Underage gambling in England and Wales

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1 Final report Underage gambling in England and Wales Research conducted by Ipsos MORI on behalf of the National Lottery Commission July 2012

2 Legal notice 2012 Ipsos MORI all rights reserved. The contents of this report constitute the sole and exclusive property of Ipsos MORI. Ipsos MORI retains all right, title and interest, including without limitation copyright, in or to any Ipsos MORI trademarks, technologies, methodologies, products, analyses, software and know-how included or arising out of this report or used in connection with the preparation of this report. No license under any copyright is hereby granted or implied. The contents of this report are of a commercially sensitive and confidential nature and intended solely for the review and consideration of the person or entity to which it is addressed. No other use is permitted and the addressee undertakes not to disclose all or part of this report to any third party (including but not limited, where applicable, pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act 2000) without the prior written consent of the Company Secretary of Ipsos MORI.

3 Contents Executive Summary... 1 Introduction... 4 Objectives... 4 Methodology... 4 Presentation and interpretation of data... 5 Report conventions... 6 Publication of data The prevalence of underage gambling... 8 This chapter explores reported rates of gambling across a number of games, both online and offline, and how levels of play have changed over time. It also provides a profile of the key characteristics of underage gamblers Rates of gambling... 8 Gambling by age Gambling online Rates of playing free or practice gambling games online Profile of children who gamble How young people play the National Lottery How much money is spent on Lotto? Who accompanies young people when they play the National Lottery?.. 19 Handing money over at the till Past experience of buying National Lottery tickets with adults or alone Where are National Lottery tickets bought? Places where young people would buy a National Lottery ticket When are National Lottery tickets bought? Exposure to the National Lottery The National Lottery website Children participating in National Lottery activities with their parents Appendices... 31

4 Executive Summary The National Lottery Commission added questions to Ipsos MORI s Young People Omnibus. The research aimed to gauge current levels of underage play, and to investigate how and where underage players buy National Lottery tickets. The survey covers 16 year olds as well as younger children, and the data can therefore be used to highlight differences in the rates and methods of playing among those legally entitled to play and underage players aged The findings are based on data from a representative sample of 2, year olds attending maintained schools in England and Wales, of whom 2,531 were aged The research was conducted in a sample of schools, with pupils filling out paper self-completion questionnaires under supervision by Ipsos MORI s interviewers. Where possible, comparisons are made with previous studies examining the prevalence of underage gambling conducted in 2011, 2008 and Key findings Eighteen percent of year olds say they have gambled in the past week. This marks a return to the gambling levels seen in 2008, and a decrease from 2011 when 2 had gambled in the past week. Over the period , rates of play on individual games have generally remained stable, while the proportion of year olds playing fruit machines and placing private bets for money has fallen significantly. The rates of private betting have halved since 2007, from 11% to in 2012; there has been a similar drop in the reported rates of fruit machine play, from 8% in 2007 to in There has also been a steady decline in the proportion of children personally betting at betting shops, although this form of gambling has always been relatively uncommon (4% visited betting shops in 2008, which has fallen to in 2012) 1. Rates of participation in online gambling are lower than rates of involvement in offline gambling, and are similar to previous years. Thirteen percent of children say they have played free online gambling games; this is most often through Facebook. Seven per cent of children aged say they have some experience of playing 1 Overall rates of play are equivalent to the lowest levels seen in the surveying period ( ) despite all the individual games asked about showing a steady or declining rate of play over the same period. This is because more games have been added to the list we ask about to derive the any gambling measure over this period. These include, for example, new options such as the Health Lottery. 1

