Innovare l'infrastruttura di comunicazione aziendale

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1 Innovare l'infrastruttura di comunicazione aziendale Luca Marzegalli CEFRIEL; FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES ONLY: ANY OTHER USE OF THIS PRESENTATION - INCLUDING REPRODUCTION FOR PURPOSES OTHER THAN NOTED ABOVE, MODIFICATION OR DISTRIBUTION - WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CEFRIEL IS PROHIBITED

2 Networking PAN, LAN, MAN and WAN PAN LAN MAN WAN The closest interaction between a user and the external world; this involves Body Area Networks (BAN), connecting appliances, body sensors, small portable devices (e.g. mobile phones, personal digital assistants, audio headsets, etc.) and Personal Area Networks Interaction could be confined in a limited personal area (mostly referred to home or car); this involves Home Area Networks (HAN) Interaction is confined in a limited area (mostly referred to a professional environment) Examples: Office Manufacturing environment Network extended over wide coverage areas (a district or entire city) and are used to reach small and medium-sized enterprises and corporate networks, residential and small office/home office users; this involves Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Large geographical area networks that are used to reach smaller networks Networks that connect devices over even global areas with point to point, broadcast and multicast services. Personal Area Network (PAN) Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) 0-10 m m 0-10 km km 2

3 Broadband Access Wired Fibra ottica DSLAM ADSL Anello ottico ADM Power Line 3

4 Cablaggio Ottico Capacità elevatissime: da 10 Mbit/s a 1 Gbit/s Internet, TV e Telefono insieme Costi elevati Nessuna infrastruttura preesistente Investimenti sostenibili solo per utenti ad alta capacità di spesa Utenti Business Solo nel centro delle grandi citttà Ethernet come tecnologia di livello 2 10 Mbit/s in casa dell utente Switch di primo livello nel sottoscala del condimino 100 Mbit/s nel condominio Broadband Access: Fibra ottica 4

5 Broadband Access: ADSL Trasmissione digitale sul doppino telefonico coesistenza con i segnali analogici POTS Velocità di connessione vs. lunghezza collegamento Apparati Modem e/o router ADSL a casa dell utente DSLAM nella centrale telefonica Tecnologia di trasporto a livello 2 ATM: PPPoATM Ethernet: PPPoEthernet TLC Exchange Central Office TDM Switch POTS PSTN IP incapsulato nel protocollo PPP Assegnamento dinamico indirizzo IP AAA (Authentication, Authorization, Accounting) Home POTS + DSL POTS Splitter DSLAM Data Data Network 5

6 Tecnologie xdsl 6

7 Velocità xdsl CEFRIEL 7

8 Power Line Communication (PLC) Tecnologia per la trasmissione a banda larga su cavo elettrico Rete di accesso punto-punto ~ 2-4 Mbps Dalla cabina di trasformazione al contatore di casa Ancora nessuno standard Limiti tecnologici La comunicazione non passa attraverso le cabine di trasformazione elettrica in Europa 1 trasformatore serve in media 150 utenti negli Stati Uniti 1 trasformatore serve utenti Alcune frequenze utilizzate provocano interferenza con altri apparati radio Sicurezza il segnale PLC può essere intercettato facilmente Broadband Access: PLC 8

9 Networking: The Wireless Scenario (1/2) Personal Area Network (PAN) Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) The technology for such body/personal area networks today is represented today mainly by Bluetooth/ standard and IRDA (infrared port) although this is not a network technology, but just a cable-replacement technique For home networks (Wi-Fi a/g) are suitable In the near future high speed PANs based on IEEE (Ultra Wide Band) standard will offer more than 100 Mb/s (potentially up to over 1 Gb/s at 1-2 meters) for multimedia applications; low data rate, low power consumption, low cost PANs based on IEEE (Zigbee) will offer connectivity among small electronics (toys, keyboards, etc.) When high-bit rate applications are considered, wired technologies can guarantee the adequate performance and some high-performance wireless networks (Wi-Fi a/g) are suitable Fixed Broadband Wireless Access (WiMax) Users can access the core network via wireless and mobile radio cellular networks. Whenever global coverage, high-mobility levels, broadcast and multicast services are strong constraints to be fulfilled, satellite connections are the most suitable. Radio Frequency ID (RFID) is an interesting technology suitable for body area networks 9

