IV. Molecular Clouds. 1. Molecular Cloud Spectra

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "IV. Molecular Clouds. 1. Molecular Cloud Spectra"

Transcription

1 IV. Molecular Clouds Dark structures in the ISM emit molecular lines. Dense gas cools, Metals combine to form molecules, Molecular clouds form. 1. Molecular Cloud Spectra 1

2 Molecular Lines emerge in absorption: optically thick in emission: optically thin.. Interstellar Molecules es 1934 Detection of diffuse IS bands in the optical 1935 Russell assumed origine from molecules 1937 Identification of IS absorption lines: CO (Swings) CH, OH, NH, CN, C (Swings & Rosenfeld) 1941 CH +, CH, CN (Adams, Mc Kellar) 1951 Bates & Spitzer: Investigating the formation and destruction of diatomic mol OH lines in the radio range 1968 Detections of IS NH 3, H O (Townes, Cheung) since 1965 OH-, H O-, CO-, H CO- Maser detection since 1973 organic ion-molecule chemistry at 1989 more than 100 IS molecules identified

3 A list of more than 100 interstellar molecules can be found at: C 7 H HC 11 N One molecule that might be out there is C 60. It is a member of a family of molecules called fullerenes after the American architect R. Buckminster Fuller ( ), who advocated that we live in houses in the shape of geodesic domes. 3

4 3. Molecular Lines Molecular Line Transitions: Electronic transitions at 1000Å 1μ Vibrational trans. V at 1 10 μ Rotational trans. J at mm 4. Interstellar Molecule e Formation Molecules are sensitive to UV radiation Molecules form in dense regions shielded against IS radiation: cool stellar atmospheres cool stellar winds in shock fronts (s.figure) Dust particles are easily charged Ions are adhered to their surfaces Molecules form Hollenbach & McKee

5 5. Molecular Cloud Structure Brightness and velocity-integrated contours reflect hierarchical clumpy structure of molecular clouds visible in different species! 5

6 5.1. Clouds? Star formation Turbulence HII regions Heat conduction etc. form filaments McKee & Ostriker (007) ARAA, 45 Coincidence of dense structures in IR, non-thermal radio and CO 6

7 5.. Clumps 7

8 8 n ~ r - Isolated gas and dense particle systems achieve Virial equilibrium: T + V 0 T: kinetic (+ thermal) energy V: potential energy assumptions: spherical cloud, cloud mass M c ρ(r) r -n Larson , 0 5/3, n n n n L M G M E R M G n n E c c th c c pot σ σ

9 5.3. Clump mass spectrum Orion B: First GMC systematically surveyed for dense gas and embedded YSOs by E. Lada 1990 Survey of gas clumps Clumps in range M M dn dm M 1.6 dn d ln M M 0.6 MdN d ln M M 0.4 Most of mass in massive clumps For a video see: 9

10 Hierarchical Structure Clump picture: hierarchical structure Clouds ( 10 pc) Clumps (~1 pc) Precursors of stellar clusters Cores (~0.1 pc) High density regions which form individual stars or binaries Fractal picture: clouds are scale-free V A D / D 1.4 fractal dimension 5.4. Mol.Cloud Parameters Larson 1981 The larger and more massive the (sub-)clouds the larger the velocity dispersion (~T). 10

11 Larson The Jeans Mass The random motion σ of clumps in molecular clouds are at or even larger than sound speed Critical length to allow the decoupling from homogeneous background ρ 0 : a density perturbation ρ 1 grows with t Instability (see sect. VI) Jeans Length π cs l lj G Jeans Mass M J σ s ρ 4π lj ρ γ P T ρ 3 T ρ

12 6. Giant Molecular Clouds Typical characteristics of GMCs: Mass M Distance to nearest GMC 140 pc (Taurus) Typical size pc Size on the sky of near GMCs 5..0 x full moon Average temperature (in cold parts) K Typical density mol./cm 3 Typical (estimated) life time ~10 7 year Star formation efficiency ~1%..10% Composition of material: 99% gas, 1% solid sub-micron particles ( dust ) (by mass) Gas: 0.9 H /H, 0.1 He, 10-4 CO, 10-5 other molecules (by number) Dust: Mostly silicates + carbonaceous (< µm in size) Properties of the gas: Gas mostly in molecular form: hydrogen in H, carbon in CO, oxygen in O (O?), nitrogen in N (?). At the edges of molecular clouds: transition to atomic species. Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs). H cannot be easily observed. Therefore CO often used as tracer. 1

