1 Ay Fall 2004 Electromagnetic Radiation And Its Interactions With Matter (This version has many of the figures missing, in order to keep the pdf file reasonably small)
2 Radiation Processes: An Overview Physical processes of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emission and absorption Kirchoff s laws Discrete (quantum) processes Continuum processes Next time: radiation transfer, spectral lines, stellar atmospheres and spectral types (Many slides today from P. Armitage)
3 Primary Astrophysical Processes Emitting Radio Radiation When charged particles change direction (i.e., they are accelerated), they emit radiation EMR Discrete (quantum transitions) Continuum Thermal (i.e., blackbody) Nonthermal: Synchrotron Free-free Cherenkov Which one(s) will dominate, depends on the physical conditions of the gas/plasma. Thus, EMR is a physical diagnostic.
4 Nuclear energy levels Inner shells of heavier elements Different Physical Processes Dominate at Different Wavelengths Atomic energy levels (outer shells) Molecular transitions Hyperfine transitions Plasma in typical magnetic fields
5 Kirchoff s Laws 1. CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM: Any hot opaque body (e.g., hot gas/plasma) produces a continuous spectrum or complete rainbow 2. EMISSION SPECTRUM: A hot transparent gas will produce an emission line spectrum 3. ABSORPTION SPECTRUM: A (relatively) cool transparent gas in front of a source of a continuous spectrum will produce an absorption line spectrum Modern atomic/quantum physics provides a ready explanation for these empirical rules
6 Kirchoff s Laws in Action: Laboratory spectra Ÿ Line identifications in astro.sources Analysis of spectra Ÿ Chemical abundances + physical conditions (temperature, pressure, gravity, ionizing flux, magnetic fields, etc.) + Velocities
7 Atomic Processes Radiation can be emitted or absorbed when electrons make transitions between different states: Bound-bound: electron moves between two bound states (orbitals) in an atom or ion. Photon is emitted or absorbed. Bound-free: Bound -> unbound: ionization Unbound -> bound: recombination Free-free: free electron gains energy by absorbing a photon as it passes near an ion, or loses energy by emitting a photon. Also called bremsstrahlung.
8 Energy Transitions: Free-Free DE(e - ) = E(g) = hn = hc/l h = Planck s constant
9 Energy Transitions: The Bohr Atom Atoms transition from lower to higher energy levels (excitation / de-excitation) in discrete quantum jumps. The energy exchange can be radiative (involving a photon) or collisional (2 atoms)
10 Example of an Atomic Energy Transition: Hydrogen Atom Photon energy: hn = E i - E j
11 Hydrogen Energy Levels n=3 n=2 n=1 E= -1.5eV E= -3.4eV E= -13.6eV GROUND STATE E=0 Energy levels are labeled by n - the principal Quantum number. Lowest level, n=1, is the ground state. E n = - R n 2 where R = 13.6 ev is a Constant (Rydberg) n-th energy level has 2n 2 quantum states, which are degenerate (same E).
12 Energy Levels in a Hydrogen Atom
13 Families of Energy Level Transitions Correspond to Spectroscopic Line Series
14 Balmer Series Lines in Stellar Spectra
15 Which Energy Levels and Transitions? Even for H - simplest atom - huge number of pairs of energy levels with different DE and hence different n. How do we decide which lines we will see? At particular T, some levels will have a higher probability of being occupied than others. Probability of some transitions is greater than others. Not all transitions are possible (selection rules). Because of conservation laws - e.g. since a photon carries angular momentum cannot make a transition between two states with zero angular momentum by emitting one photon.
16 Computing the Occupation of Energy Levels from which we can then compute the relative intensities of spectroscopic lines Need gas [r,t] and radiation spectrum and intensity (or just T e, if it s a thermal spectrum). The key question is whether the gas and the radiation field are in a thermal equilibrium
17 Boltzmann s Law Calculating the populations of energy levels is difficult if The gas is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In LTE, it is very easy. At temperature T, populations n 1 and n 2 of any two energy levels are: n 2 n 1 = g 2 g 1 e -(E 2 -E 1 ) kt g 1 and g 2 are the statistical weights of the two levels (allow for the fact that some energy levels are degenerate). For hydrogen: g n = 2n 2
18 Emission or Absorption? It depends on whether the gas (plasma) is Optically thick: short mean free path of photons, get absorbed and re-emitted many times, only the radiation near the surface escapes; or Optically thin: most photons escape without being reabsorbed or scattered (Note that a medium can be optically thick or thin for either line or continuum photons. Optical thickness is generally proportional to density.) And then it depends on the geometry: if a continuum is seen though a cooler, optically thin gas, you will see an absorption spectrum; but if the gas is hotter, there will be an emission line spectrum superposed on the cont.
