Malcolm S. Longair. Galaxy Formation. With 141 Figures and 12 Tables. Springer

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1 Malcolm S. Longair Galaxy Formation With 141 Figures and 12 Tables Springer

2 Contents Part I Preliminaries 1. Introduction, History and Outline Prehistory The Theory of the Expanding Universe The Big Bang Galaxy Formation The Very Early Universe The Large Scale Structure of the Universe The Spectrum and Isotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation The Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation The Isotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation The Large-scale Distribution of Galaxies Hubble's Law and the Expansion of the Universe Conclusion Galaxies The Revised Hubble Sequence for Galaxies Peculiar and Interacting Galaxies The Luminosity Function of Galaxies The Masses of Galaxies, The Virial Theorem for Clusters of Stars, Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies The Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies The Properties of Elliptical Galaxies : The Light Distribution of Elliptical Galaxies The Faber-Jackson Relation and the Fundamental Plane Ellipticals Galaxies as Triaxial Systems 61

3 X Contents 3.6 The Properties of Spiral and Lenticular Galaxies...: The Light Distribution in Spiral and Lenticular Galaxies The Tully-Fisher Relation The Properties of Galaxies: Correlations Along the Hubble Sequence Clusters of Galaxies The Large-Scale Distribution of Clusters of Galaxies Catalogues of Rich Clusters of Galaxies Abell Clusters and the Large-Scale Distribution of Galaxies The Distribution of Galaxies in Clusters of Galaxies The Galaxy Content and Spatial Distribution of Galaxies in Clusters Clusters of Galaxies and Isothermal Gas Spheres The Structures of Regular Clusters of Galaxies The Luminosity Function for Cluster Galaxies Summary of the Properties of Rich Clusters of Galaxies Dark Matter in Clusters of Galaxies' Dynamical Estimates of the Masses of Clusters of Galaxies X-Ray Observations of Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxies The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect in Hot Intracluster Gas Gravitational Lensing by Clusters of Galaxies Summary Forms of Dark Matter Baryonic Dark Matter Non-baryonic Dark Matter 103 Part II The Basic Framework 5. The Theoretical Framework The Cosmological Principle Isotropic Curved Spaces The Space-Time Metric for Isotropic Curved Spaces The Robertson-Walker Metric Observations in Cosmology Redshift Hubble's Law 126

4 Contents XI Angular Diameters Apparent Intensities Number Densities / 130 ' The Age of the Universe-; Summary An Introduction to Relativistic Gravity The Principle of Equivalence The Gravitational Redshift The Bending of Light Rays Further Complications The Route to General Relativity Four-Tensors in Relativity What Einstein Did Experimental and Observational Tests of General Relativity The Friedman World Models Einstein's Field Equations 152 J.2 The Standard Dust Model: The Friedman World Models with A = The Newtonian Analogue of the Friedman World Models The Critical Density and the Density Parameter The Dynamics of the Friedman Models with A = The Deceleration Parameter The Cosmic Time-Redshift Relation The Flatness Problem Distance Measures as a Function of Redshift The Observed Properties of Standard Objects in the Friedman World Models with A = Angular Diameter Distances Between Any Two Redshifts Models with Non-zero Cosmological Constant The Cosmological Constant and the Vacuum Energy Density The Dynamics of World Models with A ^ Observations in Lemaitre World Models Inhomogeneous World Models The Determination of Cosmological Parameters The Cosmological Parameters Testing the Friedman Models Hubble's Constant H o 190

5 XII Contents 8.4 The Deceleration Parameter q The Apparent Magnitude-Redshift Relation for Luminous Galaxies Type 1A Supernovae The Angular Diameter-Redshift Relation The Density Parameter Q o The Cosmological Constant: A and QA The Cosmic Time-Scale T o The Thermal History of the Universe Radiation : Dominated Universes The Matter and Radiation Content of the Universe The Epoch of Recombination The Radiation-Dominated Era The Speed of Sound as a Function of Cosmic Epoch Early Epochs Nucleosynthesis in the Early Universe Equilibrium Abundances in the Early Universe The Decoupling of Neutrinos and the Neutrino Barrier The Synthesis of the Light Elements The Abundances of the Light Elements Electron-Positron Annihilation, the Value of x and Other Considerations Baryon-symmetric Universes 245 Part III The Development of Primordial Fluctuations Under Gravity 11 The Evolution of Fluctuations in the Standard Big Bang What Theorists are Trying to Do The Non-relativistic Wave Equation for the Growth of Small Perturbations in the Expanding Universe The Jeans' Instability The Jeans' Instability in an Expanding Medium Small Perturbation Analysis Perturbing the Friedman Solutions Falling Poles The General Solution The Evolution of Peculiar Velocities in the Expanding Universe The Relativistic Case 271

