Directorate of the Turkish State Meteorological Service, gives current sea and air temperatures, humidity and 3-day weather forecasts for all cities in Turkey and for the holiday resorts of Alanya, Anamur, Bodrum, Dalaman, Finike and Marmaris. E. What are the most popular travel destinations in Turkey? From the perfect beaches and ancient ruins of its coast to the pulse of its cosmopolitan cities, Turkey is a study in contrasts. Visitors can lose themselves in the magic of a historic palace before enjoying a world-class meal, or swim amidst Roman ruins before continuing their journey in the comfort of a state-of-the-art yacht. Whatever your fancy, there are countless things to see and do in Turkey. Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey, serves as the gateway for most travelers. Istanbul is the only city in the world that sits on two continents and it offers an abundance of fascinating attractions for visitors. Some of Istanbul's most popular sites include the Bosphorus Strait, the Blue Mosque, Haghia 8

9 Sophia, Topkapi Palace, Dolmabahce Palace, the Kariye Museum, the Underground Cistern, Galata Tower, the Tower of Leander, the Princes' Islands and the Grand Bazaar. From Canakkale Bogazi, also known as the Dardanelles, to the fairytale Crusader castle and sunny beaches of Bodrum, the Aegean shores of Turkey are among the loveliest landscapes in Turkey. The highlights of an Aegean tour are Troy, the site of the legendary Trojan War and its wooden horse; ancient Pergamon, once a great center of culture and now one of Turkey's finest archeological sites; Ephesus, the capital of Roman Asia Minor, dedicated to the goddess Artemis whose temple was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; Aphrodisias, the center of the greatest school of sculpture in antiquity; Pamukkale, a unique fairyland of dazzlingly white calcified castles; and Bodrum, a charming coastal town with a long, palmlined waterfront and beautiful beaches. Antalya province on the Mediterranean coast is Turkey's principal holiday region. It is a paradise for sunbathing, swimming and sports. Best of all, Antalya serves as a convenient hub for nearby archeological attractions. Ancient theatres can be found in a remarkable state of preservation at Aspendos and Perge and visitors can tour the sunken city of Simena in Kekova. Remains of ancient Lycian cities such as Patara, Letoon, Xanthos, Myra and Apollonia are also within easy traveling distance. These are among the most fascinating sites on the Anatolian Peninsula. Cappadocia in Central Anatolia is one of the most fantastic landscapes in the world and one of the most popular tourist destinations in Turkey. The area's early Christian inhabitants utilized its remarkable rock formations to create more than 220 churches and numerous underground cities in which they took refuge from their persecutors. Other popular destinations include Safranbolu in the Black Sea Region, an open-air museum of traditional Turkish houses; Mount Nemrut in southeastern Turkey, where enormous stone statues of deities commemorate the first century BC Commagene Kingdom. Konya in Central Anatolia was home to the great Islamic philosopher Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi who in the 13th century founded the Mevlevi Order known as the Whirling Dervishes. Each year in early December, the white-robed Mevlevi commemorate the death of Mevlana with their trancelike turning dance or sema - an amazing sight to behold. F. What attractions does Turkey offer related to religious history and issues of faith? History has been incredibly generous to Turkey, which has been vital in the history of the three major Western religions -- Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Turkey is one of a few countries where all three religions have co-existed peacefully for centuries. There are a many important sites in Turkey of interest to people of all faiths. I.Christianity More and more people are discovering the important role Turkey played in the history of Christianity. Travelers can discover many magnificent churches, some nearly as old as Christianity itself, and can retrace the footsteps of Saints Peter and Paul from the Biblical city of Antioch to the underground churches of Cappadocia. Many of the most important events in Christian history occurred in Turkey. Born in Tarsus, the Apostle Paul spread the word of Jesus Christ across Anatolia, expanding Christianity's reach from a predominantly Jewish base to Gentile communities. 9

