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1 Sofrito! David Gonzalez with Bobby Sanabria s Cuarteto Aché At Ordway Center What s in this Study Guide? About the Performance pg. 3 About Sofrito! pg. 4 The Art of Storytelling pg. 5 Music Styles and Culture pg. 6 About the Instruments pg. 7 A Brief History of Cuba pg. 8-9 A Brief History of Puerto Rico pg. 10 Vocabulary pg. 11 Activities and Discussion Questions pg Resources pg About Ordway Center pg Evaluation pg

2 About the Performance... About Sofrito! Add one energetic storyteller, blend in several world-renowned Latin musicians, and you get an unforgettable performance called Sofrito! Combining music and theater, Sofrito! celebrates music and folklore found throughout the Latin Diaspora. It is a unique and energetic collaboration of storytelling, classic Latin rhythms, and funky new music that educates, entertains, and inspires. Incorporating stories from Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Mexico, and the Bronx, Sofrito! brings out the rich culture and imagery that resonates throughout the Latin world. Sofrito! is used as a cooking metaphor for what takes place on the stage by mixing stories from Cuba, Colombia, Puerto Rico, the Caribbean, and the Latin community of New York City as the basis for the show. Like it's name sake, Sofrito! is a lively concoction of spicy music and myths from Latino and Caribbean culture. About the Performance: HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN SOFRITO! Sofrito is also an essential flavor in Caribbean Latino cooking. A unique blend of wonderfully different ingredients, the rich and delicious salsa makes you want to dance! Ingredients: - Olive Oil - 1 tsp. Oregano - 1 Onion, diced - Salt and Pepper - 1 Green pepper, diced - 2 Cloves of Garlic, mashed - 1/2 Can of Tomato Sauce Sauté onion, pepper, and garlic in olive oil until transparent. Add tomato sauce and oregano, simmer for five minutes, then enjoy! Use as a delicious base for chicken, fish, meat, beans, and vegetables In this original theater performance, well known storyteller David Gonzalez uses his brilliant comedic style to captivate audiences with enchanting tales from the Latino world. Incorporating stories from Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Mexico, and the Bronx, Sofrito! combines these tales with music and rhythm that, together, introduces all generations to the pleasures of spoken word and Latin music. These stories range from a Caribbean fairy tale of a girl who befriends a magical goldfish and becomes the Queen of Parathat, to the pre-colombian tale of the birth of the Royal Palm tree in the rain forest of Puerto Rico. There is also a tale of Cuban folklore about how one of God's messengers trades his power of fortune telling for the power of playing the drum. Bobby Sanabria s Cuarteto Aché spices up the stories with wonderful songs, chants, and music that allows for audience participation during its songs and dances. Sofrito! is a joyful celebration of Latino culture which emphasizes the idea of finding the right balance in life. Sofrito! 3

3 About Sofrito! Performers Introducing David Gonzalez David Gonzalez is a storyteller, musician, educator, music therapist, and passionate advocate for the arts. Since being introduced to the art of storytelling at the age of seven, David has performed for more than 1,500 audiences and has even hosted an awardwinning children s radio program -New York Kids on WNYC-FM David recently performed JAZZ Orpheus (an original adaptation of the classic Greek myth) on a two year long tour with the Lincoln Center Institute. David is a graduate of New York University s School of Education where he was a recipient of a National Hispanic Scholarship fund grant. He was also a Research Fellow at NYU and has worked as a music therapist for the past 20 years. David is a talented artist with an amazingly unique style of solo theater. Meet Bobby Sanabria and Cuarteto Aché Bobby Sanabria: is a Puerto Rican American percussionist who was raised in the Fort Apache section of the Bronx. A composer, arranger, and recording artist, Bobby also teaches a the Drummer s Collective at the New School for Social Research in New York. He has performed with many jazz and Latin greats as well as with his own critically acclaimed ensemble Ascension. Yomo Toro: has acted as an ambassador of Puerto Rican culture for more than thirty years. Famous for his spectacular speed and originality, he has been labeled as the Jimi Hendrix of the cuatro. As Latin rhythms and culture enter the vocabulary of people throughout the world, Yomo will be there with his catchy songs, rocking cuatro, and winning right of Puerto Rican culture. By doing so, Yomo has become a favorite throughout the world. Adalberto Santiago: also known as the Puerto Rican Elvis Presley, began his career in 1966 when he joined the Ray Barretto Band. Over the years Adalberto has recorded over 50 albums with such artists as Celia Cruz, Tito Puente, and The Fania All Stars. Pete Nater: a native New Yorker raised by Puerto Rican parents, Pete was asked to join the Larry Harlow orchestra in He has recently returned to the Latin Legends after playing with Wynton Marsalis, Celia Cruz, and the Machito Orchestra. He is also the founder and musical director of Fasinacion. Guillermo Edghill: a native of Panama, Guillermo is an educator and self taught musician in bass and guitar. He has played bass with legendary bands such as Cortijo y su Combo, the Machito Orchestra, the Charlie Palmieri Orchestra, and the Tito Puente Big Band. Guillermo graduated from the Julliard School and is teaching master classes at the Boys Harbor School of Music in East Harlem. Wilson Chembo Corniel, Jr.: has played congas and percussion with many of the best known bands all over the world. He is a proud endorser of Latin Percussion instruments and is currently the leader of the Latin Society Jazz Ensemble. Sofrito! 4