13 Nearby well-studied GMCs: Taurus (dist 140 pc, size 30 pc, mass 10 4 M ): Only low mass stars (~105), quiet slow star formation, mostly isolated star formation. Ophiuchus (dist 140 pc, size 6 pc, mass 10 4 M ): Low mass stars (~78), strongly clustered in western core (stellar density 50 stars/pc), high star formation efficiency Orion (dist 400 pc, size 60 pc, mass 10 6 M ): Cluster of O-stars at center, strongly ionized GMC, O-stars strongly affect the low-mass star formation Chamaeleon... Serpens... 13

Lecture 3 Properties and Evolution of Molecular Clouds. Spitzer space telescope image of Snake molecular cloud (IRDC G11.11-0.11

Lecture 3 Properties and Evolution of Molecular Clouds. Spitzer space telescope image of Snake molecular cloud (IRDC G11.11-0.11 Lecture 3 Properties and Evolution of Molecular Clouds Spitzer space telescope image of Snake molecular cloud (IRDC G11.11-0.11 From slide from Annie Hughes Review CO t in clouds HI: Atomic Hydrogen http://www.atnf.csiro.au/research/lvmeeting/magsys_pres/

More information

Heating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds

Heating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds Lecture 8: Cloud Stability Heating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds Balance of heating and cooling processes helps to set the temperature in the gas. This then sets the minimum internal pressure in a core

More information

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1.1 Moon and Terrestrial planets At visible wavelengths all the emission seen from these objects is due to light reflected from the sun. However at radio

More information

Dinamica del Gas nelle Galassie II. Star formation

Dinamica del Gas nelle Galassie II. Star formation Dinamica del Gas nelle Galassie II. Star formation Overview on ISM Molecular clouds: composition and properties. Plasmas Charge neutrality, infinite conductivity; Field freezing; Euler equation with magnetic

More information

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D.

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D. 1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space

More information

Chapter 19 Star Formation

Chapter 19 Star Formation Chapter 19 Star Formation 19.1 Star-Forming Regions Units of Chapter 19 Competition in Star Formation 19.2 The Formation of Stars Like the Sun 19.3 Stars of Other Masses 19.4 Observations of Cloud Fragments

More information

Lesson 3: Isothermal Hydrostatic Spheres. B68: a self-gravitating stable cloud. Hydrostatic self-gravitating spheres. P = "kt 2.

Lesson 3: Isothermal Hydrostatic Spheres. B68: a self-gravitating stable cloud. Hydrostatic self-gravitating spheres. P = kt 2. Lesson 3: Isothermal Hydrostatic Spheres B68: a self-gravitating stable cloud Bok Globule Relatively isolated, hence not many external disturbances Though not main mode of star formation, their isolation

More information

COMPARISON OF GAS AND DUST COOLING RATES IN NEARBY GALAXIES

COMPARISON OF GAS AND DUST COOLING RATES IN NEARBY GALAXIES IC 10 Henize 2-10 NGC 253 COMPARISON OF GAS AND DUST COOLING RATES IN NEARBY GALAXIES E.Bayet: LRA-LERMA-ENS (Paris) Antennae IC 342 M 83 NGC 6946 INTRODUCTION : OBJECTS : warm and dense molecular clouds

More information

8 Radiative Cooling and Heating

8 Radiative Cooling and Heating 8 Radiative Cooling and Heating Reading: Katz et al. 1996, ApJ Supp, 105, 19, section 3 Thoul & Weinberg, 1995, ApJ, 442, 480 Optional reading: Thoul & Weinberg, 1996, ApJ, 465, 608 Weinberg et al., 1997,

More information

The Interstellar Medium Astronomy 216 Spring 2005

The Interstellar Medium Astronomy 216 Spring 2005 The Interstellar Medium Astronomy 216 Spring 2005 Al Glassgold & James Graham University of California, Berkeley The Interstellar Medium/Media (ISM) What is the ISM? Just what it says: The stuff between

More information

Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos

Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos Messages Interactions of Light and Matter The interactions determine everything we see, including what we observe in the Universe. What is light?