10 Not far from Tarsus on Turkey's Eastern Mediterranean coast is Antakya, known in biblical times as Antioch. This ancient city was founded around 300 B.C. and was home to the first important Christian community, founded in 42 AD by St. Paul. Jesus' followers were first called "Christians" in Antioch and from here Christianity spread to the world. St. Paul departed from Antioch on his three missionary journeys. The city holds the Church of St. Peter, a cave-church where the apostles Peter and Paul are believed to have preached. In 1963, the Vatican designated the site a place of pilgrimage and recognized it as the world's first cathedral. The "Seven Churches of Asia Minor," a series of communities located near the Aegean coast, is where St. Paul visited, preached and built the early church. Their ancient names - Ephesus (Efes), Smyrna (Izmir), Thyatira (Akhisar), Sardis (Sart), Philadelphia (Alasehir), Laodicea (Eskihisar) and Pergamon (Bergama) are familiar from the New Testament's Book of Revelation. Ephesus, perhaps the most prominent of the Seven Churches, is where St. Paul wrote his letters to the Ephesians, and where St. John the Evangelist brought the Virgin Mary to spend her last years. The Vatican recognizes the Virgin Mary's house, located in the hills near Ephesus, as a shrine. Just outside Ephesus, in Selcuk, is the Basilica of St. John where he preached and is believed to be buried. Many other regions in Turkey offer a wealth of attractions to the Christian traveler. St. Nicholas was born and lived in Demre on the Mediterranean coast. A church dedicated to the original Santa Claus still stands. Visitors to the biblical area of Cappadocia, located in Central Anatolia, can explore more than 200 carved rock churches beautifully decorated with frescoes depicting early Christian motifs, and a seven-story underground city where Christians took refuge from their persecutors. The stunning Monastery of the Virgin Mary located near the Black Sea in Trabzon is a wellknown monastic center dating to the 4th century. Built on the edge of a l200 foot cliff and accessible only by foot, it housed some of the Orthodox Church's greatest thinkers. Istanbul became the center of Christianity in 330 AD and it was here that the largest church in Christendom at the time, Haghia Sophia or the Church of the Divine Wisdom, was dedicated by Emperor Justinian in 536 AD. The Kariye Museum, a Greek Orthodox Church from the 11th and 14th centuries, is famous for its incomparable Byzantine frescoes and mosaics. II.Judaism Judaism has had a continuous presence in Turkey since ancient times. Signs written in Hebrew and menorahs carved into stone at historical sites such as Ephesus, Kusadasi, Priene, Hieropolis, and Pamukkale attest to long history of Jews in Turkey. In Sardis, near Izmir, the remains of the largest ancient synagogue in existence date to the 3rd century AD. Its frescoes and mosaics suggest a large, well-established and successful Jewish community in Sardis. According to the legend of the great flood, Noah's Ark ran aground at Mount Agri (Ararat). When the floodwaters receded, Noah and his family descended from the mountain to the fertile Igdir Plain and repopulated the world. Jewish Patriarchs Abraham and Job also made their mark in eastern Turkey. Sanli Urfa in southeastern Turkey is known as the city of Prophets. A cave there is said to be the birthplace 10

11 of the prophet Abraham. It has become a place of pilgrimage and is now surrounded by the Halil Rahman Mosque. The Prophet Job, who was famed for his patience, is believed to have spent seven years recovering from illness inside another cave located in the district of Eyyübiye two kilometers south of Sanli Urfa. Jews have enjoyed tolerance and peace in Turkey for centuries. After the Jewish communities in Spain and Portugal were exiled in 1492 during the Inquisition, Sultan Beyazit II welcomed them to the Ottoman Empire. As a result, many Jewish communities still thrive in modern Turkey. Istanbul is of particular significance to Jewish visitors. In the city's old Jewish Quarter is the 19th century Neve Shalom Synagogue, the Zulfaris Jewish Museum and nearby, the 15th century Ahrida Synagogue. The first Jewish printing press began operating in Istanbul in 1493 and Jewish literature and music flourished during this period. In Bursa, a short drive south of Istanbul, visitors will find the Gerus Synagogue, built at the end of the 15th century by the first Jews who settled in the city after being expelled from Spain. The name of the synagogue in Hebrew means, "Expelled". Izmir, located on the Aegean coast, has several synagogues, including Beth Israel Synagogue; Bikour Holim Synagogue, named in memory of an epidemic when city hospitals were so full that synagogues were used to house the sick, and Giveret Synagogue, rebuilt after an 1841 fire. III.Islam Visitors to Turkey are often touched by the call to prayer from lofty minarets. The call is heard five times a day, inviting the faithful to face towards Mecca and pray from the Koran. Although Turkey is a secular democracy which guarantees freedom of religion for all people, Islam is the country's predominant religion. People of all faiths may visit Turkey's mosques. Islam's roots in Turkey date to the 10th Century. In the ensuing centuries Seljuk and Ottoman Turks constructed impressive mosques with elegant interior decorations and imposing domes and minarets. Virtually every Turkish city has a mosque of historical or architectural significance. Sultanahmet Mosque in Istanbul stands as perhaps the most impressive. Built between 1609 and 1616 in the classic Ottoman style, the building is more familiarly known as the Blue Mosque because of its magnificent interior paneling of blue and white Iznik tiles. The Suleymaniye Mosque is the largest in Istanbul. It was built between 1550 and 1557by Suleyman the Magnificent, the greatest sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Other cities also have impressive Islamic architecture. The Ulu Cami (Grand