6 Contents XIII 11.7 The Basic Problem The Simplest Picture of Galaxy Formation and Why it Fails Horizons and the Horizon Problem Adiabatic Fluctuations in the Standard Big Bang The Radiation-Dominated Era The Matter-Dominated Era Dissipation Processes in the Pre-recombination Era Isothermal Perturbations Baryonic Theories of Galaxy Formation The Adiabatic Scenario The Isothermal Scenario What Went Wrong? Dark Matter and Galaxy Formation Introduction Forms of Non-baryonic Dark Matter Free Streaming and the Damping of Non-Baryonic, Perturbations Instabilities in the Presence of Dark Matter The Evolution of Hot and Cold Dark Matter Perturbations Hot Dark Matter Scenario Cold Dark Matter Scenario Where We Go from Here Correlation Functions and the Spectrum of the Initial Fluctuations The Two-point Correlation Function for Galaxies The Perturbation Spectrurn The Relation between (r) and the Power Spectrum of the Fluctuations The Initial Power Spectrum The Evolution of the Initial Perturbation Spectrum Biasing Reconstructing the Initial Power Spectrum Variations on a Theme of Cold Dark Matter Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation The Ionisation of the Intergalactic Gas Through the Epoch of Recombination The Physical and Angular Scales of the Fluctuations Large Angular Scales 334

7 XIV Contents The Sachs-Wolfe Effect: Physical Arguments The Statistical Description of the Temperature Fluctuations Primordial Gravitational Waves Intermediate Angular Scales: The Acoustic Peaks Small Angular Scales Other Sources of Primordial Fluctuations Other Sources of Fluctuations The Reheating of the Intergalactic Gas The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect in Clusters of Galaxies Confusion due to Discrete Sources Present and Future Observations 358 Part IV The Post-Recombination Universe 16 The Post-recombination Universe: The Dark Ages The Non-linear Collapse of Density Perturbations The Role of Dissipation The Press-Schechter Mass Function ' The Evolution of Galaxies and Active Galaxies with Cosmic Epoch Introduction Counts of Galaxies and Active Galaxies Euclidean Source Counts Source Counts for the Standard World Models Fluctuations in the Background Radiation due to Discrete Sources F/Knax or Luminosity-Volume Test The Evolution of Active Galaxies with Cosmic Epoch Number Counts and V/V max Tests for Extragalactic Radio Sources Radio Quiet Quasars X-ray Source Counts IRAS Galaxy Counts Counts of Galaxies The Background Radiation i The Background Radiation and the Source Counts Evaluating the Background due to Discrete Sources The Effects of Evolution: The Case of the Radio Background Emission 416

8 Contents XV 18 The Evolution of Star and Element Formation Rates with Cosmic Epoch Star and Element Formation in Galaxies The Background Radiation and Element Formation The Lyman-a Absorption Clouds The Properties of the Lyman-a Absorption Clouds The Evolution of Lyman-a Absorption Clouds with Cosmic Epoch The Abundances of Elements in Lyman-a Absorbers The Proximity Effect and the Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation at Large Redshifts Star Formation Rates from Optical, Ultraviolet and Submillimetre Observations The Cowie and Lilly Argument The Lyman-Break Galaxies The Hubble Deep Field Submillimetre Observations of Star-Forming Galaxies Putting It All Together: The Equations of Cosmic ' Chemical Evolution Diffuse Intergalactic Gas Introduction The Background Emission of and Absorption by the Intergalactic Gas The Gunn-Peterson Test The X-ray Thermal Bremsstrahlung of Hot Intergalactic Gas The Collisional Excitation of the Intergalactic Gas The Luke-Warm Intergalactic Gas The Lyman Continuum Opacity of the Intergalactic Gas Modelling the Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium Final Things A Synthesis of Observations Related to the Origin and Evolution of Galaxies Massive Galaxies Clusters of Galaxies The Blue Galaxies The Origin of the Rotation of Galaxies and their Magnetic Fields The Origin of Rotation The Origin of Magnetic Fields 479

9 XVI Contents 20.3 The Very Early Universe The Anthropic Cosmological Principle The Inflationary Universe and Clues from Particle Physics 485 References 493 Index 515

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