More information

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

More information

Protobinaries. von Cornelia Weber, Bakk.rer.nat. Donnerstag, 23. Mai 13

Protobinaries. von Cornelia Weber, Bakk.rer.nat. Donnerstag, 23. Mai 13 Protobinaries von Cornelia Weber, Bakk.rer.nat. Overview Motivation Molecular Clouds Young Stellar Objects Multiplicity of YSO Orion Molecular Cloud Aims of my thesis Motivation Binary and Multiple system

More information

Ellipticals. Elliptical galaxies: Elliptical galaxies: Some ellipticals are not so simple M89 E0

Ellipticals. Elliptical galaxies: Elliptical galaxies: Some ellipticals are not so simple M89 E0 Elliptical galaxies: Ellipticals Old view (ellipticals are boring, simple systems)! Ellipticals contain no gas & dust! Ellipticals are composed of old stars! Ellipticals formed in a monolithic collapse,

More information

A Star and Gas Surface Density Correlation within Nearby Molecular Clouds

A Star and Gas Surface Density Correlation within Nearby Molecular Clouds A Star and Gas Surface Density Correlation within Nearby Molecular Clouds Rob Gutermuth Five College Astronomy Dept. Fellow in Research & Teaching Smith College & UMass Amherst MonR2 Giant Molecular Cloud

More information

The Evolution of GMCs in Global Galaxy Simulations

The Evolution of GMCs in Global Galaxy Simulations The Evolution of GMCs in Global Galaxy Simulations image from Britton Smith Elizabeth Tasker (CITA NF @ McMaster) Jonathan Tan (U. Florida) Simulation properties We use the AMR code, Enzo, to model a 3D

More information

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees.

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. A panoramic painting of the Milky Way as seen from Earth, done by Knut Lundmark in the 1940 s. The

More information

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date:

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: 1. If stellar parallax can be measured to a precision of about 0.01 arcsec using telescopes on Earth to observe stars, to what distance

More information

Modeling Galaxy Formation

Modeling Galaxy Formation Galaxy Evolution is the study of how galaxies form and how they change over time. As was the case with we can not observe an individual galaxy evolve but we can observe different galaxies at various stages

More information

Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction

Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new

More information

Resultados Concurso Apex 2014-A

Resultados Concurso Apex 2014-A Resultados Concurso Apex 2014-A Propuesta: 2014A/04 Investigador Principal: Guido Garay, Universidad de Chila Título: SuperMALT: determining the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass starforming

More information

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula Origin of the Solar System Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System Reading: Chapter 9 Quiz#2 Today: Lecture 60 minutes, then quiz 20 minutes. Homework#1 will be returned on Thursday. Our theory must explain

More information

Star Formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Tracing an Evolution of Giant Molecular Clouds

Star Formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Tracing an Evolution of Giant Molecular Clouds Star Formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Tracing an Evolution of Giant Molecular Clouds Toshikazu Onishi Osaka Prefecture University Yasuo Fukui; Akiko Kawamura; Norikazu Mizuno; Tetsuhiro Minamidani;

More information

WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System. J.E. Klemaszewski

WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System. J.E. Klemaszewski WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System Aurorae in the Solar System Sponsoring Projects Galileo Europa Mission Jupiter System Data Analysis Program ACRIMSAT Supporting Projects Ulysses Project Outer Planets

More information

5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves

5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves 5. The Nature of Light Light travels in vacuum at 3.0. 10 8 m/s Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation Continuous radiation: Based on temperature Wien s Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Light has

More information

Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies

Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies With: Marco Lombardi, University of Milan Joao Alves, University of Vienna Jan Forbrich, University of Vienna Carlos Roman-Zuniga,

More information

Heating & Cooling in the Interstellar Medium

Heating & Cooling in the Interstellar Medium Section 7 Heating & Cooling in the Interstellar Medium 7.1 Heating In general terms, we can imagine two categories of heating processes in the diuse ISM: 1 large-scale (mechanical, e.g., cloud-cloud collisions),

