1 Methods for Effective Room Air Distribution Dan Int-Hout Chief Engineer, Krueger Richardson, Texas
2 Agenda Overview LEED issues and Update Perimeter Acoustics Thermal Comfort IAQ / Standard 62.1 Update Air System Selection Summary
3 LEED: In V3, in order to get ANY LEED points, one must fully meet the VRP requirements of ASHRAE Standards 62.1 (Ventilation) Standard 55 (Comfort), is worth up to two points. Ventilation points are gained by increased ventilation There are no LEED products! -LEED is a design standard, and points are awarded for use of products in a design. The mechanical systems in a building are exempt from the % recycled components calculation. -
4 LEED: The challenge from Architects to the Mechanical Engineer is to achieve energy efficiency 30% better than the base systems in ASHRAE 90.1 The Base System is VAV / Overhead (well mixed). As a result, engineers are looking at alternate systems, which include; Underfloor Air Delivery (UFAD) Displacement Ventilation Chilled Ceilings and Beams Most Energy Calculation programs, however, have not been validated for systems other than VAV overhead. Based on occupant comfort complaints, we still don t understand how to properly apply overhead VAV systems.
5 Thermal Comfort
6 Thermal Comfort: Latest THERMAL COMFORT STANDARD: ASHRAE ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 7 PMV - predicted mean vote - a single number rating. A program is available, based on the new ASHRAE 55-04, which allows plotting of the comfort envelope. Standard 55 mandates a maximum 5 o F vertical temperature stratification.
11 Acoustics: AHRI acoustical application standard. AHRI air terminal test standard. AHRI ducted equipment except air terminals. ASHRAE air diffuser performance. Note: ADC 1062 test code was obsoleted in 1984! Acoustical quality suggests the use of RC (or newer measures) rather than NC. ANSI requires 26NC in schools. (LEED currently requires 35NC/45 dba) LEED 2012 for Schools is proposed to have 40dDBa as a prerequisite, with reverb time specified as well.
12 Sound Specifications Should be based on clearly stated assumptions. Should reflect real project needs, not any manufacturer s data and use currently accepted application factors. If duct lining is used require NC shall be determined in accordance with ARI , Appendix E A meaningful specification will specify octave band. Over-silencing increases both initial costs and operating costs, and may hinder proper IAQ performance. Manufacturer s air terminal selection software and generic specification makers such as (SounSpec.EXE) are available online!
13 Indoor Air Quality
14 Designing for IAQ: Three Strategies Filtration Source control Dilution Design Issues: Diffuser Selection Perimeter Thermal Comfort Acoustics Ventilation & IAQ
15 Indoor Air Quality Standing Standard Project Committee 62.1 Residential Committee is 62.2 Current Standard is will be out any day.
16 IAQ Standard Standard 62 is on continuous maintenance. Continuous and incremental changes are in progress. It will attempt to be in coordination with building codes. A Guideline document for designing systems above minimum requirements is being created. Users Manual is available now. The IMC has indicated 62.1 will be referenced in the next release of the mechanical code. There seems to be minimal public awareness of the dynamic nature of the Standard.
17 Methods of Air Distribution
18 Air Distribution Device Selection Guidelines The ASHRAE fundamentals handbook, chapter 20 (Air Distribution), provides guidance on several methods of air distribution. Methods include overhead fully mixed, as well as fully stratified and partially mixed systems from below, and even task /ambient personal air delivery systems. Described delivery systems include constant and variable volume, UFAD, displacement ventilation and chilled beam systems. All have advantages and disadvantages, which must be understood by the design engineer and architect.
19 Well Mixed Overhead Air Distribution
20 Air Distribution Device Selection Guidelines For overhead well mixed systems, one should select a unit with throw at max, and minimum, flow that meets ADPI guidelines based on diffuser spacing and T50 (throw to 50 fpm). Additionally, select for maximum mixing: Noise can be good. Dirt on the ceiling is not bad. Air Distribution Effectiveness (ADE) is a new term describing room air mixing, and is a parameter with all delivery methods.