4 The Art of Storytelling Storytelling is an art form that goes back thousands of years! Before written languages existed, oral storytelling was the only way to pass on information, history, and knowledge. Every culture in the world has a tradition of storytelling, and for some non-literate societies today, it is still the principle way for people to pass information and knowledge between one another as well as between generations. The children of traditional societies absorb the wisdom, knowledge, and love of their culture through storytelling and pass it on by continuing the practice. In many cultures, traditional storytelling is synonymous with song, chant, music, or poetry since stories were often chanted or sung, with musical accompaniment by an instrument. Today, we have come to recognize storytellers as artists. They are communicators who interpret the real world so that messages can be portrayed through imagery, sound, and emotion. By using language, voice, and body movement, the storyteller can liven up dull stories with the rhythms and music of life. Over time, as stories became more complex, storytelling changed from a skill into an art. There soon became master storytellers of a community who told stories using the tools of gesture, voice, movement, rhythm, and humor. These artists knew that telling a great story involved creating a strong plot, interesting characters, action, good dialogue, creative solutions to problems, and exciting expressions. They also knew that different stories appealed to different audiences and that they would need to alter the way they told the story for it to appeal to another group of people. Since there were so few people in these societies designated to this role, being a storyteller was usually held in high regard and was deeply respected. In today s society, however, storytellers seem to have been replaced by modern technology. Most stories told today are hardly ever done in the oral tradition, and are instead told through films, television, and books. Today, many cultures and societies, who have lost their tradition of storytelling, are rediscovering it and all its uses, as well as its significance to their history and in their societies. Purposes for Storytelling Storytelling has its origin in play activities, with gifted but ordinary people informally entertaining their particular social group. Gradually, these activities were included in religious rituals, historical recitations, and educational functions. There are many theories as to the origin of storytelling, including the following: it grew out of the playful, self-entertainment needs of humans. it satisfied the need to explain the surrounding physical world. it allowed for humans to honor the supernatural forces believed to be present in the world. it evolved from the human need to communicate experience to other humans. it fulfilled a need for beauty and expression through language, body, and music. it came from a desire to record/remember the actions or qualities of one s ancestors with the hope that continuing their memory would grant them a kind of immortality. Sofrito! 5

5 Sofrito! Music Styles and Culture: What is Salsa? Literally translated, salsa means spice, or sauce. However, over the past 40 years it has come to describe a very popular genre of music and dance that began in the Spanish Caribbean. At its root, salsa music is a mixture of Spanish and African music that has evolved and changed as it was introduced to styles from other Latin countries, most notably Puerto Rico. The basic structure of a salsa song is based on the Cuban son, beginning with a simple melody and followed by a coro section where the performers improvise. Afro-Cuban sons, which is a style of music that combined European and African musical traditions, provided salsa with its rhythms and harmonies. The musical style evolved to what we are familiar with today during the 60 s and 70 s, when large numbers of Cuban immigrants and Puerto Rican migrants relocated in and around New York City. In fact, using the term, salsa, as a musical expression is very recent; Joe Cuba s Sextet, a New York-based Puerto Rican musical group, introduced it in their song Salsa y Bembe. Salsa is sometimes referred to as the essential pulse of Latin music and is the most popular style of music and dance among Puerto Rican and Cuban communities as well as in Central and South America. Salsa has become one of the most significant and well known musical genres around the world, and in some countries it is called musica tropical to reflect the tropical environment in which it was created. Modern salsa music is also largely associated with salsa dancing, which has become equally popular around the world. One of salsa s closest relatives, and one that is also in the Sofrito! performance is the Cuban mambo. What is Mambo? Mambo was a popular style of music that was born and developed in Cuba during the 1930 s and 40 s. The music of Cuba is commonly referred to as Afro-Cuban because of the integration of music from African slaves and the Spanish music already on the island. Many of the slaves brought to Cuba by the Spanish were of Yoruban descent, however, there were also Bantu, Dahomeyans, and Africans of other tribes. Afro-Cuban music and the dances associated with it were heavily linked to the religious customs of the African population. In the 1920 s, the newly independent Cuban government passed a resolution which outlawed the playing of music performed in these religious rituals, which outlawed the religious practices themselves. From this repression was born another very important instrument commonly used today in Latino music the clave, which is one of the most important instruments in Latin music. The mambo music style reached the height of its popularity in the late 1950 s in New York s famed Palladium ballroom where Mario Bauzá began fusing it with jazz. From then on, many jazz musicians ( such as Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker ) began collaborating with Latin American musicians to experiment and create different styles of mambo. Even bands in Africa became mambo players and performed and recorded in Spanish. Mambo music grew out of a rich blend of cultural influences, and its popularity led the way for new styles such as the chachacha and salsa. Sofrito! 6