Mosque) with its 20 domes and Yesil Cami (Green Mosque) in Bursa, was constructed between 1419 and The mosque derives its name from the exquisite green and turquoise tiles in its interior. Haci Bayram Mosque in Ankara was built in the early 15th century in the Seljuk style and was subsequently restored by the master Ottoman architect Sinan in the 16th century. Selimiye Mosque in Edirne reflects the classical Ottoman style and Sinan's lasting genius. Konya ranks as one of the great cultural centers of Turkey. As the capital of the Seljuk Turks from the 12th to the 13th centuries Konya was a center of cultural, political and religious growth. During this period, the mystic Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi founded a Sufi Order known in the West as the Whirling Dervishes. Mevlana's striking green-tiled mausoleum is Konya's most famous attraction. Attached to the mausoleum, the former dervish seminary now serves 11

12 as a museum housing manuscripts of Mevlana's works and various artifacts related to the mystic sect. G. How can I travel in Turkey? I.ByPlane Virtually every major city in Turkey has air service and Turkish Airlines offers nationwide services. Most flights connect through Istanbul or Ankara, both of which have domestic and international terminals. You can check Turkish Airlines' schedules and book flights at or call them toll-free in the U.S. at II.ByBus Busses are an efficient and affordable way to travel in Turkey. Private bus companies provide frequent day and night services between all Turkish cities. Local Tourism Information Offices usually have bus schedules for their regions; their addresses can be found at by clicking on "Tourism Information." The major bus lines have spacious, comfortable coaches, and offer coffee, tea and snacks. The two largest bus companies' web sites, and provide routes, schedules, ticket prices, and office addresses. III.ByTrain The extensive Turkish State Railways network connects most major cities. On some trains, sleeping compartments are available. Detailed train schedules and prices as well as reservation telephone numbers and authorized ticket agents are listed on their web site at Transportation From and To the Airport Havas airport busses are a convenient and affordable alternative to taxis for transportation from airports to downtown areas or from downtown areas to airports in Turkey. You can find detailed information about the schedules at H. How can I travel to eastern or southeastern Turkey? Several specialized tour operators offer organized tours to Eastern and Southeastern Turkey. A list of these tour operators can be obtained from the Washington, D.C. Turkish Government Tourism Office. It is also possible to rent a car in Turkey and drive to these areas. However, during winter some parts of Eastern Anatolia can be quite cold and snowy. Roads are not always passable. Therefore, it is generally recommended that visitors travel to these regions as part of an organized tour during the summer. I. How should visitors dress in Turkey? Casual wear is appropriate for most tour excursions. Women wear pants or skirts, but when visiting mosques it is recommended that they cover their heads with a scarf and both sexes should not wear shorts out of respects for religious customs. J. How can I hire a guide? Guides can be pre-arranged prior to departure through any of the Turkey tour specialists, or can easily be hired upon arrival in Turkey. Most hotels offer concierge services, which can 12

13 provide reliable guides to their guests for an affordable fee. The advantage of hiring a guide through your hotel is that the guide will usually have a long history of working successfully with the hotel and its previous guests. However, visitors may also go to any local travel agency in Turkey and make arrangements on the spot. K. Should I exchange money before I go to Turkey? The highly favorable exchange rate makes travel to Turkey extremely affordable. Most banks in the U.S. do not have Turkish Lira. However, Turkish currency is easily obtainable upon arrival in Turkey at any exchange office or bank. Daily exchange rates can be obtained from the Turkish Central Bank web site at This site is in both Turkish and English, and gives links to all Turkish Banks. Turkish daily newspapers also publish daily exchange rates. There are ATM machines throughout Turkey, particularly in larger cities and tourist centers. Credit cards are accepted by hotels and most merchants. L. Are any vaccinations required for tourists entering Turkey? There are no vaccination requirements for any international traveler. The World Health Organization web site, provides vaccination certificate requirements by country, geographic distributions of potential health hazards to travelers and information on health risks and their avoidance (click on "Travelers' Health"). M. Is it safe to drink tap water in Turkey? Turkey practices safe sanitation standards, and tap water is suitable for bathing and regular tasks such as brushing teeth. However, as is customary in most Mediterranean countries, the majority of locals and visitors drink bottled water. We recommend that visitors follow local custom and drink bottled water, which is routinely served with any meal. N. What is a Turkish