21 Improperly Selected Overhead Air Distribution POORLY ADJUSTED / SELECTED DIFFUSER THERMOSTAT
22 Effective Overhead Air Distribution PROPERLY ADJUSTED DIFFUSER THERMOSTAT
23 ASHRAE Journal, 2004, on overhead air distribution selection Design Issues: Diffuser Selection Perimeter Thermal Comfort Acoustics Ventilation & IAQ
24 ADPI and LEED 24X , 10" inlet 100 Characteristic Room Length Delta-T ADPI CFM/Sq.Ft. V3 LEED-NC Credit 7.1 may be awarded for complying with ASHRAE Standard This Standard limits vertical temperature stratification, within the occupied zone, to be no greater than 5 o F. Assuring an ADPI no less than 80% will comply with this requirement.
25 Common Overhead Heating Design Cold Outside THERMOSTAT Window
26 Overhead Heating Perimeter Considerations: Maximum delta-t for effective mixing when heating from overhead, per ASHRAE handbook =?. = 15ÑF (90ÑF discharge), continuous operation. Throw toward and away from glass. 150 FPM should reach 4-5 feet from the floor. ASHRAE 62.1 requires that ventilation be increased by 25% when heating, if the above rules are not followed. Typical perimeters require only 8ÑF 1 cfm/sq.ft.
27 90.1 Addendum BX Exceptions to : Zones with ceiling supply of air that does not exceed 15ÇF above space temperature or floor supply of air, and at least one of the following. Allows 50% of cooling airflow if VAV heating is used, starting at 20% of cooling rate.
28 Perimeter Considerations: From 2009 ASHRAE Fundamentals, Chapter 20: Diffusers should be located such that the published 150 fpm isothermal throw (which is typically unaffected by Δt) extends to within 4.5 ft of the floor. According to ASHRAE Standard 62.1, if throw does not meet this requirement, and the discharge-to-room temperature differential exceeds 15ÑF, the ventilation rate must be increased by 25%. Furthermore, when the room-to-discharge differential exceeds 15ÑF, it is unlikely that the vertical temperature limitation of ASHRAE Standard 55 will be met.
29 Perimeter Considerations: See March 2007 ASHRAE Journal:
30 Pros: Overhead well mixed Air Distribution - Pros and Cons Baseline of 90.1 Energy well documented energy calculation programs ADPI can be predicted to validate 55 Vert. stratification Well understood construction details Heating and cooling commonly accomplished with single system Low cost for reconfigured spaces Cons: Difficult (but possible) to guarantee 30% more efficient than 90.1 Ventilation is shared by all System acoustics may be objectionable if not carefully designed It s Old School. Chilled Beams
31 Displacement Ventilation
32 Displacement Ventilation System Thermal displacement ventilation is based on cool air supply at low level and stratification of room air temperature and contaminants due to natural buoyancy forces of the heat gains.
33 Displacement Ventilation System Displacement system is a preferable solution when: specific airflow rate per floor area is high like e.g. in lobbies, theatres and conference rooms high contaminants loads exists like in e.g. industry and smoking rooms the height of the space is more than 10 feet. Quiet air delivery in mandated The advantages of the displacement ventilation compared with totally mixed ventilation system are: less cooling energy and capacity are needed for a given temperature in the occupied zone longer period with free cooling better air quality in the occupied zone.