6 About the Instruments Latin music is an extremely percussive style of music that can be played on many types of instruments, percussion and otherwise. The term, Latin percussion, refers to a large family of musical percussion instruments used in Latin music. These instruments are also used in different musical styles from Latin American regions, all of which have roots in African tribal music. Though many different instruments can be used in Latin American music, there are a number of instruments that are typically and particularly meant for Latin music such as those seen below. Bongos: A pair of small drums attached to each other and played by hand. The larger male drum has a diameter of about 8 inches, and the smaller female drum is about 7 inches. The male drum has a lower pitch than the female drum. Bongos originated in Africa and the Caribbean. Clavés Clavés are two hard wooden sticks that are held in lightly cupped hands and struck together. They have a high penetrating sound, and often play a special Latin rhythm called the Clavé Rhythm. Conga Drum Conga drums descended from African drums made out of carved out tree trunks covered with skin. The various ways of striking the drum and the placement of the handstrikes on the surface make for a variety of sounds. Guiro Made out of a hollow gourd (or wood), the guiro is played by scraping a stick across its grooved surface. Maracas Made from an oval or round hallow gourd that is filled with small beads or seeds, the maracas are the most common rattle-type percussion instrument. They are derived from Native American rattles. Shakere, or African Shaker This instrument, played widely in Latin music, is made from a hollow gourd covered with a loose mesh with beads. Sofrito! 7

7 A Brief History of Cuba Cuba, officially known as the Republic of Cuba, consists of the island of Cuba, the Isle of Youth, and several other small islands. Cuba is located in the northern part of the Caribbean where Basic Facts About Cuba: the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean meet. The most populous country in the Caribbean, Cuba s people, culture, and customs have been heavily influenced by the Capital: Havana ancestry of the Taíno people, the period of Population: Spanish colonialism, the 11million introduction of African (est. 2007) slaves, and influences from the United States. W h e n C o l u m b u s claimed the island for Spain in 1492, it was inhabited by the 100,000 Taíno people who were quickly wiped out due to horrible working conditions, disease, and geno- Area: 110,860 sq. km. (44,200 sq. mi.) About the size of Pennsylvania. Government: Totalitarian Communist state. Money: - Cuban peso (CUP) - Convertible peso (CUC) Climate: Tropical; Dry season (November-April), Rainy season (May-October). Languages: Spanish Religions: 22 denominations including: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Jehovah s Witness, Jewish, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Methodist, and Evangelical Lutheran cide. With the indigenous population nearly extinct, the Spanish began bringing African Slaves to the island as its labor force. Cuba remained under Spanish rule for 388 years, and although it was seized by the British in 1762, it was restored back to Spain the following year. Although slavery was abolished on the island in 1886, the descendants of African slaves remained socially and economically oppressed. During this time, poverty in rural areas of Spain as well as the aftermath of the Spanish Revolution in 1868 led to much emigration from Spain to Cuba. When the U.S. battleship Maine was mysteriously blown up in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution calling for intervention, a resolution that U.S. President William McKinley was quick to approve. This resulted in the Spanish-American War, in which U.S. forces landed in Cuba in June of 1898 and quickly overtook the Spanish resistance. A peace treaty was signed in August of the same year, and Spain agreed to withdraw from the island. The McKinley administration placed Cuba under a 20-year treaty that designated all major decisions to be determined by the United States. When Theodore Roosevelt became the President of the United States in 1901, he abandoned the 20 year treaty proposal. Instead, the Republic of Cuba gained official independence on May 20, 1902 with independent leader Tomas Estrada Palma serving as the country s first president. However, the United States still retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and supervise its finances and international relations. During this same time, Cuba also leased their naval base at Guantánamo Bay to the United States, a property that is still used today by the U.S. government. Despite gaining formal independence on May 20, Cuba celebrates its independence day on January 1st, in honor of Fidel Castro s occupation of Havana in Fidel Castro became Prime Minister of Cuba in February of 1959 and served in that position until July of 2006, when he handed it over to his brother, Raul Castro, for medical reasons. Sofrito! 8

8 A Brief History of Cuba, cont. During Castro s time in office, Cubans began to leave the island in great numbers due to real estate confiscation, strict regulations for private businesses, and the termination of the independent press. This exodus from Cuba resulted in large expatriate communities forming in Miami, Florida and other parts of the country, most of which opposed the Castro government. The U.S. government also became increasingly hostile toward the Castro-led government of Cuba throughout During the 1960 s when a trade embargo strengthened Cuba s relationship with the Soviet Union, the U.S. (in lieu of the Cold War) was planning an invasion of the island in an effort to remove Castro from power and rid the island of its Soviet ties by using Cuban exiles living in Florida to aid in the anti-castro uprisings that were being repressed on the island. The result was the Bay of Pigs Invasion in April of At the last minute, however, President John F. Kennedy refused to provide American military intervention and withdrew US air support. The anti-castro uprisings failed to materialize. During the 1970 s, Castro became a leading spokesperson for Third World anti-imperialist governments and began providing military assistance to resistances in Angola, Ethiopia, Yemen, and other African and Middle Eastern countries. Although the expenses for this aid was paid for by the Soviets, it still places a large strain on Cuba s economy and manpower. Throughout this time, Castro was determined to build a socialist society within Cuba. This included providing free health care and education for the entire population. With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Cuba was dealt yet another economic blow, which resulted in many more Cubans seeking asylum in the United States in the following years. The Soviet Union was a primary source of aid for the island; its fall led to an enormous decrease in monetary aid, supplies, and resources. By the late 1990 s the country had stabilized due to aid from China and several European countries. Famous Cubans/ Cuban Americans: Celia Cruz - ( ) was born in Havana, Cuba. A legendary singer, she has become known as the Queen of the Salsa. As one of the most successful Cuban performers of the 20th century, she won three Grammy Awards, four Latin Grammy Awards, and has earned 23 gold albums. Gloria Estefan - was born in Havana, Cuba on September 1, Known as the Queen of Latin Pop, this five-time Grammy-winning Cuban American singer and songwriter is one of the world s most recognized music artists. With over 90 million albums sold worldwide, she is the single most successful crossover performer in Latin music history. Andy Garcia - was born in Havana, Cuba on April 12, This Academy Award-nominated Cuban American actor gained much popularity in the 1990 s when he starred in many Hollywood movies. Interesting facts about Cuba: 1. Cuba is the largest island in the West Indies. 2. In 1997, Christmas once again became a holiday on the island for the first time since the 1956 revolution. 3. Cuba has over 200 bays and 289 beaches! 4. Butterfly Jasmine is the official Flower of Cuba. It represents purity, rebelliousness, and independence. It flourishes in humidity. * The brief histories of Cuba and Puerto Rico are merely a sample of the many countries, islands, peoples, and cultures that make up the Latin Diaspora. Please feel free to incorporate into your curriculum an exploration of historically or culturally related countries ( i.e., Columbia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic). Sofrito! 9