More information

The Chemical Composition of a Molecular Cloud at the Outer Edge of the Galaxy

The Chemical Composition of a Molecular Cloud at the Outer Edge of the Galaxy Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics Series, Vol. 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements, 2003 ed. A. McWilliam and M. Rauch (Pasadena: Carnegie Observatories, http://www.ociw.edu/ociw/symposia/series/symposium4/proceedings.html)

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos. Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Clickers

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos. Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Clickers Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos 5.1 Light in Everyday Life How do we experience light? How do light and matter interact?

More information

Faber-Jackson relation: Fundamental Plane: Faber-Jackson Relation

Faber-Jackson relation: Fundamental Plane: Faber-Jackson Relation Faber-Jackson relation: Faber-Jackson Relation In 1976, Faber & Jackson found that: Roughly, L! " 4 More luminous galaxies have deeper potentials Can show that this follows from the Virial Theorem Why

More information

A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences.

A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. I. MOLECULES IN MOTION: A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. 1) theory developed in the late 19 th century to

More information

The atmospheres of different planets

The atmospheres of different planets The atmospheres of different planets Thomas Baron October 13, 2006 1 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 The atmosphere of the Earth 3 2.1 Description and Composition.................... 3 2.2 Discussion...............................

More information

Giant Molecular Clouds

Giant Molecular Clouds Giant Molecular Clouds http://www.astro.ncu.edu.tw/irlab/projects/project.htm Galactic Open Clusters Galactic Structure GMCs The Solar System and its Place in the Galaxy In Encyclopedia of the Solar System

More information

2. Molecular stucture/basic

2. Molecular stucture/basic 2. Molecular stucture/basic spectroscopy The electromagnetic spectrum Spectral region for atomic and molecular spectroscopy E. Hecht (2nd Ed.) Optics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,1987 Spectral regions

More information

Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies. João Alves, University of Vienna

Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies. João Alves, University of Vienna Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies João Alves, University of Vienna Schmidt s Conjecture and Star Formation in Giant Molecular Clouds and Galaxies With: Charles

More information

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

L3: The formation of the Solar System

L3: The formation of the Solar System credit: NASA L3: The formation of the Solar System UCL Certificate of astronomy Dr. Ingo Waldmann A stable home The presence of life forms elsewhere in the Universe requires a stable environment where

More information

Formation of the Solar System

Formation of the Solar System Formation of the Solar System Any theory of formation of the Solar System must explain all of the basic facts that we have learned so far. 1 The Solar System The Sun contains 99.9% of the mass. The Solar

More information

Light. Light. Overview. In-class activity. What are waves? In this section: PSC 203. What is it? Your thoughts?

Light. Light. Overview. In-class activity. What are waves? In this section: PSC 203. What is it? Your thoughts? Light PSC 203 Overview In this section: What is light? What is the EM Spectrum? How is light created? What can we learn from light? In-class activity Discuss your answers in groups of 2 Think of as many

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits 7. Our Solar System Terrestrial & Jovian planets Seven large satellites [moons] Chemical composition of the planets Asteroids & comets The Terrestrial & Jovian Planets Four small terrestrial planets Like

More information

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z Mass spectrum for the ionization of acetone MS of Acetone + Relative Abundance CH 3 H 3 C O + M 15 (loss of methyl) + O H 3 C CH 3 43 58 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z It is difficult to identify the ions

More information

NGUYEN LUONG QUANG. Président du jury: J. Le Bourlot Rapporteurs: H. Beuther, T. Moore Examinateurs: I. Bonnell, F. Boulanger, F. Combes, F.

