BEST 3, Atlanta, April 2012 Grahame E. Maisey, P.E.

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1 A Methodology to Develop a Sustainable, High Performance Building Envelope BEST 3, Atlanta, April 2012 Grahame E. Maisey, P.E.

2 We re Going To Reveal New Sustainable Truths and Expose Old Bogus Truths

3 We Have Developed NEW Protocols For Sustainability: Energy, Maintenance and Productivity (Comfort & Health) AND Documentation

4 Defining Terms Sustainable: 1. Able to be Maintained 2. Maintain the Environment High Performance: Provide Superior Effectiveness and Functions

5 Typical 100 Yr Design Strategy Plan and Design for Today s Energy Costs and Energy Resources Plan and Design for Yesterday s (Historic) Weather Ignore Long-Term Operation & Maintenance Costs, Not Our Concern Occupant Comfort and Productivity is a Secondary (if any) Consideration

6 Global Resource Funnel, Shrinking Resources

7 The Natural Step TNS

8 Back-Casting

9 Envelope Master Planning

10 End-Goal Performance Net Zero Energy, Triple Life Cycle Length, Reduce O & M Costs by 75%, Preventive Maintenance Optimize Comfort/Productivity

11 Envelope Master Planning

12 Envelope Master Planning

13 Envelope Master Planning

14 Human Thermal Comfort

15 Building Envelope Systems Complete envelope analysis: Foundation; Basement; Walls; Roof. Components in each section

16 Building Envelope: Foundation Support for present and future structure; Connection with the earth; Physically; Thermally

17 Building Envelope: Basement Connection with the earth; Physically; Thermally. Light wells for Natural Lighting

18 Building Envelope: Walls Wall Areas, Windows, Entrances R20 Windows, R40 Glazing in 5 years Entrance Lobbies w/walk-offs

19 Building Envelope: Roofs Flat and Sloped Connection with the Sky; Thermally; Light Wells, Solar & Rain Collection

20 An Inconvenient Truth Many Buildings Are Rusting Away

21 hy Buildings Are Rusting Away

22 hy Buildings Are Rusting Away

23 Building Envelope QA/QC Separating responsibility of envelope components will cause commissioning dilemmas. Bundle systems together for responsible contractor testing.

24 Building Envelope Sustainability Cradle to Cradle Analysis: Material Resources; Energy; Longevity; Performance; Maintainability

25 Building Envelope High Performance Life Cycle Analysis: Resilience; Energy; Maintenance

26 Building Envelope Systems 100 Year Old Technology Vapor Barrier on Warm Side Insulation With Heat Bridges Plan for 50 Years Life Cycle, Not 300 Years

27 PassivHaus Building Envelope

28 Building Envelope Development for Today and Tomorrow Performance in Hot and Cold Climate Air/Vapor Barrier Toward Middle of Insulation. Double Wall Construction, Offset Structural Members

29 PassivHaus Building Envelope for Hot and Cold Climate

30 Building Envelope Performance for USA, Today and Tomorrow Many areas of the USA have more severe weather than Europe: = PassivHaus Plus Consider the next 3, 7, 15 and 30 years and PassivHaus Plus will make economic sense

31 Building Envelope Performance for USA, Today and Tomorrow Increased comfort can be calculated to equal extra cost of building envelope Mechanical system size reduction is cost savings Long-lasting systems reduce maintenance, remodeling costs

32 Building Envelopes for the Next Year Buildings Plan for 150MPH winds minimum. Hurricanes and Tornadoes are Likely in about everywhere in the next 100 years Plan for seismic events, 7 to 9R, Fracking is causing quakes and disturbances

33 Building Envelopes for the Next Year Buildings Floods and high rain events, move from 2 /Hr for 2 hours to 12 /Hr for 1 hour A 300 Year Life Cycle guarantees numerous disastrous events, so prepare

34 Building Envelopes for the Next Year Buildings New Technology, Materials and Manufacturing Techniques Manufactured sections with windows, integrated services

35 Inexpensive Solution PassiveHaus Plus, 40% Less $$ s Offset Studs. Resilient Air/Vapor Barrier with Radiant Foil on Both Sides

36 Inexpensive Solution PassiveHaus Plus, 40% Less $$ s Graphite/Fiberglass Offset Studs with Resilient Air/Vapor Barrier Toward Middle of Insulation

37 Windows R20 Windows in 5 Years Vacuum in triple glazed spaces (R40) 65mm, 2.5 frames, Perhaps 100mm, 4 frames

38 Entrance Systems Lobby to isolate entrance, minimize air movement (large lobby can include walk-off) Large rotating doors similar to airport doors, with lobby so we need two doors Enable reduction in electrical use in supermarkets by 75% to 80%

39 Plotting Temps Through Building Envelopes Two slides to follow plotting potential dry bulb and dewpoint temperatures through wall and roof structures This help determine position of vapor/air barriers

40 Plotting Temps Through Building Envelopes Two slides to follow plotting potential dry bulb and dewpoint temperatures through wall and roof structures This help determine position of vapor/air barriers

41 Information and Data Life Blood of Planning, Design And Construction; And O & M; And Remodeling

42 Assuring Building Performance Analysis, Evaluation,.. Documentation.. Expert Knowledge, Methods and Procedures

43 BIM, Project Collaboration and Document Management These documents manage information and data development and flow Experts need to examine validity of data

44 New Document Protocol The Detailed Design Intent Detailed CB + DI + BOD Living Document Through Building Whole Life Cycle Transparency of Design Decisions Removes Grey Areas Removes Wiggle Room