9 A Brief History of Puerto Rico The island of Puerto Rico is located in the northeastern Caribbean off the coast of Florida. The archipelago of Puerto Rico includes the main island of Puerto Rico, which is the smallest of the Greater Antilles, and a number of smaller islands. During the Pre- Columbian era of Puerto Rico, the first inhabitants of the country were indigenous settlers known as the Ortoiroids, a culture from the Archaic age. Later, around AD 120 and 400, the Igneri, a tribe from the Orinoco region, also arrived on the island. Between the 7th and 11th century, the Taíno culture developed and became the dominant culture on the island until Christopher Columbus arrived in November of Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist. Later, the island took the name of Puerto Rico which means rich port in English. As the island became colonized by the Spanish, the Taíno population was quickly reduced. Many Taíno died due to harsh work conditions and diseases brought by the Spanish. African slaves were then brought to the country as labor to replace the decreasing populations of Taínos. Puerto Rico soon became an important territory and port for the Spanish Empire in the Caribbean. In the late 1600 s and 1700s, however, the Empire began to focus on more prosperous mainland territories and left Puerto Rico poor, under populated, and heavily neglected. As a result, the French, Dutch, and English made several attempts to acquire the island, though all were unsuccessful. On July 25, 1898 at the outbreak of the Spanish- American War, Puerto Rico was invaded by the United States when they landed at Guánica. By the end of the War, Spain was forced to give up Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States under the Treaty of Paris. So, for Puerto Rico, the beginning of the twentieth century began under the all government officials including the governor being appointed by the President of the United States. In 1917, the Jones-Shafroth Act granted U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans, a status they still hold today. Some political leaders, however, were unsatisfied and demanded change. Many started movements in favor of complete independence from the U.S., such as the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party movement, started by Pedro Albizu Campos. As a result of such movements and numerous others, the island came to somewhat of a compromise during the Roosevelt-Truman administrations. In 1946, President Harry Truman appointed the first Puerto Rican-born governor, Jesus T. Piñero. In 1947, the United States granted Puerto Rico the right to democratically elect a governor. Luis Muñoz Marín became the first elected governor of Puerto Rico in the 1948 general elections, serving for 16 years until Due to rough economic conditions during this time, there was heavy migration from Puerto Rico to the United States, particularly to New York City. As of 2003, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that there were more people of Puerto Rican birth or ancestry living in the United States than in Puerto Rico itself. Since the summer of 2007, the Puerto Rico State Department has developed a plan to grant Puerto Rican citizenship to Puerto Ricans living at home as well as abroad. Today, the island continues to struggle to define its political status. However, it has become a major tourist destination all over the world due to its vibrant mix of African, Taíno, Spanish, and more recently, North American cultures. Sofrito! 10