bath (Hamam)? Communal baths were used in Roman and Byzantine times, but as the name "Turkish Bath" suggests, they played a significant role in Ottoman culture. At a time when the concept of cleanliness was not yet accepted in Europe, the Turks were very fastidious due to Islam's emphasis on cleanliness. Countless baths were built in the typical Ottoman architectural style throughout the empire. Unfortunately, few have survived to the present. Cagaloglu Hamami and Cemberlitas Hamami, both in Istanbul, are very popular with tourists. A classic bath usually has three sections: changing rooms, a hot room and a cold room. After entering the hamam and exchanging one's clothes for a "pestamal" or towel, you then proceed to the "gobek tasi", a large heated stone where you perspire and are rubbed down by a bath attendant. If the heat proves too much, you can retire to a cooler room. This method of bathing is the most refreshing. O. What to buy in Turkey and where to buy it? 13

14 Shopping is one of the great pleasures of a trip to Turkey and the rich variety of Turkish crafts makes it impossible to resist buying something. Fine apparel of silk, cotton, leather and wool; artful jewelry; leather accessories; brilliant faience (colored tiles); vessels of copper, brass, marble, meerschaum and alabaster worked by master artisans; and of course heirloom-quality Turkish carpets and kilims, are among the most popular purchases. Great value and an enjoyable shopping experience can be found everywhere, from small towns to big cities. Visit the "What to buy" section at to discover shopping opportunities in each province. Unique regional handicrafts make shopping that much more enjoyable. Traditional Turkish handicrafts crafts including carpets, ceramics and pottery, tiles, copper items, woodcarvings, decorative glass, and embroidery are a major component of Turkish culture. They are a stunning reflection of Turkey's diverse cultural heritage and thousands of years of history. For more information on Turkish handicrafts visit (click on Culture, then Handicrafts). The Turkish Ministry of Culture's Revolving Capital Administration (DOSIM) promotes production of Anatolian handcrafts. DOSIM markets those products through its 13 Cultural Products Sales Centers located throughout the country. Please visit and click on "DOSIM Shopping" to find out more about DOSIM and the locations of their Sales Centers. The Touring and Automobile Club of Turkey (TURING) has restored the old Cedid Mehmet Efendi Medresesi in Sultanahmet and now operates it as the Istanbul Handicrafts Center. The center's aim is to revive dying crafts and show visitors how these arts and crafts were performed. Each of its rooms is devoted to a traditional Turkish craft, such as producing marbled paper, calligraphy, painting miniatures, making lace, pinking and embroidering. There is also traditional bookbinding, and a glass and porcelain atelier. For more information, visit their web site at (click on "Cultural Institutions" then "Istanbul Handicraft Center"). The Grand Bazaar, or "Kapalicarsi," in Istanbul is a unique combination of fantastic merchandise and a memorable shopping experience. The Grand Bazaar is a maze of some 4,000 shops, selling treasures of every type. Still the commercial center of the old city, the Grand Bazaar's 80 roads and streets form the original shopping mall. For more information, visit where you can find a map of the Grand Bazaar and a list of shops. P. Where can I find information on Festivals, Fairs and other Events in Turkey? There are more than 100 festivals in Turkey every year. In addition to the local festivals organized in almost every city of the country, international culture and art festivals are held in major cities including Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir and Antalya. Istanbul is the most important center in Turkey of international culture and art festivals. Information on the principle Turkish international art and culture festivals and other important events can be found at (click on Travel and Tourism -Calender and Weather section) The Istanbul Culture and Art Foundation's web site, gives detailed information on their festivals in Istanbul. 14

15 In recent years, Turkey has been very popular with the congress tourism market, and Turkey hosts more congresses, fairs and conventions every year. With over 50 airlines flying to Turkey and most major European cities just a two or three hour flight away, Istanbul has become the venue of choice for many conventions and exhibitions. Istanbul offers the 5,000- person capacity Istanbul Convention & Exhibition Center (ICEC), two fair and exhibition halls, the International Exhibition Center (CNR) and the Fair and Congress Center (TUYAP), and numerous five star hotels with convention facilities. Istanbul can host 25,000 conference and exhibition delegates and visitors at any one time. For more information on ICEC, CNR, TUYAP and for a calendar of fairs and exhibitions at these centers, visit their web sites: and A list and a calendar of all fairs throughout Turkey can be found at (the calendar of fairs is in Turkish). 2. