Communication Architecture for AMI and other Smart Grid/Smart City Applications. Presented By: Reji Kumar Pillai President - ISGF

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1 Communication Architecture for AMI and other Smart Grid/Smart City Applications Presented By: Reji Kumar Pillai President - ISGF

2 Evolution of Smart Metering Electromechanical Meters Electronic Meters AMR and Prepaid Meters Smart Meters Today s scenario: Gateways/DCU/Aggregators are common elements in AMI Limitations in various last mile connectivity options Reliability, scalability, latency, total cost of ownership

3 Key Characteristics of Communication Technologies for Smart Grids/Smart Cities Applications Bandwidth Latency Reliability Availability Scalability Interoperability Operating frequency Range of communications Power consumption of the device Technology life-cycle Regulatory compliance Cyber security Total cost of ownership Selection of technology will depend on application: Mission critical applications (SCADA, DA, WAMS) reliability, latency and security will be key Non-mission critical applications (AMR, AMI, EV) cost will be crucial

4 Snapshot of various communication technologies/protocols Technology/ Protocol Last Mile/NAN/FAN HAN Backhaul/WAN and Backbone Wireless 6LoWPAN-based RF mesh, ZigBee, Wi-Fi 6LoWPAN-based RF mesh, ZigBee, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Z-Wave, NFC Cellular, Satellite, LPWA, Long Wave Radio, TVWS, Private Microwave Radio links (P2P and P2MP) Wired PLC (narrow band and BPL), Ethernet, Serial interfaces (RS-232, RS-422, RS-485), DSL PLC (narrow band and BPL), Ethernet, Serial interfaces (RS-232, RS-422, RS-485) Optical Fiber, Ethernet, PLC, DSL

5 Frequency Band Characteristics Applications MHz Maximum effective radiated power = 10mW Indoor applications only Maximum channel bandwidth = 10 khz Inbuilt antenna MHz Maximum transmitted power = 1W Maximum effective radiated power = 4W Maximum channel bandwidth = 200 khz MHz Maximum transmitted power = 1 W (in a spread of 10 MHz or higher) GHz and GHz Snapshot of Specifications of Frequency Bands in India Maximum effective radiated power = 4 W Maximum antenna height = 5 meters above the roof-top of an existing authorized building Maximum mean effective isotropic radiated power = 200 mw Maximum mean effective isotropic radiated power density = 10 mw/mhz in any 1 MHz band. Inbuilt antenna GHz Maximum transmitted power = 1 W (in a spread of 10 MHz or higher) Maximum effective isotropic radiated power = 4 W respectively Any application Any application Indoor applications only Any application

6 Popular Communication Architectures for AMI - Worldwide

7 Architecture used by Enel

8 Architecture used by CenterPoint Energy, Houston

9 Typical AMI Architecture with RF mesh as last mile

10 Emerging Architecture for Smart City Applications - RF mesh canopy networks

11 Standards for Various Technologies

12 Communication protocols and standards for wireless NAN/HAN Protocol/Technology ZigBee 6LoWPAN-based RF mesh Wi-Fi Standard Bluetooth IEEE InfraRed (IR) NFC Z-Wave Millimeter Wave Technology IEEE (Physical and Mac layers) IEEE (IEEE Adoption of SEP 2.0 Application layer protocol) IEEE (Physical and MAC layers), IETF RFC 4933 and 6282 (6LoWPAN layer) IEEE ac (ac is the latest version) IEEE IR ISO/IEC defines the ID cards used to store information ISO/IEC specifies the RFID communication used by NFC devices ISO/IEC 18092: Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Near Field Communication - Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1) ITU-T G.9959 (Physical, MAC, Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) and Link Logical Control (LLC) layers) IEEE ad very high throughput in 60 GHz band

13 Communication protocols and standards for wireless WAN Protocol/Technology Cellular Standard Wi-MAX IEEE GSM and CDMA specifications Satellite (VSAT) ETSI EN Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) TV White Space (TVWS) IEEE Weightless-N Weightless-P (These Standards are defined by Weightless a non-profit global standards body) LoRAWAN R1.0 (published by LoRa Alliance)

14 Communication protocols and standards for Protocol/Technology wireline HAN/NAN/WAN Standard PRIME ITU-T G.9904 G3-PLC ITU-T G.9903 Meters and More OSGP TWACS IEEE IEEE ITU-T G.hnem IEC HomePlug ITU-T G.hn (G.9960/G.9961) Serial Interfaces (RS-232, RS-422, RS-485) CLC TS (CLC = CENELEC) ETSI TS , IEC/ISO EN , ETSI GS OSG 001 (application layer) Proprietary (by Aclara, Sumitomo) IEEE Narrowband PLC IEEE Broadband PLC ITU-T G.hnem - Narrowband PLC IEC Narrowband PLC HomePlug Green PHY Narrowband PLC HomePlug Command & Control Broadband PLC. Published by HomePlug Alliance ITU-T G.hn (G.9960/G.9961)- Broadband PLC EIA-232, EIA-422 and EIA-485. (EIA = Electronics Industry Alliance)

15 ISGF Vision for Next Generation AMI Architecture

16 ISGF vision on communications architecture for next generation AMI

17 Conclusion Traditional AMI architectures use DCU/Gateways Increase Total Cost of Ownership Fail to provide reliable, scalable and interoperable last mile connectivity Internet is ubiquitous and hence can connect to Smart meters Smart appliances HES Utility applications Home broadband internet can be used for providing last mile connectivity for AMI No need to use DCU/Gateways, In-Home Displays etc Reliable, scalable and interoperable last mile connectivity Where ever there is no WiFi, electric utility should provide free WiFi (which is cheaper than other options!)

18 Thank you!

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