RFID Design Principles

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1 RFID Design Principles Harvey Lehpamer ARTECH HOUSE BOSTON LONDON artechhouse.com

2 Contents Introduction Comparison of Short-Range Communications Systems Radio-Frequency Spectrum and Propagation Radio-Frequency Propagation and Interference Basic Antenna Parameters Theory of Electromagnetism and Maxwell's Equations Range of a Radio Communications System Overview of Short-Range Communications Systems Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum Systems Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems Wireless LANs Basics of WLANs WLAN Components Wireless Personal Area Network Bluetooth " - ZigBee Wireless Body Area Networks About WBANs Inductive Coupling Theory VII

3 viii RFID Design Principles Medical Implant Communication Service and Wireless Medical Telemetry Service Bands Wireless Body Implant Networks Passive Wearable Electrostatic Tags Ultrawideband (UWB) Technology About UWB Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Automatic Identification Systems Barcodes Card Technologies Magnetic Cards Smart Cards Optical Cards Radio-Frequency Identification RFID Historical Background RFID System Overview Principles of RFID Operation The Electronic Product Code System UWB and RFID RFID and Biometrics Challenges of RFID Implementation Wireless Sensor Networks About Wireless Sensor Networks Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks Sensor Network Design Considerations The Future of RFID Sensing ^ RFID Applications Supply Chain Logistics Product Authentication Agriculture and Animals 8

4 Contents ix Intelligent Transportation Systems Document Management Pharmaceutical and Health Care Industry Indoor Localization for First Responders Passive Keyless Entry Military Applications Other RFID Applications RFID Standards Development Challenges Regional Regulations and Spectrum Allocations Key Players in RFID Standardization ISO and EPC Approaches RFID Systems and Frequencies Power Emissions Conversion North American and International Frequency Bands RFID Interoperability and Harmonization Advantages and Disadvantages of Using the 1.56-MHz Frequency Operation in the 900-MHz Band Operation in the and 5.8-GHz Bands ISO/IEC RFID Air Interface Standards UHF and EPCglobal Gen The EPC Class Structure UHF Gen UHF RFID Tag Example f Components of the RFID System Engineering Challenges Near- and Far-Field Propagation 14

5 RFID Design Principles Far-Field Propagation and Backscatter Principle Near-Field Propagation Systems Tags Tag Considerations Data Content of RFID Tags Passive Tags Active Tags Active Versus Passive Tags Multiple Tag Operation Overlapping Tags Tag Antennas UHF Tag Circuits Tag Manufacturing Process Readers Principles of Operation Reader Antenna Software-Defined Radios in RFID Systems Data Transfer Between a Tag and a Reader UHF Reader Electronic Circuitry RFID Power Sources Power Harvesting Systems Active Power Sources RFID System Design Considerations RFID System Key Considerations Configuration Design System Design Checklist Carrier Frequency and Bandwidth Frequency Band Selection Power and Range Link Budget Collision Avoidance

6 Contents xi Tag Reading Reliability RFID Reader-Tag Communication Channel Data Content and Encoding Modulation Data Encryption Testing and Conformance Test Equipment Frequency- and Bandwidth-Related Measurement Polling and Timing Measurements Collision Management Multivendor Interoperability Test Labs RFID Sociocultural Implications Market Trends and Usage Price Barriers to Adoption Globalization RFID Security and Privacy Aspects Access to Information Privacy Threats and Protection The Blocker Tag Reader Signal Energy Analysis Protecting the Public Fair Information Practices Health Risks from RFID y Ediical and Moral Dilemmas of Technology Other Developments in Auto-ID Systems RuBee Visible Light Tags RFID and Printable Electronics RFID and Mobile Phone Integration

7 xii RFID Design Principles Appendix 267 Glossary of Terms 269 About the Author 279 Index 281

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