International NEXUS Conference

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1 Energy efficiency in Thermally Activated Building System International NEXUS Conference Bangkok, June 2013

2 Dipl. Ing (FH) Manfred Nagel CEO Interplan Gebäudetechnik GmbH INTERPLAN Gebäudetechnik GmbH Otto-Weddigen-Str Gerlingen / Germany Tel.: / Homepage: ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 2

3 Collaboration with GIZ Projekt: Mongolia-Ulanbataar (Ulan Bator) Mongolian-German ECO City Energy related renovation of existing buildings ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 3

4 Aktuelle Projekte Projekt: Makkah Clock Royal Tower 602 m 60 m ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 4

5 Agenda 1. Objective of this Presentation 2. Energy efficiency 3. Health and thermal comfort 4. Design of air conditioning cooling plant 5. Integrated Engineering 6. Activation of the concrete ceiling with air 7. Compendium 8. summary ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 5

6 Objective of this Presentation Creating an Incentive: To conserve our Energy resources To ensure a sensible usage of energy in buildings especially concerning of air conditioning To show possibilities for CO 2 reduction This presentation is intended for a general audience (not only for air conditioning specialists) Principal: Always under the principle that: Air and water are the most important essentials for humans all over the world Objective: Reducting energy demand by increasing energy efficiency and covering remaining demand with sustainable energy. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 6

7 Japan: is increasing their photo voltaic Solar power usage Malaysia: oil and gas from deep see sources Solar power, Biomass until 2050 : 25% sustainable energy sources Indonesia: geothermal and from solar power, hydro electric power plants including the so called Fast Trax-Programm for sustainable energy Philippines: power demands too high and not met by supply Thailand: aim till > 25% with bio mass and other sustainable energy sources Vietnam: Demands are increasing rapidly-> lack of supply government is planning increased development existing resources accessible (fossil fuels, renewable and nuclear power) China: is pursuing new sustainable energy from wind power instead of reducing CO² by using propane refrigant mediums ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 7

8 Energy efficiency Definition of Energy efficiency: Energy efficiency is the measure of how much energy we use to achieve the expected benefit. Saving energy = energy efficiency ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 8

9 Energy efficiency Why save energy? Fossil fuel is finite Protecting the environment / reducing the CO2 emissions Achieving climate protection goals Energy is unnecessarily expensive and the prices are still increasing To shape the future in the present ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 9

10 Energy efficiency 100,0 Units of energy Oil Coal Gas The Journey Arrive at the building the customer 45,0 40,5 28,4 Are actually being used by the customer η=45% Degree of efficiency Power plant η=90% Degree of efficiency Transport η=70% Degree of efficiency Building Plants ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 10

11 Energy efficiency increase the efficiency of plants in the building by 20%: 40,5 units x 80% = 32,4 units at the same rate of customer usage (28,3 units) the Degree of efficiency of the Facility will increase to η fac = 87% 20 same way back 8, at the same rate of customer usage 28,3 32,4 36 η=87% Degree of efficiency Building Plants η=90% Degree of efficiency Transport η=45% Degree of efficiency Power plant Result: energy savings at the building plants by 20% (8,1 units) will result in energy savings at the primary energy source at a rate of 20 units = 2,5 times ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 11

12 Energy efficiency increase the efficiency of the customer usage by another 10% Degree of efficiency of the building plants stay at 87% increases in transport efficiency of 2 % to approx. 92 % Power generation: geothermal, solar, wind and others with total efficiency of approx. 70%. 54,5 More effective Usage 4,2 3,1 2,8 25,5 29,3 31,8 45,5 Solar Geo thermal Wind Biomass η=87% Degree of efficiency Building Plants η=92% Degree of efficiency Transport η=70% Degree of efficiency Power plant Result: 50% of the primary energy resources can easily be saved by already existing technologies and processes!!! -> this should get us thinking!!!! ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 12

13 Energy efficiency 54,5 Presentation 2,8 3,1 4,2 Effective user behavior 25,5 29,3 31,8 45,5 user behavior Construction physics MEP-Engineering the energy that isn t used does not have to be produced ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 13

14 Health and thermal comfort We can get used to many things, make compromises and adapt but are we really comfortable? This is the same when it comes to room temperature and humidity! Most significant principle: The key priority of all sensible energy efficiency saving measures is the health and well-being of the person/people!!! All measures should be subordinate to this principle. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 14