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT TURKEY 2 A. An Outline of Turkish History from its Inception to 1923 Throughout history the Turks have established numerous states in different geographical areas on the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa. Therefore, they encountered different cultures, they influenced these cultures and were influenced by them. The Chinese records reported that the first appearance of the Turks in history was in the Kö men Mountains, where the most ancient remains were found. The culture referred to as Tagar, featuring remains found on the Tagar Island at the Yenisei River on the northern foot of the Köðmen Mountains and dating back to the seventh century B.C., is attributed to the ancient Turks. The Tagar Culture, however, originated from another ancient culture called the Karasuk which flourished on the same shores, which dates back to two thousand B.C. Portrait head of Kul Tegin, Göktürk Khan, Museum at Ulaanbaatur, capital of Mongolia. It is accepted that Turkish political history in Asia starts with the Huns. The Hun State, which first appeared in the third century B.C., became a significant and powerful state during the reign of its founder, Mete Khan, and passed through fundamental changes, economically and socially, due to her relations with China. Having a defined and certain strategy, Mete first of all defeated the Mongolians and then the Yuechis, and thereafter, having taken the western gates and trade routes of China under his control, he gained significant economic power. This systematic expansion policy resulted in the seizure of Eastern Turkestan, the wheat and provisions granary, by the Huns. After the collapse of the Asian Hun State, a new state called the Göktürk was founded by the Turkish tribes who adopted the traditions and administrative experiences of the Huns. The Göktürk State ( ) is the second great state established by the Turks. Unlike the Huns, the Göktürks attached particular 2 15

16 importance to urbanization, realized agricultural reforms and seed improvement and "sagacity" was the foremost concept. Bilge Khan and Kultegin took their place in history as the wisest and most heroic figures among Turkish statesmen. They asserted that the state could not be ruled only by fighting and bravery and the Khanate should also require wisdom. It was because of this that both the Khans and Tonyukuk, another Göktürk Khan, immortalized their accomplishments with inscriptions. These inscriptions are the first written texts of the Turkish language. The Göktürk State collapsed after struggles with the Chinese, on the one hand, and with the Turkish tribes within the state, such as the Dokuz O uzlar, Karluks and Basm ls, on the other hand. The Uigur Turks, who were the native tribes of the Orhun and Selenge valleys, founded the third great Turkish state. The Uigur State ( ) attached importance to trade and continued the traditions and customs of the Göktürks. The trade developed and the Manichean temples were turned into bazaar temples in time due to the influence of Manicheism, the official religion. The warlike aspects of the Uigurs gradually grew weaker in time as they developed culturally and commercially. The Kyrgyz Turks living to the northwest, took advantage of this situation and planned a surprise attack on the Uigur capital city, which resulted in a war and at the end the Uigur state collapsed. The Western Turks. A group of Huns who migrated towards the West first settled in a region to the north of the Black Sea extending to the Danube River. First the Huns made raids on Iran and Anatolia via the Caucasia, and then they attacked the territories of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires. They fought with the Franks in 428, and two years later, reached the areas which are presently the Netherlands and Denmark. The Western Huns, who were known as the first Turkish state founded in Europe, became a great state with territories extending from the banks of the Rhine to the Volga River, under the leadership of Attila the Hun. This state played an important role in transmitting Eastern civilization to the West, and organized campaigns to Italy, the Balkans and Gaul in the reign of Attila. The Western Hun State collapsed a short time after Attila passed away (470). During the collapse of the Hun Empire in Europe, a new wave of tribal migrations started in Central Asia. The north of the Black Sea was confronted with a new wave of Turkish migration. The first tribes to arrive were the Sabirs, Sarogurs and Onogurs. These Ogur tribes, who settled to the north of the Caucasus, raided the Byzantine territories from Macedonia to Thessaly. It is known that the Bulgarian Turks also came to this region along side the Ogur Turks. Byzantine sources refer to the name "Bulgarian" for the first time in 482. In fact, the Avars, with the Bulgarian Turks under their sovereignty, sieged the Byzantine capital at the beginning of the seventh century. The Avars, who left their homeland in Central Asia and who escaped towards the West when the Göktürk State was founded in 552, had an important place in the history of Europe. They first came to Caucasia and the north of the Black Sea, made an agreement with the Byzantines and fought against, and defeated, Turkish tribes such as the Sabirs and Onogurs on behalf of the Byzantines. They expanded to the banks of the Danube River, over the lands of the Ants, a Slavic tribe. From time to time, they made raids throughout the Balkans and even as far as the Peloponnese in Greece. They sieged Istanbul in 626 together with the Bulgarian Turks. The borders of the Avar Empire extended from the Dnieper to the Elbe River and from the North Sea to the Adriatic Sea during the reign of their famous ruler Bayan Khan. The Avar Empire collapsed between due to the concurrent 16