10 Vocabulary: Accompaniment - a vocal or instrumental part that supports a main part of the piece. Afro-Cuban - combining elements of black African culture with those of Cuban culture; percussive Latin music originating in Cuba and showing strong African rhythmic influence. Bantu - a member of any of a large number of linguistically related peoples of central and southern Africa; a group of over 400 closely related languages spoken in central, eastcentral, and southern Africa including Swahili, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Zulu, and Xhosa. Chachacha - a fast ballroom dance of Latin American origin, similar to the mambo, that follows a rhythmic pattern based upon a quick three-step movement. Charlie Parker - ( ) was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. He is considered one of the greatest jazz musicians and was a founding father of bebop. Parker's innovative approaches to melody, rhythm, and harmony were very influential in music, and remains an inspiration in jazz as well as in other genres. Cuba - a republic in the Caribbean, south of Florida, that is the largest island in the West Indies. Dahomeyans - name for the African peoples that belonged to a powerful West African state founded in the 1700 s. Dialogue - a conversation between two or more persons; an exchange of ideas or opinions between people. Dizzy Gillespie - ( ) was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, singer, and composer. He was a major figure in the development of bebop and modern jazz and was also instrumental in the founding of Afro- Cuban jazz. Exodus a mass departure Expatriate living in a foreign land; refers to a group of people who leave their native country to live elsewhere. Extinct - no longer in existence; to have ended or died out. Genocide - the deliberate and systematic extermination/killing of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. Gesture - a movement or position of the hand, arm, body, head, or face that is expressive of an idea, opinion, emotion, or thought. Imagery - to use language to vividly represent or describe objects, actions, ideas, emotions, etc. Improvise - to compose, play, recite, or sing on the spur of the moment. Jazz - a style of music created in the United States by Black Americans characterized by a strong but flexible rhythmic understructure with solo and ensemble improvisations. Integration - combining separate elements to make a whole. Latin Diaspora - the collection of peoples, countries, islands, territories, and cultures around the world that are related to the origins of Latino culture and/or heritage. Mario Bauzá- ( ) was a trained classical musician from Havana who became one of the most influential figures in the development of Latin jazz/afro-cuban music. Non-literate - having no written language; a society or people who have not developed a written language. Palladium ballroom - a dancehall on 53rd and Broadway in New York City that became famous for its excellent Latin music. Plot - also called storyline; the plan, scheme, or main story of a literary or dramatic work, such as a play, novel, or short story. Repression - the act of keeping down or controlling; to put down by force. Republic a state in which supreme power lies with the people Resolution - the act of resolving or determining upon an action or course of action, method, procedure, etc. Salsa - a lively, vigorous type of contemporary Latin American popular music, blending predominantly Cuban rhythms with elements of jazz and soul music. Sextet - a group or company of six singers or players; a musical composition for six voices or instruments. Son: Cuban music developed in the 19th and early 20th century which balances European and African influences. The son provided salsa with rhythmic and harmonic models. Spanish Caribbean - the Spanish speaking countries in the Caribbean, namely Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Tribal - being of or related to a tribe; characteristic of a tribe. Yoruba - a member of a group of people originating from numerous coastal West African countries; the language of the Yoruba, a Kwa language. Oral storytelling - a traditional improvisational art form where the words and actions of the storyteller creates the experience/story for the audience. Sofrito! 11

11 Grades K-3 ACTIVITIES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Activity: Goal: To explore the uses of storytelling. To think about how props and music can aid in learning and retention. Explanation: Sofrito! s desire to combine storytelling and music is at the center of every performance. In this activity, students will get the opportunity not only to create their own instruments, but also discover how music and storytelling can unite and enhance an experience. Activity : Part 1: 1. Before the activity, gather all supplies: You will need : - 2 clean and empty yogurt containers per Student, preferably single serve containers. - Colored paper, makers, crayons - Uncooked rice - Glue, tape, or a stapler. - A tablespoon 2. Ask students to decorate their containers with colored paper, crayons, markers, etc. 3. Fill one of the two containers with 2-3 table spoons of uncooked rice. 4. Place the empty container on top of the rice filled container and glue/staple/ strongly tape the edges together. If you adhered with glue, please allow it to dry before use. Part 2: 1. Ask students to sit in a circle while a story is being read to them. After the story is finished, hand students their maracas and read the story again. This time, have them shake the instruments at designated times during the story ( i.e., the repetition of a word or the entrance of a character). Sofrito! While going over numbers or simple math problems, ask students to shake their maracas once for the value of each number. For example, while counting as a class, ask students to shake their maracas once after one, twice after two, three times after three, and so on. Discussion: Before the Show/ After the activity: 1. What are maracas? How did you use them? What did you like about these activities? Was it fun to make your own instrument? Why or why not? What would you name your instrument? Why did you choose that name? 2. What did you notice during story time? What was different between the first time you read the story and the second time? How did the maracas change or add to the story? Did they make it more interesting? Did it make listening to the story more difficult? Did it allow you to participate rather than just listen? How did that feel? 3. What are you looking forward to seeing in the show? What kinds of instruments do you think the performance might have? How can you use all of your senses to observe new things at the performance? After the show: 1. Did you enjoy the performance? Why or why not? What parts of the performance did you like the most? What did you see in these parts that made them interesting to you? 2. What instruments did you see? What did they sound like or remind you of? Did you notice any maracas? How did they use them? Thinking back to the story time activity, how would the stories be different if there were no instruments? 3. Many times in theatre, instruments and music are used to enhance performances. Why do you think so? Did some of the music in this performance have a style? Was it funny, sad, slow, or fast? Hoe does that help tell the story?

