MINFS544: Business Network Data Analytics and Applications

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1 MINFS544: Business Network Data Analytics and Applications March 30 th, 2015 Daning Hu, Ph.D., Department of Informatics University of Zurich F Schweitzer et al. Science 2009

2 Stop Contagious Failures in Banking Systems During 2008 financial tsunami, which bank(s) we should inject capital first to stop contagious failures in bank networks? 2

3 Utilize Peer Influence in Online Social Networks Intelligent Advertising, Product Recommendation Who are the most influential people? What are the patterns of product diffusion? 3

4 Develop Strategies to Attack Terrorist Networks A Global Salafi Jihad Terrorist Network Hu et al. JHSEM 2009 How to effectively break down a terrorist network? 4

5 Network-based Business Intelligence Network-based (Modeling and Analysis) Modeling and analyzing various real-world social and organizational networks to understand: the cognitive and economic behaviors of the network actors; and the dynamic processes behind the network evolution Based on the above Business Intelligence (BI) Design network-based BI algorithms and information systems to provide decision support in various application domains Financial Risk Management, Security Informatics, and Knowledge Management, etc. Network Analysis, Simulation of Network Evolution, Data Mining, etc. 5

6 Summary Lecturer: Dr. Daning Hu; Teaching Assistant: Dr. Jiaqi Yan Credits: 3 ECTS credits Language: English Audience: Master and doctoral students Office Hours: Tue 13:00 14:00 PM, Room 2.A.12, Please send s to make appointments. Grading: Course report (term paper) 80% and interaction 20%

7 Grading 1. A full research paper (80%). The format of this paper can be found at: * If possible, get it published in ICIS 2015 and get it cited. This paper should include answers to the following questions: What is the research problem? Why is it interesting and important? Why is it hard? Why have previous approaches failed? What are the key components of your approach? What 1) models, 2) data sets and 3) metrics will be used to validate the approach? 7

8 A Brief History of Network Science 1736 Mathematical foundation Graph Theory 1930 Social Network Analysis and Theories Sociogram: Network visualization Six degree of separation Structural hole: Source of innovation (Physicists) Complex Network Topologies Small-world model (e.g., WWW) Scale-free model ( Rich get richer ) Network Science Economic networks (Agent modeling & simulation) Dynamic network analysis BI applications: product diffusion in social media, recommendation systems? 8

9 Outline Introduction Dynamic Analysis of Dark Networks A Global Salafi Jihad (GSJ) Terrorist Network A Narcotic Criminal Network A Network Approach to Managing Bank Systemic Risk Ongoing Work Conclusion 9

10 Dynamic Network Analysis (DNA) Studying dynamic link formation processes behind network evolution. Nodes forming links Network Evolution What Why How Model the changes in network evolution Temporal changes in network topological measures Dynamic network recovery on longitudinal data Statistical analysis of determinants behind link formation Homophily Preferential attachment Shared affiliations Simulate the evolution of networks Agent-based Modeling and Simulation Examine network robustness 10

11 Research Testbed: A Global Terrorist Network The Global Salafi Jihad (GSJ) network data is compiled by a former CIA operation officer Dr. Marc Sageman terrorists friendship, kinship, same religious leader, operational interactions, etc. geographical origins, socio-economic status, education, etc. when they join and leave GSJ The goal of dynamic analysis gain insights about the evolution of GSJ network develop effective attack strategies to break down GSJ network Sample data of GSJ terrorists 11

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14 Dynamic Network Analysis Studying dynamic processes (i.e., link formation) behind network evolution. Nodes behaviors Network Evolution What Why How Model the changes in network evolution Temporal changes in network topological measures Dynamic network recovery on longitudinal data Statistical analysis of determinants behind link formation Homophily Preferential attachment Shared affiliations Simulate the evolution of networks Agent-based Modeling and Simulation Examine network robustness 14

15 Temporal Changes in Network-level Measures Average Degree <k > 0.24 degree <k> probability of degree Poisson a Fig.1. The temporal changes in the (a) average degree, (b) and (c) degree distribution probability of degree b Degree = number of links a node has c

16 Findings There are three stages for the evolution of the GSJ network: The emerging stage: The network grows in size Accelerated Growth - No. of edges increases faster than nodes Random network topology (Poisson degree distribution) The mature stage: The size of the network reached its peak in 2000 Scale-free topology (Power-law degree distribution) The disintegration stage: Falling into small disconnected components after 9/11 16