17 attacks of Kurum Khan, the leader of the Bulgarian Turks and Charlemagne (Charles the Great). Present excavations and research in Hungary and Central Europe reveal that the Avars had an exemplary organization within the state and the army and attained a high level of civilization. During the period of disintegration of the Sabir State in the east of Europe, a new Turkish state called the Khazars came into existence. The Khazars, who were considered to be the continuation of the Western Göktürks, took over their military and civilian organizations. This state, which ruled for over 300 years bears the name of "Turk" in Arabian, Syrian and Byzantine sources. The Khazars acted as an allied force of the Byzantines in the war between Byzantium and Iran. It is observed that the Arabs who occupied Azerbaijan around the beginning of the eighth century, also raided Khazar territories and occupied their capital city Belencer (in Dagestan). The war between the Khazars and the Caliphate continued for almost 25 years. The Khazar armies once again went to the south of the Caucasus from 762 AD and occupied all of Azerbaijan and Armenia, and Ras Tarhan, the Khazar commander advanced up to Georgia. The Khazars were threatened afterwards by other Turkish tribes, and especially by the Russians. Their state collapsed towards the end of the tenth century due to their long lasting wars against the Pechenegs. Another Turkish tribe living in Eastern and Southeastern Europe and the Balkans was the Pechenegs. The Pechenegs, an Oghuz tribe, whose initial settlement around Balkhash Lake moved on to the nearby Aral Sea during the fight between the Göktürks and Uigurs. Then they moved further towards the West and fought against the Khazars. They occupied the Cuman plains and expelled the Hungarians ruling the lands between the Don and Dnieper Rivers towards the West. Giving assistance to the Russians in their fights with the Khazars, they played a role in the founding of this state. The Pechenegs, who ruled a territory extending from the Don River to the Danube River in the tenth century, made raids on Byzantine territories from the middle of the eleventh century. However, they were decisively defeated by the joint forces of the Cumans and Byzantines beside the Lower Maritsa River in Some of the separate Pecheneg groups who could not represent a political existence after this defeat were settled in the territories of the Byzantine Empire. Those who stayed in the Balkans and Hungary settled there and were assimilated. Turkish History in the Islamic Period. After the decline of the Uigur State, the Karahanid State was founded in 840 by the Turkish tribes such as the Karluks, Çiğils and Arguls. The reign of the Karahanids is considered to be a turning point in Turkish history, because Islam was accepted as the official religion during the reign of Satuk Buðra Khan, the Karahanid leader. Being the first Muslim Turkish state established in Central Asia, they laid the foundations of an historical development called Turkish-Islamic culture and civilization. The Karahanids, whose first city of governance was Kashgar and second was Balasagun to the north, was divided between two brothers in 1042: the Eastern Karahanids and the Western Karahanids. The Eastern Karahanid State survived until 1211 and then accepted the sovereignty of the Great Seljuk State. Islamic-Turkish literature was developed during the rule of the Karahanid State which was customarily governed by just, religious, and culture loving Khans and Kashgar and Balasagun became important cultural centers. At the time of the rule of the Karahanids, there was another Turkish state of which the capital city was Ghazna in Afghanistan. The most powerful period of the Ghaznavid State (936-17

18 1187) was the reign of Mahmud of Ghazna who used the title of "Sultan" for the first time. Sultan Mahmud, who organized many campaigns to India, took these places under Turkish rule, Islamized them and laid the foundation for today's State of Pakistan. The rulers succeeding Sultan Mahmud could not maintain this brilliant period. The Ghaznavids had to retreat to India after the Dandanakan War with the Seljuks in 1040 and finally came under the sovereignty of the Seljuks. Another great Turkish state was the Seljuk State ( ) founded by the Seljuk Bey who was a member of the Kınık tribe of the Oghuz Turks. The borders of the state covered an area from the Marmara Sea to the Balkhash Lake in Central Asia and from the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea to the borders of India and Yemen. Therefore, it was named the Great Seljuk State. At the time of Seljuk rule, there were also two other great and strong Turkish states, namely the Karahanids and Ghaznavids. The Seljuks entered into a struggle of hegemony with these two Turkish states and