34 Low velocity supply 8
35 Classrooms Kitchen Restaurant Auditoriums Atriums Gyms And more Applications
36 Displacement Ventilation Pros and Cons PROS Less cooling energy may be needed Longer free-cooling period, depending on climate because of lower discharge temperatures Better air quality / reduced outside air requirement Quiet excellent for classrooms Energy Calculations not validated CONS No advantage if the ceiling height is < 10 ft Draft risk near units; velocities should always analyzed Enough space for units should be available Separate heating system required if exterior walls aren t well insulated Must use CFD or other method for vert. Temp. validation. Energy Calculations not validated
37 UFAD Underfloor Air Distribution
38 UFAD: Underfloor Air Distribution A raised floor allows electrical and communication circuits to be easily accessed and changed. Air may be distributed within this space, without ductwork. Ducted perimeter with fan powered boxes, or other techniques, depending on climate, glass load, etc.. Pressurized plenum for core
39 One diffuser per workstation
40 Engineer s s third generation designs include: Use pressurized underfloor design (as opposed to neutral pressure). Use 55 o F air handler with air columns (to be able to use the cold air where required). Use constant volume / variable temperature design (not VAV floor diffusers) for most cost effective solution. Be sure the churn requirements are real. A suspended ceiling is probably required to meet acoustical concerns. Consider heating and cooling the perimeter from overhead. Use DOAS in humid climates This application is probably not suited for all situations!
41 UFAD Pros and Cons Pros: Potential to save energy due to reduced fan static and higher discharge temperatures Silent operation, less than 30 NC Relatively simple controls needed Occupant control of local environment Lowest Churn costs with raised floor No Validated Energy Modeling programs Cons: No ASHRAE 55 Vertical Temperature Stratification calculation method (yet!) Requires careful building construction to avoid leakage Special consideration required in humid climates No Validated Energy Modeling programs Chilled Beams
42 Chilled Beams
43 Chilled Beams
44 Chilled ceiling systems Chilled ceiling Passive chilled beam Exposed Active Chilled Beam Suspended Ceiling Active chilled beam
45 Chilled Beams Scandinavian system: developed 1980 s Adapted to the Central European markets in the middle of 1990 s Most used system in the offices in Scandinavian countries and in Central Europe Adapted Southern Europe, Australia and US around 2005
47 Passive Beams are used when More cooling is needed Fresh air is practical to supply with separate system (like displacement ventilation) Space has high ceilings Air flow rate is high Active Beams are Used when... Both cooling and ventilation is required Normal cooling capacities are needed (20-40 BTU/h/ft2) The air flow requirement is < 1.5 cfm/ft2 Space is lower than 13 ft
48 Schematic Diagram of a Chilled Beam System Chilled Beams
49 case Zlote Tarasy Building designed based on open plan office, 4 ft grid, width of the building ca. 52 ft Column distance: between 21 and 25 ft 2 different beam lengths of units: 8 ft and 4 ft units installed in 5 rows Controls locally possible in 5 different zones per 25 x 52 ft Chilled Beams
50 Beams in Hotel Rooms Primary air supply Water cooled heat exchanger Return air grille and access panel Induced room air Front grille Room air supply
51 Chilled Beams Pros and Cons Pros: Potential to save energy For example: To transfer 1 ton of energy with water consumes much less electricity compared to air. Low velocities in occupied space, less than 50 fpm Silent operation, less than 30 NC Lower units save plenum space, may reduce floor-to-floor height Radically smaller ductwork lower fan energy required Relatively simple controls needed Few (any?) validated energy modeling programs Cons: Requires Excellent Building Curtain Wall Construction to control Condensation, especially in humid climates High First equipment and installation costs No ASHRAE 55 Vertical Temperature Stratification calculation method (yet!) Few (any?) validated energy modeling program Chilled Beams
52 Plan B: The DOAS Fan Box
54 Summary LEED 2009 (V3) requires meeting Standard 62.1 ADPI can assure compliance to 55 in the design phase, but only for overhead systems in cooling mode. Reheat needs to be carefully considered in terms of discharge temperatures and velocities. Acoustics should be specified as maximum allowed octave band sound power. DV, UFAD and Beams can supply quiet air in classrooms Software is available to assist in selecting the best mix of products. Energy Use Calculations of alternate systems needs to be validated. The rules are dynamic - pay attention.
55 Zero Net Energy Buildings ZNEB is a goal that both ASHRAE and the USGBC have set. Failure to understand the physics of room air distribution with the different systems now available may, however, result in ZNAB Zero Net Acceptable Buildings. We need to understand the pros and cons of the various means available to provide for occupant comfort.
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