15 Health and thermal comfort Comfort factors air humidity Users of buildings demand fresh air Fresh is a cooling sensation of the mucous membrane. It has to stay cool in order to use the very warm and humid air exiting the lungs to moisten the membrane. Air humidity between 6,5 8,5 g/kg is perfect usually in the legal requirement is between % r.h. Fig: Schematic cross-section through the mucous ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 15

16 Health and thermal comfort Room humidity - hygienic Viruses can be inhaled as small particles or Aerosols: Aerosols loose their water at lower humidity rates and decrease in size Viruses could emerge as particles. The lower the humidity the higher the risk of infection. Hygienic air humidification decreases this risk of infection. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 16

17 Health and thermal comfort "healthy air"induced by humidification bacterium virus fungus mites Respiratory infection allergic rhinitis chemical reaction ozone ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 17

18 Health and thermal comfort Room humidity Ambition: To provide air that is fresh and pleasant! Obviously this has an impact on installation equipment There is no fresh air without dehumidification Without fresh air there is no sufficient air quality Without fresh air there is a high percentage of dissatisfied persons Without fresh air productivity decreases Currently we are working with 40 m³/h fresh air per person which is way too low. It should at least be more than 80 m³/h fresh air per person ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 18

19 Health an thermal comfort Comfort - direct influencing factors Strong influence on facility technologies plants for air conditioning and cooling systems Inside Room temp.: 26 C Room humidity: 40-60% r.h. Air quality: 1000 ppm (CO²-Content) Room-sound level: db(a) Lighting: appr. 500lx at workspace Air velocity in the room: less then 0,25m/s occupancy: appr. 12 m²/person Technical equipment: PC`s etc. Activities of the persons ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 19

20 Health an thermal comfort Comfort - indirect influencing factors Strong influence on facility technologies plants for air conditioning and cooling systems Outside: Outside air temperature Outside humidity Outside air quality Outside Acoustic level Windows: Quality of the windows Sun radiation Heat transmission Exterior sun screen Outer shell / facade Heat transmission Thermal Storage capacity ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 20

21 Design of air conditioning and cooling units Exterior Load Solar radiation through the windows Transmission heat through walls and windows Interior Load: Heat dissipation by people (depending on activity) Heat by equipment (computer, printer, etc ) Heat emissions by lighting ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 21

22 Design of air conditioning and cooling units Approximat calculation sheet cooling load Standard optimized Reduction factor External cooling load Sun radiation through window Shadow-coefficient b = Transmission window U = Transmission wall U = Maximum sun radiation window = Sunscreen b = Outside temperature Inside temperature 0,48 1,3 0,8 600 W/m² 0,7 inside 46 C 26 C 0,32 1,1 0,5 600 W/m² 0,15 outside 46 C 26 C Q radiation 58 W/m² 8,3 W/m² 86% Q window transmissiom 7 W/m² 5,8 W/m² 17% Q wall transmission 8,5 W/m² 5,3 W/m² 38% Q external sum 73,5 W/m² 19,4 W/m² 74% Internal cooling load Lighting normaly 15 W/m² 10 W/m² 33% Computer, el. Equipment normaly 15 W/m² 10 W/m² 33% Human warmth (office work) by 26 C room temperature Approx. 70W/person (sensible) 7 W/m² 7 W/m² Q internal sum 37 W/m² 27 W/m² 27% sum cooling load 111 W/m² 46,4 W/m² 58% ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 22

23 Integrated Engineering Approximately 58% of loads can be reduced by using proper window and external sun screens without any loss of thermal comfort inside Additional costs of construction are approx. 0,6 % of the building costs This will have proportional effect on air conditioning plant and operating costs! The other parameters must not be neglected either. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 23

24 Integrated Engineering Requirements to the air conditioning system We want to have influence and control the comfort with the air conditioning system We want to achieve this with the lowest possible rate of energy consumption. We want to operate these plants with the lowest possible operation costs The costs for investment must be affordable. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 24

25 Integrated Engineering In principle there are two groups of air conditioning systems. Air-only system Air-water- systems Air-only-Systems The full heat load is discharged by the air conditioning system. This leads to a high rate of air change in the room. Advantages: No water systems and piping within the building Very good and simple adjustment of humidity and air quality Disadvantages: high rate of air change and therefore high air velocities within the room To provide a cooling load of 111 W/m² an air change rate of 14 times is required To provide a cooling load of only 46 W/m² there is still an air change rate of 5,8 times required. Big duct diameters, and increased space requirements for air handling units, shafts and areas for main units, suspended ceilings resulting in increased construction costs High operating costs because of air distribution ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 25