5 online gambling games for money, although around half of this can be explained by children playing alongside parents, with their parents permission. Seven percent of year olds say they played National Lottery games in the past week 2. This level of National Lottery play is lower than in , when rates of National Lottery play ranged from 9%-10%. The decrease appears to be driven by lower proportions playing Lotto over time (from 6% in 2008 and 2011 to 4% now); rates of play on other games have been stable over time 3. The amount players spent on the Lotto, among those who have played it, are in line with the amounts reported in 2007 and 2008, following a drop in reported spend in As in previous years, children report that they most frequently buy National Lottery tickets at the weekend rather than on weekdays, and from corner shops/newsagents or supermarkets. This appears to reflect that the majority of young National Lottery players buy tickets when they are with parents, with parents usually handing over the money for the tickets at the till. Most children who say they have played the National Lottery, either online or offline, have done so with their parents and with parental supervision. A minority have played the National Lottery independently, however. One percent have played National Lottery games independently, and two percent on other online gambling websites without parents permission. Four percent of those who have ever played the National Lottery say they were on their own when they played most recently. The profile of the children who have bought tickets independently is quite different than those who play with their parents. The profile of children who have gambled in the past week is consistent with previous research: most notably, boys are more likely than girls to gamble, as are children from single parent households and households where neither parent works. Those who perceive they are not doing well at school are more likely to say they gamble than those who feel they are doing well academically. In general there are links between those who: o Gamble on any game and: 2 National Lottery play includes Lotto, National Lottery Scratchcards, and other National Lottery games such as Thunderball and EuroMillions). 3 The data shown in Chapter 1 suggests that rates of play on National Lottery Scratchcard have also declined from 2011 to However, different wording was used on the questionnaire to describe Scratchcards in 2011, and the levels of Scratchcard play in 2012 are now in line with those seen in 2007 and 2008 (all 4%), suggesting that levels of Scratchcard play have been consistent over time and the 2011 spike in Scratchcard play can be explained by the change in the question wording. 2

6 o Gamble on National Lottery games; o Gamble online for money; o Play free online gambling games; and o Play gaming machines in betting shops. The profile of children gambling on any single game is similar to those gambling on other games. Furthermore, the majority of children playing any single gambling game also play at least one other gambling game. The findings suggest there may be a type of child attracted to gambling in general, rather than children being attracted to particular forms of gambling more than others. This in turn suggests that regulation of underage play should take a broad view across both National Lottery and other forms of gambling. Almost half of all children (47%) have watched the National Lottery TV programme with parents. Other children have played alongside their parents by checking their National Lottery numbers online: this was the most common reason why children had visited the National Lottery website. However, being involved in parental play in this way does not appear to be strongly associated with underage gambling; a small minority of those exposed to parents play in this way are also gamblers themselves (2). The findings suggest that there are factors other than playing alongside parents that explain children s participation in underage gambling, and that regulators need not necessarily focus on family play as an avenue into gambling. 3

7 Introduction This report presents findings from the 2012 Young People Omnibus Survey of secondary school pupils, carried out by the Ipsos MORI Social Research Institute on behalf of the National Lottery Commission. Objectives The overall aim of this research study was to explore children s gambling behaviours, specifically amongst those aged who are not legally entitled to buy National Lottery tickets. In addition, where previous data could be drawn upon, the study looked to analyse gambling trends over time. The survey covered the following key issues: Children s rates of gambling on different types of game. Behaviour patterns of underage players of the National Lottery. Gambling within the family. Use of the National Lottery website and gambling online. Methodology The Young People Omnibus aims to represent pupils attending state secondary and middle schools in England and Wales. A three-stage sampling method was used, with (i) a sample of schools selected from Edubase, (ii) one curriculum year group selected at random for each school, and (iii) all members of a randomly-selected class group within the nominated curriculum year selected to fill out the self-completion survey. Edubase a comprehensive listing of secondary schools in England and Wales was used as the sampling frame. Special schools and sixth form colleges were excluded from the sampling frame. The frame was stratified by Government Office Region (GOR) and, within each stratum, schools were selected proportional to the number of pupils attending the school. A total sample of 575 middle and secondary state schools in England and Wales was drawn. One curriculum year (Year 7-Year 11) was randomly allocated to each sampled school: interviewers attempted to secure interviews with one randomly-selected class group from that year group. Interviewers were instructed to select only mixed ability class groups for interview. 4

