COMPUTER NETWORKS SECOND EDITION. ANDREW S.fjANENBAUM. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Nachrichtentechnische Bib'iothek THD Inv.

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1 COMPUTER NETWORKS SECOND EDITION ANDREW S.fjANENBAUM Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands Nachrichtentechnische Bib'iothek THD Inv.-Ni,: tq(s ULB Darmstadt iiiiiir =3JE Prentice-Hall International, Inc.

2 INTRODUCTION 1.1 THE USES OF COMPUTER NETWORKS Network Goals Applications of Networks NETWORK STRUCTURE NETWORK ARCHITECTURES Protocol Hierarchies Design Issues for the Layers THE OSI REFERENCE MODEL The Physical Layer The Data Link Layer The Network Layer The Transport Layer The Session Layer The Presentation Layer The Application Layer Data Transmission in the OSI Model SERVICES OSI Terminology Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services Service Primitives The Relationship of Services to Protocols NETWORK STANDARDIZATION Who's Who in the Telecommunication World Who's Who in the Standards World Discussion of the Standardization of the OSI model EXAMPLE NETWORKS Public Networks The ARPANET MAP and TOP USENET CSNET BITNET SNA OUTLINE OF THE REST OF THE BOOK SUMMARY 48

3 THE PHYSICAL LAYER 2.1 THE THEORETICAL BASIS FOR DATA COMMUNICATION Fourier Analysis Bandwidth-Limited Signals The Maximum Data Rate of a Channel TRANSMISSION MEDIA Magnetic Media Twisted Pair Baseband Coaxial Cable Broadband Coaxial Cable Fiber Optics Line-of-Sight Transmission Communication Satellites ANALOG TRANSMISSION The Telephone System Modems RS-232-C and RS DIGITAL TRANSMISSION Pulse Code Modulation Encoding Systems The X.21 Digital Interface TRANSMISSION AND SWITCHING Frequency Division and Time Division Multiplexing Circuit Switching Packet Switching Hybrid Switching ISDN INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK ISDN Services Evolution of ISDN ISDN System Architecture The Digital PBX The ISDN Interface ISDN Signaling SS # Perspective on ISDN TERMINAL HANDLING Polling Multiplexing versus Concentration SUMMARY 113

4 vii 3 THE MEDIUM ACCESS SUBLAYER LOCAL AND METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS Static Channel Allocation in LANs and MANs Dynamic Channel Allocation in LANs and MANs THE ALOHA PROTOCOLS Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA Finite Population ALOHA LOCAL AREA NETWORK PROTOCOLS Persistent and Nonpersistent CSMA CSMA with Collision Detection Collision-Free Protocols BRAP Broadcast Recognition with Alternating Priorities MLMA The Multi-Level Multi-Access Protocol Binary Countdown Limited-Contention Protocols The Adaptive Tree Walk Protocol The Urn Protocol IEEE STANDARD 802 FOR LOCAL AREA NETWORKS IEEE Standard and Ethernet IEEE Standard 802.4: Token Bus IEEE Standard 802.5: Token Ring Comparison of Local Area Networks FIBER OPTIC NETWORKS FDDI Fibernet II S/NET FASNET AND EXPRESSNET DATAKIT SATELLITE NETWORKS SPADE ALOHA Revisited Reservation ALOHA PACKET RADIO NETWORKS The University of Hawaii ALOHA System Design Issues for Packet Radio Networks EXAMPLES OF THE MAC SUBLAYER The MAC Sublayer in Public Networks The MAC Sublayer in the ARPANET The MAC Sublayer in MAP and TOP The MAC Sublayer in USENET SUMMARY 190

5 THE DATA LINK LAYER 4.1 DATA LINK LAYER DESIGN ISSUES Services Provided to the Network Layer Framing Error Control Flow Control Link management ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION Error-Correcting Codes Error-Detecting Codes ELEMENTARY DATA LINK PROTOCOLS An Unrestricted Simplex Protocol A Simplex Stop-and-Wait Protocol A Simplex Protocol for a Noisy Channel SLIDING WINDOW PROTOCOLS A One Bit Sliding Window Protocol A Protocol Using Go Back n A Protocol Using Selective Repeat PROTOCOL PERFORMANCE Performance of the Stop-and-Wait Protocol Performance of the Sliding Window Protocol PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION AND VERIFICATION Finite State Machine Models The Estelle Protocol Specification Language Petri Net Models EXAMPLES OF THE DATA LINK LAYER The Data Link Layer in Public Networks The Data Link Layer in the ARPANET The Data Link Layer in MAP and TOP The Data Link Layer in USENET SUMMARY 267 THE NETWORK LAYER 5.1 NETWORK LAYER DESIGN ISSUES Services Provided to the Transport Layer Internal Organization of the Network Layer Routing Congestion Internetworking 288