were successful in establishing Turkish unity. Togrul Bey, the Sultan of the Seljuks, entered Baghdad, the Abbasid Caliphate capital and ended the domination of the Buwayhids, a Persian Shiite dynasty, in Therefore, the Caliph bestowed on Togrul Bey the title of "Ruler of the World". During the reign of Sultan Alp Arslan, the successor of Togrul Bey, the territories of the country expanded significantly. The most significant events of this period were the clashes with the Byzantine Empire. Sultan Alp Arslan inflicted a crushing defeat on the Byzantine army under the leadership of Romanus Diogenes at Manzikert (Malazgirt) in This victory firmly established Turkish rule in Anatolia. During the reign of Sultan Malik Shah, one of the most powerful rulers of the Seljuks, the Seljuk State experienced her most successful period in the fields of military, science, politics and literature. Madrasahs (theological schools) were opened all over the country. The most important of these was the Nizamiye Madrasah constructed by the Vizier Nizam al-mülk which was the foundation for the architecture of the Western universities. Madrasah with Slim Minarets, one of the unique examples of the Seljuk Period, Konya After Sultan Malik Shah died, the country was divided into small states. The Syrian Seljuks ( ), Iraq and Khorasan Seljuks ( ), Kirman Seljuks ( ) and the Anatolian Seljuks ( ) were among the small states. During the disintegration period of the Great Seljuk State many small beylics and atabeylics were also established on the Anatolian territories of the state. These beylics played an important role in making Anatolia Turkish through the Turkish population they brought and also the architectural works they made. These beylics had a significant affect in the strengthening of the Anatolian Seljuk State which was established later in Anatolia. Moreover, the Khorezm Shah State ( ) was established by Mohammed Khorezm Shah, the son of Anushtegin, the palace servant of Sultan Malik Shah, on the territories of the Great Seljuk State. The Khorezm Shah State made significant progress in science and politics. The most important state established in the place of the Great Seljuk State is definitely the 18

19 Anatolian Seljuk State. Suleiman ibn Qutulmish who established himself at Nicaea (Đznik) in 1078 tried to expand Turkish rule in Anatolia and he managed to spread his rule all over Anatolia in a short period of time. During the reign of his son, Kılıç Arslan I, the First Crusade began, Đznik was seized by the Crusaders and given to the Byzantines. Kılıç Arslan I then established himself in the city of Konya and started a war of attrition against the invaders. However, he could not stop the Crusaders who were heading towards Syria. The efforts to unify Anatolia under Turkish rule were also continued during the reign of his successor, Sultan Mesud I. He repelled the Byzantine army headed for Konya and defeated the Crusaders near the Ceyhan River. Sultan Kılıç Arslan II, the successor of Mesud I, made the Byzantine intrigues against the Turks ineffective and inflicted a heavy defeat on the Byzantine army under the leadership of the Emperor Manuel Comnenus I, at Myriokephalon near Denizli (1176). Following this victory, the influence of the Byzantine Empire over Anatolia was completely lost. Thereafter, trade flourished and construction activities accelerated. Caravanserais were built on the roads and shipyards were constructed in Sinop and the Mediterranean, the madrasahs were opened and important developments were made in science. The most brilliant period of Turkish history was experienced during the reign of Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad I. However, the death of the Sultan by poisoning created chaos in the country. The religio-political rebellion of the Babais was followed by the Mongolian invasion and Anatolia was occupied by the Mongolians after the Kösedağ War between the Seljuks and Mongolians in Along with the weakening of the Mongolian rule towards the end of the thirteenth century, the Turkoman groups who were settled at the frontiers during the Seljuk period, founded many beylics (principalities) of varying sizes in Anatolia. The Karaman, Germiyan, Eşref, Hamid, Menteşe, Candar, Pervane, Sahib Ata, Karesi, Saruhan, Aydın, Đnanç and Osmanoğulları were among the Turkoman beylics founded in Anatolia in this period. In this period, which is called the Beylics Period, all of Anatolia came under Turkish rule and a new period of welfare began in the country which had been previously exposed to a great extent to Mongolian destruction. As a matter of fact, the Ottoman state was founded on these solid foundations. In Egypt, the army commander Đzzeddin Aybeg was declared the Sultan, after the death of es- Salih Necmeddin, the last Ayyubid ruler and thus the Turkish Kölemen (Mameluke) State ( ) was founded. The Mameluke State has an important place in Turkish history, because during the reign of Sultan Aybeg, the Mansure Victory was won which made the Seventh Crusade ineffective. During the reign of Seyfeddin Kotuz, the Mongolian-Armenian- Crusaders alliance which tried to invade Egypt suffered a heavy defeat and the Mongolians were not able to enter Syria. During the period of the later Sultans, the