12 Grades 4-5 ACTIVITIES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Activity: Goal: To explore the creative processes behind storytelling. To think about the importance of imagination and improvisation as well as the differences between written and oral presentations. Explanation: David Gonzalez s style of storytelling stems from a collection of folktales from across the Latin Diaspora. However, David has altered some of these tales to more properly fit his audience. In these activities, students will have the opportunity to exercise their own creative processes in the creation of their own stories. Activity 1: The Other Side 1. Ask students to pick a favorite fairy or folktale. You may choose one for the entire class or have each student pick their own. 2. Ask students to pick a character other than the main character in the story. 3. Ask students to re-write the story from the viewpoint of the character they chose. Students should be true to the original story line and maintain the characteristics of the characters found in the original version. For example, in Little Red Riding Hood, what was Grandma doing before the wolf came over? How did she react when the wolf came to the door? For the woodcutter, what was he doing in that part of the woods? 4. Ask students to share their adaptations with each other. Activity 2: The Magic Story Bag 1. Before the activity, gather all needed supplies: - a bag ( one you cannot see through ) - an assortment of objects; a toothbrush, a baseball, a marker, a rock, a feather, etc. There should be one object for every student. 2. Place all objects inside of the bag. 3. Explain to students that their goal in this activity is to create a story around or including the object they pick out of the bag. Explain also that each object is magic and integral to the story. 4. Ask each student ( without looking ) to pull out an object. Each student should be given a couple minutes to familiarize themselves with the object. 5. Ask each student to then create a story around the object that they will share with the class. Sofrito! Optional: This activity may also be a writing exercise Because we want your existing curriculum to be reinforced, it may be beneficial to incorporate vocabulary words and other lessons that the class is already working on. Allow students to work in groups or pairs for this activity if it will help to stimulate more creative ideas. Discussion: Before the Show/After the Activity: Activity 1: 1. Ask students how it felt to rewrite a fairy or folktale. Where or when were they first introduced to it? How? Through reading, being read to, a picture book, or song? 2. Ask the students to describe the difference between writing the story and reading it out loud. What did they notice? What was hard? What changed? Did they use their bodies? How? For the students who observed, what did they notice? 3. Ask students to compare and contrast their new story from the original fairytale. What were the differences? What were the similarities? Activity 2: 1. Ask students how it felt to create a story around an object. Did the object make it easier or harder to do so? Why or why not? 2. What role does imagination play in storytelling? What did the students like or dislike about being able to create something of their own? 3. Ask students to discuss how it felt to tell the story aloud. Did it help that the object was present? In what ways would the telling of the story been different if the object was not there? After the Show: 1. Think about the different stories you saw and heard in the performance. Were some of the stories the same or similar to stories that you have heard before? How were they different? 2. Were there objects or props within the stories that were necessary or important? What were some of them? How would the performance be different if that object was not there? 3. Think about how these stories were presented? Did the storyteller use their body? If so, how did that help in the telling of the story? How did that affect you as an audience member?

13 Grades 6-8 ACTIVITIES AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Activity: Goal: To explore the evolution of stories and discuss how and/or why these changes may occur. To think about how identity is presented and performed. 2. What do stories, fairytales, and folktales say about the cultures they belong to and about the people they represent? Think about stories or tales that you are personally familiar with in your life. What do they say about you or the culture or society you live in? Explanation: The many stories presented by Sofrito! come from a wide variety of tales from throughout the Latin Diaspora, some derived from stories of oral tradition. In this activity, students will discover how stories change over time and how these changes occur. Activity: Psst...Pass it On. 1. Ask students to sit in a circle. 2. Assign, or be, the group leader. The group leader will begin whispering a short story or paragraph ( including names, dates, or vocabulary words ) into the ear of the student next to him/her. It is helpful for the either the group leader or teacher to have the original story/ paragraph written on a piece of paper. 3. At the end of the story, the group leader will say Pass it on. 4. The next student in line relays the story or paragraph to the person next to them, and so on. Each player must speak clearly and listen carefully to what is being said. 5. Encourage players to repeat what was heard only, not what they thought their neighbor meant to say. 6. When the story/paragraph gets to the last player, ask the last student to share it with the class. Then read, or have the group leader read, the original. Discussion: Before the Show/After the Activity: 1. How was this activity? What was it like watching the story evolve from person to person? Why do you think the story changed from teller to teller? What are some things that would cause these changes to occur? Sofrito! What if a story of or about a group of people was told or presented by someone who didn't belong to that group? How does this change how the story is told? Does it? Is it the same story? Why or why not? What is different about it? What is the same? How does the teller affect the story that is being told? How and why? After the Show: 1. Think about the different histories present in the Latin Diaspora ( reference the Brief Histories section of the study guide or independent research). Could you see these historical influences in any of the stories during the performance? 2. What types of themes did you notice throughout the performance? What types did you expect to see? What influenced your expectations? Were they correct? 3. How did the Sofrito! performers incorporate their identities into their performance? As storytellers? As musicians? As members of the Latin Diaspora? If you were to create your own story, what aspects of your identity would you incorporate? Why or why not? 4. Ask the students to write about their viewing experience while keeping this activity in mind. How did learning about the history of the Latin Diaspora change how they saw the performance? Did it? How do they think the performance would have been different without those influences?