NGUYEN LUONG QUANG. Président du jury: J. Le Bourlot Rapporteurs: H. Beuther, T. Moore Examinateurs: I. Bonnell, F. Boulanger, F. Combes, F. NGUYEN LUONG QUANG Supervisors: Frédérique Motte (CEA Saclay) Marc Sauvage (CEA Saclay) Président du jury: J. Le Bourlot Rapporteurs: H. Beuther, T. Moore Examinateurs: I. Bonnell, F. Boulanger, F. Combes,

More information

Astronomy 100 Exam 2

Astronomy 100 Exam 2 1 Prof. Mo Exam Version A Astronomy 100 Exam 2 INSTRUCTIONS: Write your name and ID number on BOTH this sheet and the computer grading form. Use a #2 Pencil on the computer grading form. Be careful to

More information

Solar Ast ro p h y s ics

Solar Ast ro p h y s ics Peter V. Foukal Solar Ast ro p h y s ics Second, Revised Edition WI LEY- VCH WILEY-VCH Verlag Co. KCaA Contents Preface 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3

More information

1. The percent by mass of nitrogen in Mg(CN) 2 is equal to 1) 3)

1. The percent by mass of nitrogen in Mg(CN) 2 is equal to 1) 3) 1. The percent by mass of nitrogen in Mg(CN) 2 is equal to 2. A compound consists of 40.% sulfur and 60.% oxygen by mass. What is the empirical formula of this compound? 1) SO 2) SO 2 3) SO 3 4) SO 4 3.

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing 1 Atmosphere Anything missing in between? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) is radiated by atomic particles at the source (the Sun), propagates through

More information

Titan: The Solar System s Abiotic Petroleum Factory

Titan: The Solar System s Abiotic Petroleum Factory Titan: The Solar System s Abiotic Petroleum Factory J. Hunter Waite, Ph.D. Institute Scientist Space Science & Engineering Division Southwest Research Institute Titan: The Solar System s Abiotic Petroleum

More information

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Solar radiation i The Sun The Sun is the primary natural energy source for our planet. It has a diameter D = 1.39x10 6 km and a mass M = 1.989x10 30 kg and it is constituted by 1/3 of He

More information

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!

More information

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies.

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison Astronomy 141 Winter 2012 This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. The small terrestrial planets have

More information

12-3. Spherical groups of millions of stars found in the Milky Way are called: a) novas b) globular clusters X c) open clusters d) galactic clusters

12-3. Spherical groups of millions of stars found in the Milky Way are called: a) novas b) globular clusters X c) open clusters d) galactic clusters Chapter 12 Quiz, Nov. 28, 2012, Astro 162, Section 4 12-1. Where in our Galaxy has a supermassive (or galactic) black hole been observed? a) at the outer edge of the nuclear bulge b) in the nucleus X c)

More information

Highlights from the VLA/ANGST Survey

Highlights from the VLA/ANGST Survey Highlights from the VLA/ANGST Survey Evan Skillman U. Minnesota Gas in Galaxies 2011: From Cosmic Web to Molecular Clouds Kloster Seeon, Germany 16/06/2011 VLA/ANGST The ANGST HST Treasury Project allowed

More information

Name Class Date. true

Name Class Date. true Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

More information

Ay 122 - Fall 2004 Electromagnetic Radiation And Its Interactions With Matter

Ay 122 - Fall 2004 Electromagnetic Radiation And Its Interactions With Matter Ay 122 - Fall 2004 Electromagnetic Radiation And Its Interactions With Matter (This version has many of the figures missing, in order to keep the pdf file reasonably small) Radiation Processes: An Overview

More information

Nuclear fusion in stars. Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars

Nuclear fusion in stars. Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars Nuclear fusion in stars Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars The origin of structure in the Universe Until the time of formation of protogalaxies,

More information

Introduction to Chapter 27

Introduction to Chapter 27 9 Heating and Cooling Introduction to Chapter 27 What process does a hot cup of coffee undergo as it cools? How does your bedroom become warm during the winter? How does the cooling system of a car work?

More information

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature: Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

More information

Full window version (looks a little nicer). Click button to get back to small framed version with content indexes.