Christian hegemony in Syria would end and the territories extending to Kayseri in Anatolia would be taken under the rule of the Mameluke Sultanate. In addition, trade between the east and the west developed during this period. The Mameluke Sultans were bestowed the title of "Hadımü'l-Harameyn" (the Servant of Mecca and Medina), due to their services to Islam, and acquired a justified fame in the Islamic World. The Mameluke State was wiped out by the Ottoman State. One of the most important states of the fourteenth century was the Tamerlane State ( ). It was founded by Tamerlane, who was a provincial governor in one of the Çağatay khanates. The borders of the state extended from the Volga River to the Ganges River in India, and from the Tanrı Mountains to Đzmir and Damascus. Tamerlane, who had a violent character, caused great damage during his military expeditions. The state became an empire in a period of 35 years. It disintegrated just as rapidly as it was established after the death of Tamerlane. Muhammed, his grandson, founded a state in Samarkand. Pir Muhammed and Iskender, his other grandsons, founded a state in Iran. Miranshah, his son, founded states in 19

20 Baghdad and Azerbaijan. Shahruh, his younger son, founded a state in Khorasan. During the period of Shahruh, who tried to establish unity by enlarging the borders of his state, a brilliant cultural life was started. His son Ulug Bey ascended the throne as a well-known astronomer. Only Hüseyin Baykara from the Tamerlane dynasty could manage to hold out in Khorasan. Herat, the capital city, became one of the most significant cultural centers of Turkish history. Ali ½ir Nevai, the Turkish poet and statesman, was educated here. Herat was seized by the Uzbeks after the reign of Baykara and the Tamerlane dynasty disappeared. When the Tamerlane State was established, the Turkoman group of the Karakoyunlu, which settled between Irbil and Nakhichevan, founded a state, the center of which was Tabriz. This state formed by the Yıva, Yazır, Döğer and Avşar tribes of the Oghuz Turks was called the Karakoyunlu State ( ). The Karakoyunlu State fought with Tamerlane. Kara Yusuf, the ruler of the Karakoyunlu State, had to take refuge in the Ottoman state during the reign of Yıldırım Beyazid as a result of pressure by Tamerlane. This strained relations between the Ottomans and the Tamerlanes and was considered to be a reason for the Ankara War of Kara Yusuf, who managed to recover after this war, reestablished his state after 1406 and captured Mardin, Erzincan, Baghdad, Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Kazvin, and Sultaniye. After his death, the country was dragged into chaos. Although Cihan-shah managed to reunify the state, he was defeated by Akkoyunlu Uzun Hasan at Mardin and the country entered under the hegemony of the Akkoyunlu State. The Akkoyunlu State ( ) was founded by Turkoman tribes who settled around Diyarbakır. It emerged as a union under the leadership of Tur Ali Bey. The Akkoyunlu State fought against the Trabzon Greek Empire to the north in this period. The real founder of the state is known to be Kara Yülük Osman Bey. The most powerful period of the Akkoyunlu State was the reign of Uzun Hasan. During his reign the borders of the state extended from the Caspian Sea to Syria, and from Azerbaijan to Baghdad. For this reason, Uzun Hasan saw himself as the person who could establish the union of the Turks and identified himself with Tamerlane and made plans to abolish the Ottoman State and the Egyptian Sultanate. He established political relations with the European states, namely the Christian world, to obtain firearms to realize his goal. However, his defeat in the Otlukbeli Battle in 1473 by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet I was a heavy blow for Uzun Hasan. This defeat helped the collapse of the Akkoyunlu State and paved the way for the founding of the Safavid State ( ) by Shah Đsmail who managed to get the Turkoman groups of Ustaçlı, Rumlu, Musullu, Tekeli, Bayburtlu, Karadağlı, Dulkadırlı, Karamanlı, Varsak and Avşar on his side. At the time when Shah Đsmail established the Turkish political union in Iran, a great part of the Indian subcontinent was also united under Turkish rule. Meanwhile, the Ottoman State took almost all of Anatolia under its rule and also started to expand its Eastern and Western borders. Shah Đsmail, who founded a political union in Iran, expanded his territories. In his conquests the religious fervor of the Shiite sect played a role. However, his activities in Anatolia, and also his attempts to annex Anatolia, provoked the reaction of the Ottoman Sultan Selim I (Selim the Grim). Shah Đsmail's army was seriously defeated at the Battle of Çaldıran in Still, all his successors, especially Shah Tahmasp continued fighting against the Ottomans. However, they were defeated in almost all the battles they fought. When Nadir Shah of the Avşar tribe established his own dynasty following the reign of Abbas III, the Safavid period came to an end. The reign of the Safavids had an important place in history. Shah Đsmail and the other members of the dynasty were known for their love of art. In this period, literature, architecture 20

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