14 Book Resources: DeSpain, Pleasant. Emerald Lizard. ( August House, 1999 ) Gr. K-3. Bilingual. A bilingual anthology of 15 traditional folktales, myths, and legends, each from a different Latin American culture, this collection includes a few familiar stories such as "Juan Bobo," the Puerto Rican tale of a son who dresses the family pig in his mother's finest clothes. Told in simple language and in abbreviated form, these selections are easy for beginning storytellers to learn. ISBN: Hayes, Joe. The Day It Snowed Tortillas/El Dia Que Nevaron Tortillas. (Cinco Puntos Press, 2004 ) Gr. K-3. Bilingual. Joe Hayes is one of America's premier storytellers, and he is especially recognized for his bilingual telling of stories from the Hispanic culture of northern New Mexico. This bilingual edition has all the original stories as they have evolved in the last twenty years of Joe's storytelling. Storytellers have been telling these stories in the villages of New Mexico since the Spanish first came to the New World over four hundred years ago, but Joe always adds his own nuances for modern audiences. The tales are full of magic and fun and are sure to please! ISBN: Martinez.La Mujer Que Brillaba Aún Más que el Sol/The Woman Who Outshone the Sun. (Children s Book Press, 1997) Gr Bilingual. This original Hispanic folktale is skillfully told, and is solid and colorfully steeped with imagery of the earth and sky. Lucia Zenteno is a part of the story-telling tradition of Mexico's Zapotec Indians. In this English-Spanish retelling, Lucia's fate at the hands of unkind strangers is captured in artwork glowing with color and vitality. Both the Spanish and English read gracefully, and the poetic use of language suits the story well for telling. An excellent discussion starter, dealing as it does with issues of the differences between people and respect for nature, the book has a natural place in multicultural and environmental classes. ISBN: X Philip, Neil. Horse Hooves and Chicken Feet: Mexican Folktales. (Clarion Books, 2003) Gr This useful selection of 14 folktales from Mexico and people of Mexican decent from the American Southwest are simply, yet effectively retold, with many reflecting the strong influence of the Catholic Church on Mexican culture. Adding considerably to the overall appeal of the book are the exuberant illustrations, accomplished in the style of Mexican folk art. ISBN: Delacre, Lulu. Golden Tales Myths, Legends, and Folktales from Latin America. (Scholastic Press, NY. 1996) Gr Four cultures and 13 countries are featured in this wonderful collection. Mingling traditional creation myths and ethnic folktales, each section begins with a brief description of the culture of origin, and an appendix provides sources for the myths with stories that show the Spanish influence in the Caribbean and Mexico. ISBN: X Nye, Naomi.The Tree Is Older Than You Are:A Bilingual Gathering of Poems & Stories from Mex. (Simon Pulse, 1998) Gr Bilingual. This enticing bilingual anthology unfolds like a tapestry of images, languages, rhythms, and musicalities from all regions of Mexico. English translations appear alongside the Spanish poems and tales that explore everything from a table set for supper to a peach tree to a legend of rabbit's long ears. There are several pieces written in Tzotzil, and one in Tzeltal, two of the languages of the Maya. Often magical and sometimes playful, the artwork completes the experience of being welcomed into a mysteriously friendly world in which there is much to be discovered and shared. ISBN: Bierhorst, John. Latin American Folktales: Stories from Hispanic and Indian Traditions. ( Pantheon, 2003) Young Adult. Containing selections collected from 20 different countries, this book travels all over the Western Hemisphere tapping into indigenous cultures from Mexico, Central America, the American Southwest, and South America. The tales are short and concise and often pack a surprise punch line, making for extremely interesting reading. ISBN: Μuckley, R., Martinez-Santiago, A. Stories from Puerto Rico. ( McGraw-Hill, 1999) Young Adult. Bilingual. In Stories from Spain/Historias de Puerto Rico, the English and Spanish language stories are placed side by side to help students practice and improve their reading skills. This compilation allows you to explore the island's rich history with its 18 well-known Puerto Rican legends that stretch from the dawn of creation to the twentieth century. Included at the end of the book is a bilingual vocabulary list for reference. ISBN: Sofrito! 15

15 Local / Internet Resources: Local Organizations: Teatro del Pueblo 209 Page Street West Suite 208 Saint Paul, MN (651) (http://www.teatrodelpueblo.org/index.html) Teatro del Pueblo is a small, non-profit Latino theater located in St. Paul, MN. Based in the West Side's Latino community, Teatro del Pueblo's mission as a theater company is to promote cultural pride in the Latino community, to develop and support Latino talent, to educate the community at large about Latino culture, and to promote cultural diversity in the arts. Northstar Storytelling League P. O. Box Minneapolis, MN (612) The mission of the Northstar Storytelling League is to establish and maintain a diverse membership organization that promotes and supports the tradition of storytelling as art, as education, as entertainment, as a profession, and as service to individuals and communities in the Twin Cities area. Black Storytellers Alliance 1112 Newton Avenue North Minneapolis, MN (612) The Black Storytellers Alliance is a non-profit organization of master storytellers, educators, and community supporters. They provide training for those interested in using the African based storytelling methods to reach their audience. They have entertained and educated audiences for the past two decades and their philosophy is centered around the idea that art is a direct reflection of our culture. Each performance draws from the richness of the African and African American experi- Intermedia Arts 2822 Lyndale Avenue South Minneapolis, MN (612) Intermedia Arts mission is to be a catalyst that builds understanding among people through art. They work with artists, educators, activists, funders, and community leaders to provide multiple contexts and perspectives. Together, they encourage and support new definitions of artistic excellence that blossom out of our collective stories. Internet Resources: : Official Sofrito! Website : A guide to Latin music from around the world. : History of Jazz music origins, styles, and musicians featuring timeline, photos, festivals, glossary, guitar and piano chords, scales, and online lessons. : PBS website and video depicting Jazz history and influence. : US government website about Cuban culture, politics, history, government, etc. Also a resource for a search of other countries/islands in the Latin Diaspora. : History of both Salsa and Merengue as dance as well as music. Sofrito! 16