10 Networking: The Wireless Scenario (2/2) 0-10 m m 0-10 km km Personal Area Network (PAN) Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) Bluetooth Zigbee IRDA Wi-Fi WiMax GSM GPRS UMTS Adv (IRDA) Ultra low power consumption and cost Disadv (IRDA) short range (~1m), device direct visibility Adv (BT,ZB) Low cost and low power consumption Disadv (BT,ZB) low bit rate UWB Wi-Fi Advantages: similar to LAN wireless technologies Disadvantages: must sustain adequate quality of service (high and constant bit rate) Advantages: Lower time for deployment and configuration of access points High flexibility and scalability: end terminals can easily access to the network Lower costs (no cabling) Disadvantages: No. of user are limited by interferences Lower performance than wired LAN technologies Advantages: similar to LAN wireless technologies Disadvantages: Product not available yet on the market Advantages: mobility, based on a worldwide standard Disadvantages: optimized for voice traffic, limited data bit rate (not suitable for multimedia application) Satellite Advantages: wide coverage, high bit rate Disadvantages: mainly broadcasting; low bit rate upstream and delay in response in bidirectional communications, 10

11 Wireless Technologies Technologies for Wireless PANs: Bluetooth Technology Features Original Rationale: get rid of the cables and use short-range wireless links to facilitate on-demand connectivity for high end small electronics such as smart phones, PDAs, audio headsets, etc. Supported services: optimized for voice traffic and mediumbandwidth data traffic Performance: up to 3 voice channels at 64 Kb/s (standard digital voice bandwidth) and one data channel at maximum 700 Kb/s, operating in the license-free ISM band (2.4 GHz); range of operation: about 10 m; line-of-sight not required (no visibility required) Architecture: star-shaped networks of up to 8 devices, centrally controlled by a master device (NB: the total bandwidth must be divided by the number of devices of the network) Technical limits: not an effective network technology: it is designed to manage only a limited number of devices per network; power consumption and cost too high for ubiquitous applications in the lowend electronics (such as sensors, micro-controllers, etc.) Applications BT is today used mainly for point-to-point communication between high-end small electronics: Extension of network services into the user domain (e.g. transfer data from an internet connection established by a 3G phone to the personal laptop computer) Data transfer to/from smart phones, PDAs, printers, etc. Hands-free audio systems, e.g. for the automotive industry 11

12 Wireless Technologies Technologies for Wireless PANs: Zigbee Technology Features Original Rationale: exchange low bit-rate control information in indoor environments between automatic low-end electronic devices, which might operate on battery power (therefore low cost and low power consumption are mandatory requirements) Supported services: optimized for narrow-bandwidth data traffic Performance: from 20 Kb/s up to 250 Kb/s, operating in the licensefree ISM band (2.4 GHz); range of operation: about 100 m; line-of-sight not required; high density of nodes supported; multi-month to multiyear battery life (very low power consumption) Architecture: both star-shaped and mesh networks of up to more than 100 nodes Technical limits: not suited for multi-media traffic (low-bandwidth) and for real-time synchronous traffic such as voice (no support for QoS) Technology Availability: 2006 (already out in products such as light switches and remote controls) Applications envisaged (Zigbee products have not a significant penetration in the market yet): Home Networking Automotive Networks Industrial Networks Interactive Toys Remote Metering Applications 12

13 Wireless Technologies Technologies for Wireless PANs: Infra Red Original Rationale: cable replacement to facilitate on-demand connectivity mainly for computer peripherals (keyboard, mouse, etc.) Supported services: optimized for broad-bandwidth data traffic Performance: up to 16 Mb/s (usually 4 Mb/s), operating license-free in the infrared portion of the spectrum; range of operation: about 1 m; line-of-sight required Architecture: point-to-point link Technology Features Technical limits: line of sight required; very limited range Applications Mainly for point-to-point communication between high-end electronics: Connection of computer peripherals Data transfer between personal computers and laptops Remote controls of devices and terminals 13