45 Sustainable Building Logbook Design Record Construction Record Operation Record Provenance of Performance

46 Develop A Building Standard Owner s Standards For Equipment and Systems Simple Systems & Equipment, Standardize Equipment Minimize O & M, Minimize Remodeling

47 Building Component Longevity, Stuart Brand s Book

48 Mechanical System Component Longevity & Energy Use

49 Energy Master Plans - EMP - for Building Whole Life Cycle Energy, Maintenance, Productivity

50 US Energy Use: Buildings 47%, 28% Transport, 25% Food/Ind.

51 PassivHaus is Building Only EMP is for Whole Building Plus Occupants Energy Uses

52 Whole Facilities, Communities

53 Strategies for Energy Work with Climate: Passive + Active/Passive Integrate with Building & People Use Ambient Temperature Systems inimize Cooling/Heating Demand, Eliminate Fossil Fuel Demand

54 Passive Strategies Building Orientation and Shape Insulation and Airtight Building Envelope Resilient Envelope for Longevity and Climate Change

55 New Energy Sustainability Protocol Estimate Future Available Total Energy (FATE) From Clean, Renewable Sources This Is Your Energy Budget

56 Principles of Net Zero Energy 1. Accounting Assess Future Available Total Energy (FATE) This Limits Facility Energy Use: Plus Repay Embedded Energy, Portion of Transport and Food.

57 Calculating Future Available Total Energy (FATE) Horizontal & Vertical Solar, Geothermal Heat Exchange, Biodigesters, Wind, Hydro

58 Radiant Ceiling Cool & Warm Kiel Moe s Book: Thermally Active Surfaces in Architecture

59 Radiant vs A/C Kiel Moe s Book: Thermally Active Surfaces in Architecture

60 Radiant Ceiling, Low Level Air Supply

61 Displacement Ventilation Small Quantity, High Quality Needs Heating And Cooling

62 Most Overlooked Strategy: Min Energy, Max Productivity With Humidity Control Std A/C Performance: 50%(70%) Summer, 15% Winter Productive Performance: 40% Summer, 35% Winter Not Just Comfort, For Health

63 Liquid Desiccant System 3/10 Times More Efficient Than A/C Uses Heat (Free) To Dehumidify

64 Maximize Productivity - Whole Thermal Analysis - Radiant Cooling/Warming, Air Temp Follows Great Humidity & Ventilation Quality and Control 0% Productivity Increase From Thermal Environmental Control

65 MEASURE 2 Systems cfm/ft 2 100% Outside Air, Desiccant, Energy Recovery, Radiant

66 MEASURE 2 System cfm/ft 2 100% Outside Air, Desiccant Humidity Control, Radiant Temperature Control 85 F Warming, 65 F Cooling Fluid 10 F T to 75 F Comfort Temp

67 MEASURE 2 System Use Ground Heat Exchange For All Cooling and Pre-Warming Use Solar Thermal for Warming and Desiccant Dehumidification

68 Cooling/Warming Source

69 Piping & Ducting Systems (Infrastructure) Can Last 20 to 100 years Uses 50% System Energy Costs 50% Installation Cost Costs 75% Remodeling Costs Arbitrary Selection Process

70 Pipes Vs Ducts: Thermal Transport Efficiency 1 Pipe = 12 Duct 1 1/2 Pipe = 20 Duct 2 1/2 Pipe = 40 Duct Pipes Use 12% of Duct Space Pumps Use 12% of Fan Energy

71 Range of Pump Energy Use Std Piping VFD Energy Use: 50% - 80% Std Piping Low Load Pump: 20% Reverse Return: 8% - 20%

72 Std A/ C Comfort Index 10% Humidity + 25% Convection + 10% Radiation = 45% Comfort Index MEASURE 2 Comfort Index 25% Humidity + 25% Convection + 40% Radiation = 90% Comfort Index Double The Comfort

73 Std A/ C Maintenance Index Hidden Moving Parts In Ceilings, Complicated Systems, Components and Controls MEASURE 2 Maintenance Index All Moving Parts in Plant Rooms, Uncomplicated Parts and Systems 1/4 Maintenance

74 Standard A/C Energy Index 100% Air System: Fans, Pumps, Electrical Refrig, Gas Boilers. Peak Demand = 5X Low Load = 100% Energy Index MEASURE 2 Energy Index Radiant + Desiccant: Pumps, Fans, Grnd Ht Ex + Solar = No Demand 4% Energy Use Index

75 MEASURE 2 Mechanical System Installation Cost Savings: MEASURE 2 System Costs 35% Less Than Fan Assisted VAV Extra Costs: Geothermal Wells, Solar Panels: Energy Payback <5 years Overall Payback <3 years

76 Current Situation: When the temperature reaches 100 F, the hum of air conditioning systems fill the air while straining the electric grid beyond capacity, causing brownouts and blackouts. Cars and trucks choke the air in towns and cities.

77 Current Situation: Politicians and energy companies want to develop a smart electric grid and build more power plants, increasing greenhouse gas emissions

78

79 A Vision of the Future: Now let us envision a world 20 years from now when most Office Parks, Universities, Hospitals, Communities and Towns are electricity generators rather than users, and all transport runs on cleanly generated electricity.

80 A Vision of the Future: The electric grid distributes electricity from sustainable buildings to energy intensive buildings and transportation, and vehicles are recharged overnight. Greenhouse gasses are reduced by over 90%.

81 A Vision of the Future: It is better to plan and try to develop a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and fail by a few percentage points than aim for a 50% reduction and meet the goal. A 50% reduction is not enough.

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