16 Fun Facts!! Did you know Ordway Center has two theaters? Ordway Center Main Hall, 1,900 seats McKnight Theatre 306 seats Ordway Center first opened its doors on January 1, 1985, just 22 years ago! When Ordway Center first opened, it had a different name- The Ordway Music Theatre. The name Ordway comes from Lucius Pond Ordway ( ) a Saint Paul businessman and early 3M investor. His granddaughter, Sally Ordway Irvine ( ) had the building built and decided to use the Ordway name. Ordway Center cost $45 million to build in 1985, in 2005 it would cost nearly $80 million dollars. Sally Ordway Irvine traveled to Europe with architects to visit opera houses and theatres when planning the design of Ordway Center. about Ordway Center for the Performing Arts Ordway Center for the Performing Arts is a catalyst for the artistic vitality of our community by hosting, presenting, and creating performing arts and educational programs that engage artists and enrich diverse audiences. As the mission states above, Ordway Center takes on three different roles: Hosting Ordway Center is home to three Arts Partners: The Minnesota Opera, The Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, and The Schubert Club. Each of these three organization program their own performance seasons, and use Ordway Center as their performance venue. Presenting In addition to the Art Partner s seasons, Ordway Center staff program two performance seasons. Musical theatre tours such as Chicago and Spamalot are brought in to be part of the Performance Season. The music and dance series, PLANETORD- WAY TARGET SEASON, includes companies on national and international tours like Angelique Kidjo and the Lily Cai Chinese Dance Company, and work produced by local organizations such as VocalEssence. Producing Ordway Center is a member of the Independent Presenters Network which allows them to collaboratively produce big musical productions with other performing arts centers. Such musicals are Love, Janis and The Rocky Horror Show. Ordway Center also presents the annual Flint Hills International Children's Festival, a week long Festival of international artists performing work to our youngest audience members children. The 2008 Festival is May 27 through May 30, For more information about Ordway Center and Arts Partners visit ordway.org. Ordway Center is the number one cultural destination for Minneapolis and Saint Paul Public Schools for ten years running! Schools from throughout the state and neighboring states attend Ordway Center student performances... more than 40,000 seats were filled by students and teachers last year! More than 350,000 patrons come to Ordway Center each year. Sofrito! 17

17 Going to the Theatre... Audience Role Activity and Checklist UNDERSTANDING YOUR ROLE THE AUDIENCE Audience members play a special and important role in the performance. The performers are very aware of audience mood and response, and each performance calls for different responses from the audience. What are the differences between attending a live performances and going to a movie? Lively bands, musicians, and dancers may desire audience members to clap and move to the beat. Other performers will desire total, silent focus on the stage and will want an audience to applaud only when they have completed a portion of their performance. As you enjoy the show, think about being a part of the performance. What are different kinds of live performances? What kind of responses might an audience give in each circumstance? What are the different cues that a performer will give you so that you know how to respond? For example, bowing or pausing for applause. Also, remember that a theater is designed to magnify sound, and even the smallest whispers or paper rustling can be heard throughout the auditorium. This is disrupting not only the performers, but the other 1,900 people in the hall with you. CHECKLIST, BEFORE YOU GO... Leave your food, drinks, and chewing gum at school or on the bus. Remember to turn off all cellular phones and pagers before the performance begins. When the house lights dim, the performance is about to begin. Please stop talking. Cameras, recording devices, and personal listening devices are not permitted in the theater. Talk before and after the performance only. Remember not only can those around you hear you, the performers can, too. Appropriate responses such as laughing and applauding are appreciated. Pay attention to the artists on stage they ll let you know what is appropriate. Open your eyes, ears, mind, and heart to the entire experience! You will be released when your school is called from the stage. Remember to check around your seat for everything you have brought with you. Sofrito! 18

18 The Sofrito! Study Guide and Performance Evaluation Thank you for choosing Ordway Center and attending a Performing Arts Classroom performance for your field trip. Please take a moment to complete this evaluation following the performance. Please return the evaluation as soon as possible. Your comments and suggestions are greatly valued, as they help us offer you and your students better services in the future. Thank you again. SPPS and MPS MUST return evaluation to receive bus subsidy. YOUR INFORMATION School Your Name Address Performance Attended October 29, 10:30am October 29, 12:30pm October 30, 10:30am October 30, 12:30pm Grades of Students attended Number of Students attended Please check here if we do not have permission to quote or paraphrase your comments or name in future publications or funding proposals. STUDY GUIDE REVIEW Which sections of this guide did you use? (check all that apply) About the Performance About Sofrito! Performers The Art of Storytelling Sofrito! Music Styles and Culture About the Instruments A Brief History of Cuba A Brief History of Puerto Rico Cuba, Puerto Rico, and New York Vocabulary Activities and Discussion Questions Local/Internet Resources Book Resources About Ordway Center Going to the Theatre Please write any comments or suggestions regarding the study guide: Sofrito! 19

19 The Sofrito! Study Guide and Performance Evaluation, cont. Which types of resource lists are most useful for you: Books for children Websites Local Arts Organizations Local Cultural Organizations Multimedia Resources Other Suggestions: What ways did the show connect to the classroom? (i.e. curricular areas, graduation standards, social skills, etc.) Rate the overall performance Excellent Good Average Poor Explain: Rate the appropriateness for your students Excellent Good Average Poor Explain: How did you hear about this performance? How satisfied were you with the overall experience at Ordway Center? Very Satisfied Somewhat Satisfied Not Satisfied Indifferent What improvements could be made? Additional Comments: Sofrito! 20 Return to: Education at Ordway Center 345 Washington Street Saint Paul, MN or fax

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