Full window version (looks a little nicer). Click <Back> button to get back to small framed version with content indexes. Production of Light Full window version (looks a little nicer). Click button to get back to small framed version with content indexes. This material (and images) is copyrighted!. See my copyright

More information

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

More information

Lecture 14. Introduction to the Sun

Lecture 14. Introduction to the Sun Lecture 14 Introduction to the Sun ALMA discovers planets forming in a protoplanetary disc. Open Q: what physics do we learn about the Sun? 1. Energy - nuclear energy - magnetic energy 2. Radiation - continuum

More information

Formation of Brown Dwarfs. PHY 688, Lecture 30 Apr 15, 2009

Formation of Brown Dwarfs. PHY 688, Lecture 30 Apr 15, 2009 Formation of Brown Dwarfs PHY 688, Lecture 30 Apr 15, 2009 Course administration final presentations reminder Outline see me for paper recommendations 2 3 weeks before talk: Apr 27 May 1 talks class re-scheduling

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Practice Quiz 4 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the wavelength of the longest wavelength light that can

More information

Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas. AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas. AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights. 1 Introduction to Chemistry Atomic Weights (Definitions) Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

More information

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer. Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation Outline MAE 493R/593V- Renewable Energy Devices Solar Energy Electromagnetic wave Solar spectrum Solar global radiation Solar thermal energy Solar thermal collectors Solar thermal power plants Photovoltaics

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

More information

MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW

MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number

More information

Resultados Concurso Apex 2007

Resultados Concurso Apex 2007 Resultados Concurso Apex 2007 Propuesta: CC-07-03 Investigador Principal: Leonardo Bronfman Título: ATLASGAL: APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy Resumen: The location of the APEX telescope

More information

Searching for young proto-planetary disks from ALMA archival data Final presentation

Searching for young proto-planetary disks from ALMA archival data Final presentation Searching for young proto-planetary disks from ALMA archival data Final presentation Speaker: Pou Ieng Cheong( 張 寶 瑩 ) 1 Supervisor: Shih Ping Lai( 賴 詩 萍 ) 2,3 1 Department of electrophysics, NCTU 2 Department

More information

Observing the Universe

Observing the Universe Observing the Universe Stars & Galaxies Telescopes Any questions for next Monday? Light Doppler effect Doppler shift Doppler shift Spectra Doppler effect Spectra Stars Star and planet formation Sun Low-mass

More information

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 California State Science Content Standards Covered in: Hands-on science labs, demonstrations, & activities. Investigation and Experimentation. Lesson Plans. Presented

More information

Atmosphere. Overview of Earth s Atmosphere

Atmosphere. Overview of Earth s Atmosphere Atmosphere Overview of Earth s Atmosphere The atmosphere is comprised of of gases, consisting mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. It also contains lesser amounts of argon, carbon dioxide, and many other trace

More information

Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin Ch. 10-11 Concept Ch. 10 #1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11 Ch11, # 3, 6, 11 Problems Ch10 # 3, 5, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25, 29, 33, 37, 39, 43, 47, 59 Problems: CH 11 # 1, 2, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 22, 25, 27, 28, 35 Temperature

More information

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen

Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen Atomic mass: p + = protons; e - = electrons; n 0 = neutrons p + + n 0 = atomic mass o For carbon-12, 6p + + 6n 0 = atomic mass of 12.0 o For chlorine-35, 17p + + 18n 0 = atomic mass of 35.0 atomic mass

More information

AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008

AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008 AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

More information

Geol 116 The Planet Class 7-1 Feb 28, 2005. Exercise 1, Calculate the escape velocities of the nine planets in the solar system

Geol 116 The Planet Class 7-1 Feb 28, 2005. Exercise 1, Calculate the escape velocities of the nine planets in the solar system Exercises/Discussions Atmospheric Composition: Escape Velocities and Surface Temperature Objectives Escape velocity and the mass and size of a planetary body The effect of escape velocity and surface temperature

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

More information

2.1-2 28-30 & 1 & 5 & 1950, 3 & 1971), & II

2.1-2 28-30 & 1 & 5 & 1950, 3 & 1971), & II Lecture 13 Molecular Spectroscopy 1. Long Wavelength Signatures 2. Introduction to Molecular Structure 3. Molecular Levels and Spectra 4. Emission and Absorption References Astro texts: Tielens, Secs 2.1-2

More information

Use the following image to answer the next question. 1. Which of the following rows identifies the electrical charge on A and B shown above?