19 Spectral Line Emission: Molecular Rotational and Vibrational Modes These transitions (or energy splittings) have generally lower energies (thus prominent in IR/sub-mm), but many more levels (thus complex spectra) Example: Orion spectrum from CSO
20 Astrophysical Molecular Spectroscopy Because of the lower energy levels of molecular transitions, they are a good probe of colder gas (T ~ K), e.g., star forming regions Commonly observed molecules in space include: hydrogen (H 2 ) carbon monoxide (CO), water (H 2 O), OH, HCN, HCO +, CS, NH 3, formaldehyde (H 2 CO), etc. Less common molecules include sugar, alcohol, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), As a bonus, longer wavelengths are not affected much by the interstellar extinction
21 Maser Emission Stimulated emission from overpopulated energy levels Sometimes seen in star-forming regions, or cold stellar envelopes Produces very sharp emission lines - an excellent tracer of velocity fields (e.g., for central massive black holes)
22 Hydrogen 21cm Line Ground state of hydrogen (n=1) has 2 x 1 2 = 2 states. Correspond to different orientations of the electron spin relative to the proton spin. Very slightly different energies - hyperfine splitting. Energy difference corresponds to a frequency of 1.42 GHz, or 21cm wavelength. Very important for radio astronomy, because neutral hydrogen is so abundant in the Universe. This is the principal wavelength for studies of ISM in galaxies, and their disk structure and rotation curves.
23 Spectral Line Emission: Hyperfine Transition of Neutral Hydrogen Emits photon with a wavelength of 21 cm (frequency of 1.42 GHz) Transition probability=3x10-15 s -1 = once in 11 Myr
24 Thermal Continuum Emission Blackbody emission from warm bodies Planck formula Optically thick medium Bremsstrahlung or free-free emission from ionized plasmas, from accelerating charged particles Optically thin medium
25 Blackbody Radiation A blackbody is a hypothetical object that is a perfect absorber of electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths Stars closely approximate the behavior of blackbodies, as do some other hot, dense objects
26 Blackbody Radiation This is radiation that is in thermal equilibrium with matter at some temperature T. Lab source of blackbody radiation: hot oven with a small hole which does not disturb thermal equilibrium inside: Blackbody radiation Important because: Interiors of stars (for example) are like this Emission from many objects is roughly of this form.
27 The frequency dependence is given by the Planck function: Blackbody Spectrum B n (T) = 2hn 3 /c 2 exp(hn /kt) -1 h = Planck s constant k = Boltzmann s constant Same units as specific intensity: erg s -1 cm -2 sterad -1 Hz -1
28 The Planck function peaks when db n (T)/dn = 0 : Blackbody Spectrum hn max = 2.82kT n max = T Hz K -1 This is Wien displacement law - peak shifts linearly with Increasing temperature to higher frequency. Asymptotically, for low frequencies h n << kt, the Rayleigh-Jeans law applies: B n RJ (T) = 2n 2 Often valid in the radio part of the spectrum, at freq s far below the peak of the Planck function. c 2 kt
29 The energy density of blackbody radiation: u(t) = at 4 a = 7.56 x erg cm -3 K -4 is the radiation constant. The emergent flux from a surface emitting blackbody radiation is: Black(body) Power! F = st 4 s = 5.67 x 10-5 erg cm -2 K -4 s -1 = Stefan-Boltzmann const. A sphere (e.g., a star), with a radius R, temperature T, emitting as a blackbody, has a luminosity: L = 4pR 2 st 4
30 Emission from most astronomical sources is only roughly described by the Planck function (if at all). For a source with a bolometric flux F, define the effective temperature T e via: e.g., for the Sun: Effective Temperature F st e 4 L sun = 4pR 2 4 sun st e find Te = 5770 K. Note: effective temperature is well-defined even if the spectrum is nothing like a blackbody.