17 Temporal Changes in Node Centrality Measures Degree Betweenness Figure.2. Temporal changes in Degree and Betweenness centrality of Osama Bin Laden Degree: No. of links a node has Betweenness of a node i No. of shortest paths from all nodes to all others that pass through node i Measure i s influence on the traffic (information, resource) flowing through it 17

18 Findings and Possible Explanations : A sharp decrease in Bin Laden s Betweenness 1994: Saudi revoked his citizenship and expelled him 1995: Went to Sudan and was expelled again under U.S. pressure 1996: Went to Afghanistan and established camps there : Another sharp decrease in his Betweenness After 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies, Bill Clinton ordered a freeze on assets linked to bin Laden (top 10 most wanted) August 1998: A failed assassination on him from U.S. 1999: UN imposed sanctions against Afghanistan to force the Taliban to extradite him 18

19 Research Testbed: A Narcotic Criminal Network The COPLINK dataset contains 3 million police incident reports from the Tucson Police Department (1990 to 2006). 3 million incident reports and 1.44 million individuals Their personal and sociological information (age, ethnicity, etc.) Time information: when two individuals co-offend AZ Inmate affiliation data: when and where an inmate was housed A Narcotic Criminal Network 19,608 individuals involved in organized narcotic crimes 29,704 co-offending pairs (links) Table 1. Summary of the COPLINK dataset and the Arizona inmate dataset COPLINK Narcotic Data Arizona Inmate Data Overlapped (identified by first name, last name and DOB) Number of People 36, ,540 19,608 Time Span years 19

20 Statistical Analysis of Determinants for Link Formation Proportional hazards model (Cox Regression Analysis) h(t, x 1, x 2, x 3...) = h 0 (t)exp(b 1 x 1 + b 2 x 2 + b 3 x 3...) Homophily in age (group) and race Shared affiliations: Mutual acquaintances (through crimes) Vehicle affiliation (same vehicle used by two in different crimes) Fig.3. Results of multivariate survival (Cox regression) analysis of triadic closure (link formation). 20

21 BI Application: Co-offending Prediction in COPLINK IBM s COPLINK is an intelligent police information system aims to to help speed up the crime detection process. COPLINK calculates the co-offending likelihood score based on the proportional hazards model. A ranked list of individuals based on their predicted likelihood of co-offending with the suspect under investigation. Fig.4. Screenshots of the COPLINK system 21

22 Simulate Attacks on Dark Networks Three attack (i.e. node removals) strategies: Attack on hubs (highest degrees) Attack on bridge (highest betweenness) Real-world Attack (Attack order based on real-world data) Simulate two types of attacks to examine the robustness of the Dark networks Simultaneous attacks (the degree/betweenness of nodes are NOT updated after each removal) Static Progressive attacks (the degree/betweenness of nodes are updated after each removal) Dynamic 22

23 Hub Vs. Bridge Attacks Both hub and bridge attacks are far more effective than realworld arrests Policy implications? Both Dark networks are more vulnerable to Bridge attacks than Hub attacks. Bridge (highest beweenness): Field lieutenants, operational leaders, etc. Hub (highest degree) : e.g., Bin Laden GSJ S and <s> S (Hub attacks) 0.6 S (Bridge attacks) Fraction of nodes removed 23

24 Summary and Contributions We developed a set of Dynamic Network Analysis (DNA) methods that are effective in Linking network topological changes to analytical insights Systematically capturing the link formation processes Examining the determinants of link formation Dark networks are robust against real-world attacks but vulnerable to targeted bridge attacks COPLINK provides real-time decision support for fighting crimes. 24

25 Research Readings and Resources 1. Networks Overview: * Statistical mechanics of complex networks, Section III, VI * Networks, Crowds, and Markets: 2. Networks in Finance: * Financial Networks blog and research databases: WRDS database * Company Board Social Networks 25

26 Research Readings and Resources (cont.) 3. Networks in Marketing: * Sinan Aral s research in networks and marketing Peer influence * Social Media based Marketing: 4. Recommender Systems: 5. Word-of-Mouth Effects in Social Networks: 26

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