Use the following image to answer the next question. 1. Which of the following rows identifies the electrical charge on A and B shown above? Old Science 30 Physics Practice Test A on Fields and EMR Test Solutions on the Portal Site Use the following image to answer the next question 1. Which of the following rows identifies the electrical charge

More information

Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory

Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory u Chapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory An important tool of the organic chemist is Infrared Spectroscopy, or IR. IR spectra are acquired on a special instrument, called an IR spectrometer. IR is used

More information

CO isotopologues in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Complex: the X-factor and regional variations

CO isotopologues in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Complex: the X-factor and regional variations CO isotopologues in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Complex: the X-factor and regional variations Jaime E. Pineda Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 6 Garden St., MS-1, Cambridge, MA 2138, USA jpineda@cfa.harvard.edu

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

Chapter 6 Atmospheric Aerosol and Cloud Processes Spring 2015 Cloud Physics Initiation and development of cloud droplets Special interest: Explain how droplet formation results in rain in approximately

More information

Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

More information

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

More information

Heat Transfer. Phys101 Lectures 35, 36. Key points: Heat as Energy Transfer Specific Heat Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation

Heat Transfer. Phys101 Lectures 35, 36. Key points: Heat as Energy Transfer Specific Heat Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation Phys101 Lectures 35, 36 Heat Transfer Key points: Heat as Energy Transfer Specific Heat Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation Ref: 16-1,3,4,10. Page 1 19-1 Heat as Energy Transfer We often speak

More information

MINQUIZ 2015 PROVINCIAL COMPETITION WRITTEN TEST MEMO TIME ALLOWED: 45 MINUTES NOTE: DO NOT OPEN UNTIL INSTRUCTED TO DO SO.

MINQUIZ 2015 PROVINCIAL COMPETITION WRITTEN TEST MEMO TIME ALLOWED: 45 MINUTES NOTE: DO NOT OPEN UNTIL INSTRUCTED TO DO SO. MINQUIZ 05 PROVINCIAL COMPETITION WRITTEN TEST MEMO TIME ALLOWED: 45 MINUTES NOTE: DO NOT OPEN UNTIL INSTRUCTED TO DO SO. Mintek 00 NOTES The test consists of 40 standard questions (split between Physical

More information

1 The water molecule and hydrogen bonds in water

1 The water molecule and hydrogen bonds in water The Physics and Chemistry of Water 1 The water molecule and hydrogen bonds in water Stoichiometric composition H 2 O the average lifetime of a molecule is 1 ms due to proton exchange (catalysed by acids

More information

Welcome to the World of Chemistry

Welcome to the World of Chemistry Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of

More information

Overview of the IR channels and their applications

Overview of the IR channels and their applications Ján Kaňák Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute Jan.kanak@shmu.sk Overview of the IR channels and their applications EUMeTrain, 14 June 2011 Ján Kaňák, SHMÚ 1 Basics in satellite Infrared image interpretation

More information

1. Introduction 2. The H 2 Molecule 3. The CO Molecule 4. Summary. 1. Introduction

1. Introduction 2. The H 2 Molecule 3. The CO Molecule 4. Summary. 1. Introduction Lecture 19. The H 2 and CO Molecules 1. Introduction 2. The H 2 Molecule 3. The CO Molecule 4. Summary References Stahler & Palla, The Formation of Stars, Secs. 5.2-3 Shull & Beckwith, ARAA 20 163 1982

More information

Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀

Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀 Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀 Introduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. It destroys little or no sample (nondestructive method). The amount of light absorbed

More information

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin What does our solar system look like? The planets are tiny compared to the distances between them (a million times smaller than shown here), but they exhibit

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities

More information

2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The Jovian Planets

2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The Jovian Planets The Jovian Planets The Jovian planets are gas giants - much larger than Earth Sizes of Jovian Planets Planets get larger as they get more massive up to a point... Planets more massive than Jupiter are

More information

Chemistry I: Using Chemical Formulas. Formula Mass The sum of the average atomic masses of all elements in the compound. Units are amu.

Chemistry I: Using Chemical Formulas. Formula Mass The sum of the average atomic masses of all elements in the compound. Units are amu. Chemistry I: Using Chemical Formulas Formula Mass The sum of the average atomic masses of all elements in the compound. Units are amu. Molar Mass - The mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance. Substance

More information