26 Integrated Engineering Air-Water-Systems Advantages: Small air volumes (less space required for technology areas, shafts and suspended ceilings) Reduction of construction costs for the building Easy and simple control system Disadvantages: Additional piping and units in the building required (maintenance, etc ) Higher investments cost for the cooling an air-conditioning system Condensation has to be avoided on the low temperature Potentially only restricted operation is possible or higher system-temperature Structural measures required for suspended ceilings and dado paneling Water-only-cooling-system cannot work because it is not able to controled the humidity for a thermal comfort Conclusion: an Air handling system has to be used in any case ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 26

27 Integrated Engineering Can we find a system that combines all the advantages of high levels of thermal comfort and with low investment and operating costs? That would be the ideal solution. Yes we have one. Activation of the concrete ceiling with air ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 27

28 Activation of the concrete ceiling with air This is a Air-only-System Operation: To better understanding: this coding system is necessary to first comprehend the installation of the system on site. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 28

29 Activation of the concrete ceiling with air The pipes are placed in between the building axes. This provides the flexibility of altering partition walls without having to change or replace the air ducts. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 29

30 Activation of the concrete ceiling with air The pipes are secured to avoid floating. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 30

31 Activation of the concrete ceiling with air The piping is imbedded within the concrete when casting. The thickness of concrete ceilings binding beam free is approx cm. No additional thickness of the concrete ceiling is required. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 31

32 Activation of the concrete ceiling with air Basic circuit diagram In contrast to conventional Systems the air first flows through the concrete ceiling and then to the outlet Storage capacity depending on the thickness of the concrete ceiling Wh/m² K The ceiling temperature increases to approx. 21 C caused by interior heat emissions. Reheating of the air is therefore not required Outlet temperature: 21 C Supply Air Inlet air supply temp for example 12 C at the access point Exhaust air Section: ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 32

33 Activation of the concrete ceiling with air Cooling pipe The cooling pipes are made of aluminum which has very good heat conducting capabilities. They are corrugated to increase those capabilities even further. This also expands the piping surface 4-times. The cool air flows through the pipes causing them to heat up. The air temperature therefore converges the temperature of the ceiling asymptotical. a heat conduction rate of 90% is achieved by a U-shaped layout at approx m. t air out - t air in heat conduction rate : t ceiling 0 - t air in Cooling pipe 60 and 80 mm ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 33

34 Activation of the concrete ceiling with air Measured reality cooling load Temperatur [ C] Zone Ost Zone West 1 Zone West 2 Außentemperatur research indicates that the hygienically required air exchange can discharge a cooling load of W/m² with new systems Air activated ceilings can discharge these loads without additional water ceiling cooling systems Mo Mo Uhr 20 Uhr Di Uhr Di Uhr Mi Uhr Mi Uhr Do Uhr Do Uhr Fr Uhr Fr Uhr Sa Uhr Sa So Uhr 08 Uhr So Mo Uhr 08 Uhr ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 34

35 Activation of the concrete ceiling with air Concrete activation with air Better conditioning with less energy consumption. peak loads of 60 80W/m² at volume flow rates of m³/hm² can be discharged without exceeding temperature limits of 26 C. Thermal comfort and air quality are enhanced. System and control is easier and cheaper. Energy consumption is reduced by up to 30-40%. Better conditioning with less energy consumption ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 35

36 Compendium Energy efficiency is achieved by: User behavior Optimization of components Integrated engineering Implementation How can these energy efficient measures be made into a reality? Establishing building standards for new buildings Establishing building standards for existing buildings and renovation These standards have to be adapted to match local conditions Codification and standardization in laws and regulations Calculation methods and certifications must be developed,they must be easily checked and comprehended Development programs must create incentives. Or tax benefits ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 36

37 Summary Integrated design is the way to proper air conditioning plants Thermal comfort has the first priority High efficency windows save operating cost and energy Modern building plants save more than 30% operating cost Thermal comfort increases the productivity The implementation for energy efficienc needs laws an public regulations ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 37

38 Thank you for your attention ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 38

39 The time will come when our offspring (our children) will wonder how we could not have known things that are so obvious. Lucius Annaeus (4 b. Chr.-65 a.d.) Roman philosopher and poet ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMALLY ACTIVATED BUILDING SYSTEMS - DIPL. ING (FH) MANFRED NAGEL 39

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