31 Big bang model - Universe was hot, dense, and in thermal equilibrium between matter and radiation in the past. Relic radiation from this era is the cosmic microwave background radiation. Best known blackbody: T CMB = ± 0.004K No known distortions of the CMB from a perfect blackbody!
32 Thermal Radiation Reprocessing: e.g., Planets Two sources of radiation: Directly reflected Sun light Absorbed Solar radiation, reradiated as a blackbody e.g. Jupiter: L sun = erg s -1 a J = cm R J = cm Solar radiation incident on the planet is: L J = pr 2 J 4pa L 2 sun ª L sun J Jupiter orbital radius Jupiter radius Suppose planet directly reflects 10% - in the optical Jupiter is ~10 10 times fainter than the Sun as seen from far away.
33 Thermal Radiation Reprocessing Example Absorb and reradiate as a blackbody: L J = 4pR J 2 st J 4 If all Sunlight is absorbed, estimate T = 120 K. Use: Find n max = 7 x Hz, i.e., l ~ 40 mm Best wavelengths to look for planets in direct emission are in the mid-ir, as the star s own spectrum drops hn max = 2.82kT Another curiosity: dilluted starlight has an energy density much lower than that corresponding to its temperature - i.e., has a lower entropy. Important for the photo-bio-chemistry?
34 Free-free radiation: Bremsstrahlung Hydrogen is ionized at T ~ 10 4 K at low density. For the same mixture of chemical elements as the Sun, maximum radiation due to spectral lines occurs at T ~ 10 5 K. 50% ionized At higher T, radiation due to acceleration of unbound electrons becomes most important. Free-free radiation or bremsstrahlung.
35 photon Electron, q=-e Ion, q=+ze `Collisions between electrons and ions accelerate the electrons. Power radiated by a single electron is given by Larmor s formula: P = 2q2 3c 3 a 2 Prefer to work in SI? Larmor s formula: with q in Coulombs, e 0 is the permittivity of the vacuum [10 7 / (4pc 2 ) C 2 N -1 m -2 ] c.g.s. units: q is the charge, where electron charge = 4.80 x esu. a is the acceleration, c is speed of light. P = q 2 6pe 0 c 3 a 2
36 Spectrum of bremsstrahlung e n ff = Z 2 n e n i T -1 2 e -hn kt erg s -1 cm -3 Hz -1 Flat spectrum up to an exponential cut off, at hn = kt. increasing T Energy loss rate (overall and per Hz) depends on the square of the density. Continuous spectrum. Shape of bremsstrahlung spectrum
37 When is bremsstrahlung important? Bremsstrahlung loss rate increases with temperature Atomic processes become less important as the gas becomes fully ionized high T Example: gas in the Coma cluster of galaxies
38 X-ray spectrum of Coma Shape of spectrum gives the temperature. Intensity (for a known distance) gives the density of the gas. Galaxy cluster: find T = million K.
39 Synchrotron Radiation Polarization properties of light provides information on magnetic field geometry
40 Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation Define the Lorentz factor: Electron moving perpendicular to a magnetic field feels a Lorentz force. Acceleration of the electron. Radiation (Larmor s formula). g 1 1- v 2 c 2 Non-relativistic electrons: (g ~ 1) - cyclotron radiation Relativistic electrons: (g >> 1) - synchrotron radiation Same physical origin but very different spectra - makes sense to consider separate phenomena.
41 Start with the non-relativistic case: Particle of charge q moving at velocity v in a magnetic field B feels a force: F = q c v B Let v be the component of velocity perpendicular to the field lines (component parallel to the field remains constant). Force is constant and normal to direction of motion. B v Circular motion: acceleration - a = qvb mc for particle mass m.
42 Syncrotron Emission
43 Synchrotron radiation If the electrons are moving at close to the speed of light, two effects alter the nature of the radiation. 1) Radiation is beamed: q~1/g Particle moving with Lorentz factor g toward observer emits radiation into cone of opening angle: q ª g -1 To observer Only see radiation from a small portion of the orbit when the cone is pointed toward us - pulse of radiation which becomes shorter for more energetic electrons.
44 Photon at end of pulse Photon at start of pulse E 2) For source moving at v ~ c, photon emitted at end of pulse almost `catches up with photon from start of pulse. Pulse is further shortened. Difference between cyclotron and synchrotron radiation. F n t log n
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