14 Wireless Technologies Technologies for Wireless LANs: WiFi a/b/g/n Technology Features Original Rationale: provide a more flexible, cost-effective, easy-todeploy solution for local area networks, mainly for the enterprise market Supported services: same as traditional Ethernet LANS, optimized for broad-bandwidth data traffic Performance: up to 54 Mb/s (b is 11 Mb/s, a/g 54 Mb/s) per channel, operating in the license-free ISM band (2.4 GHz) and UNII band (5 GHz); range of operation: about 100 m; line-of-sight not required Architecture: single-hop peer-to-peer networks (not often used); infrastructure networks with an Access Point, acting as an Ethernet hub, providing access to the wired LAN Technical limits: not yet as performing as cable LANs (probably will never be); not optimized for multi-media traffic; in the ISM band (2.4 GHz) only 3 independent channels available -> a limited number of access points can operate simultaneously in the same area before mutual interference gets in the way; mobility not supported natively, but many solutions have been designed and produced to support mobility at pedestrian speed (not suitable for vehicular speed) Technology Availability: 2006 for n WiFi is one of the most successful wireless technologies nowadays, and is used in many scenarios much beyond the original rationale: Enterprise and campus LANs Point-to-point radio bridges SOHO networks Public hotspots Warehousing Healthcare Retail... Applications Switch LAN 14

15 Local Wireless Area Networks (LWAN) SCENARIO INTERNET Wireless Access Point Switch Router Switch Wireless Access Point Wired Network Wireless Network Lower time for deployment and configuration of access points High flexibility: end terminals can easily access to the network Mobility Lower costs (no cabling) Advantages Disadvantages Actual implemented protocols are not secure. Further solution are needed to make the network secure Qualified personnel needed to correctly configure the network No. of user are limited by interferences Wired network needed to support wireless network 15

16 Wireless Technologies Technologies for Wireless MANs: WiMax Technology Features Original Rationale: provide a solution for broadband access, more flexible and cost-effective than cable competitive technologies (DSL lines, cable modems, fiber optics, power lines, etc.) Supported services: multi-media traffic and broad-bandwidth data traffic Performance: up to 74 Mb/s; range: tens of km; different frequency bands from 2 GHz up to 66 GHz (most of which are NOT license-free, operator required); line of sight required for frequencies higher than 10 GHz Architecture: cellular wireless networks much like GSM networks; mesh networking envisaged for later versions of the standard Technical limits: a/d does not support mobility, but later versions of the standard will (802.16e); power consumption and cost at the beginning will be too high for inclusion in small battery-powered devices (cost of network cards could be very high not justified for small personal devices) Technology Availability: Late 2005 / early 2006 Applications Technology available, but products not yet on the market Mainly, broadband access for enterprise, SOHO and residential markets Version e will support mobility at vehicular speed -> possible competition with 3G or later generation of cellular mobile technologies in the metropolitan area 16

17 Mobile Performance Comparison NETWORK Speed Performance Frequency Range GSM WAN 9.6 Kbps 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 1900 MHz GPRS WAN Kbps 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 1900 MHz UMTS WAN 2 Mbps motionless near the base station 384 Kbps up to 50 Km/h 144 Kbps up to 180 Km/h 2 GHz 3.5G WAN 14.2 Mbps 2 GHz 4G WAN Up to 100Mbps 2-4 GHz GSM GPRS UMTS 17

18 Wireless Access Complementarietà estesa ai sistemi mobili 18

19 Digital Home Unique Infrared Remote controll for management of all devices Plasma TV Amplifier and Speakers WMC IP Net Lighting Light scenarios Windows and tent management Heat and conditioning Remote activation Programmable power on/off Kitchen Automation Pay per use scenario Programmable working time Diet management Menus management Ordering management Intrusion detection and domestic safety Remote home control Physical security Intrusion analysis SENSORS Presence Proximity Gas escape Humidity and Water Power consumption Power dispersion Life and Wellness Heart sensors Wellness sensors Vital Sign sensors Remote Heart auscultation device Elderly people monitoring People with disability alam management Expert Remote Assistance Vital sign monitoring Wellness check up Remote heart auscultation Proactive remote maintenance 19

20 Requirements for Solution Sustainability User Requirements Use case Technology Requirements Software Architecture Business Requirements Business Case.. Use Case 2 Hardware Architecture Use Case 3.. Platform APPS Man Machine Interface Driv er User Administrator Vehicle USB HOST Driv er BT Profiles Driver USB DEVICE Driver OS Driver ANALOG I/O Dr iv er Driver LIN BUS Dr iv er Blueto oth FM Tuner GPS Only on Full Level configuration 20

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