6 ix 5.2 ROUTING ALGORITHMS Shortest Path Routing Multipath Routing Centralized Routing Isolated Routing Hooding Distributed Routing Optimal Routing Flow-Based Routing Hierarchical Routing Broadcast Routing CONGESTION CONTROL ALGORITHMS Preallocation of Buffers Packet Discarding Isarithmic Congestion Control Flow Control Choke Packets Deadlocks 315 N 5.4 INTERNETWORKING OSI and Internetworking Bridges Gateways Comparison of Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Gateways Bridge and Gateway Software EXAMPLES OF THE NETWORK LAYER The Network Layer in Public Networks The Network Layer in the ARPANET (IP) The Network Layer in MAP and TOP The Network Layer in USENET SUMMARY THE TRANSPORT LAYER TRANSPORT LAYER DESIGN ISSUES Services Provided to the Session Layer Quality of Service The OSI Transport Service Primitives Transport Protocols Elements of Transport Protocols 384

7 6.2 CONNECTION MANAGEMENT Addressing Establishing a Connection Releasing a Connection Timer-Based Connection Management Flow Control and Buffering Multiplexing Crash Recovery A SIMPLE TRANSPORT PROTOCOL ON TOP OF X The Example Service Primitives The Example Transport Entity The Example as a Finite State Machine EXAMPLES OF THE TRANSPORT LAYER The Transport Layer in Public Networks The Transport Layer in the ARPANET (TCP) The Transport Layer in MAP and TOP The Transport Layer in USENET SUMMARY 436 THE SESSION LAYER 7.1 SESSION LAYER DESIGN ISSUES Services Provided to the Presentation Layer Data Exchange Dialog Management Synchronization Activity Management Exception Reporting The OSI Session Service Primitives REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL The Client-Server Model Implementation of Remote Procedure Call Semantics of Remote Procedure Call Orphans Discussion of RPC EXAMPLES OF THE SESSION LAYER The Session Layer in Public Networks The Session Layer in the ARPANET The Session Layer in MAP and TOP The Session Layer in USENET SUMMARY 469

8 8 THE PRESENTATION LAYER CONTENTS xi PRESENTATION LAYER DESIGN ISSUES Data Representation Data Compression Network Security and Privacy The OSI Presentation Service Primitives ABSTRACT SYNTAX NOTATION 1 (ASN.l) Data Structures Abstract Syntax Transfer Syntax DATA COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES Encoding a Finite Set of Equally Likely Symbols Frequency Dependent Coding Context Dependent Encoding CRYPTOGRAPHY Traditional Cryptography The Data Encryption Standard The Key Distribution Problem Public Key Cryptography Authentication and Digital Signatures EXAMPLES OF THE PRESENTATION LAYER The Presentation Layer in Public Networks The Presentation Layer in the ARPANET The Presentation Layer in MAP and TOP The Presentation Layer in USENET SUMMARY THE APPLICATION LAYER APPLICATION LAYER DESIGN ISSUES File Transfer, Access, and Management Electronic Mail Virtual Terminals Other Applications OSI Service Elements ACSE and CCR FILE TRANSFER, ACCESS, AND MANAGEMENT File Servers Concurrency Control 539

9 xii CONTENTS Replicated Files Implementation Issues ELECTRONIC MAIL Architecture and Services of MOTIS and X The User Agent The Message Transfer Agent VIRTUAL TERMINALS Scroll Mode Terminals Page Mode Terminals Form Mode Terminals OTHER APPLICATIONS Directory Service Job Transfer and Management Picture Storage and Transfer Teletext and Videotex EXAMPLES OF THE APPLICATION LAYER The Application Layer in Public Networks The Application Layer in the ARPANET The Application Layer in MAP and TOP The Application Layer in USENET SUMMARY READING LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING Introduction and General Works The Physical Layer The Medium Access Control Sublayer The Data Link Layer The Network Layer The Transport Layer The Session Layer The Presentation Layer The Application Layer ALPHABETICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 615 A APPENDIX: QUEUEING THEORY 631 INDEX 642

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