8 Interviewers attempted to secure interviews from all pupils in selected classes. If more than four pupils were absent on the day of interview, interviewers returned to the class to conduct mop up sessions at a later date. Interviewing was carried out through self-completion questionnaires with the whole class in one classroom period. An Ipsos MORI interviewer was present to explain the survey to pupils, to reassure them about the confidentiality of the survey, to assist them in completing the questionnaire, and to collect completed questionnaires. Fieldwork for the study was conducted between 1 February 30 March Of the 575 schools approached, 115 schools participated, giving an unadjusted school response rate of 20%. Overall, fully completed questionnaires were obtained from 2,757 pupils, an average of 24 pupils per class. Data are weighted by gender, age and region. The weights were derived from data supplied by the Department for Education. The effect of weighting is shown in the sample profile in the Appendices. The computer tabulations can be found in a separate volume along with further technical details of the study. Acknowledgements It is clear that schools are increasingly working under great pressure from a number of different sources. They also receive numerous requests to participate in surveys such as this. We would like to thank the many schools that took part and we are indebted to all pupils and staff who made this survey possible. Ipsos MORI would also like to thank Ben Haden and Pete Thompson at the National Lottery Commission for their help and involvement in the project. Presentation and interpretation of data When interpreting the findings, it is important to remember that results are based on a sample of the maintained school population, and not the entire population. Consequently, results are subject to sampling tolerances, and not all differences between sub-groups are statistically significant. A guide to statistical significance is included in this document. In tables and charts, where percentages do not add up to 100%, this is due to multiple answers, to computer rounding, or to the exclusion of Don t know or No response 5

9 categories. Throughout the tables an asterisk (*) denotes a value greater than zero, but less than 0.. Report conventions The Young People Omnibus interviews children and young people aged However, throughout the report findings are mostly based on those who are below the legal age to play National Lottery games (pupils aged 11-15). We refer to this group throughout the report as children. When describing pupils aged 16 we refer to them as young people. Trends are reported based on findings from previous National Lottery Commission studies into secondary school age gambling behaviour conducted in 2011, 2008 and During these studies the following number of questionnaires were completed: 2011 (2,487), 2008 (2,387) and 2007 (2,417). Also appended is trend data from 2005/6 (8,017), which recording gambling rates amongst pupils in years 8 and 10 of secondary education. Publication of data As with all our studies, these results are subject to our Standard Terms and Conditions of Contract. Any publication of results requires the prior approval of Ipsos MORI. Such approval will only be refused on the grounds of inaccuracy and misrepresentation. Ipsos MORI/ Checked & Approved: Julia Pye William Dawes 6

10 1. The prevalence of underage gambling 7

11 1. The prevalence of underage gambling This chapter explores reported rates of gambling across a number of games, both online and offline, and how levels of play have changed over time. It also provides a profile of the key characteristics of underage gamblers. Rates of gambling Young people were asked to state which, if any, of a list of gambling games they had played in the past week. One in five (18%) children aged say they have played a gambling game in the week prior to completing the survey. This represents a drop of five percentage points in the rate of gambling since 2011, where almost a quarter (2) gambled, but a return to the rates seen in While gambling rates are as low as they have been since this survey has been running, rates of play on the individual games asked about have either remained stable or fallen over time. In particular, there have been downward trends for playing on fruit machines (from 8% in 2007 to ) and placing private bets for money with friends (from 11% in 2007 to ). Placing bets in betting shops is also less prevalent now than in 2007 (from 4% to ), although it was never as widespread as other forms of underage play. The reason that the overall gambling rate is relatively low at the same time as levels of play on each of the individual games has remained steady or declined, is that we now ask about more forms of gambling than in Most notably, six percent of children report playing cards for money with friends, a category only introduced in Seven percent played a National Lottery game within the past week. This is the lowest level of National Lottery play seen across the surveys. The declining rate of play over the period seems to be primarily driven by falling numbers playing Lotto. Levels of Scratchcard play appear to be fairly consistent over time 4. 4 While the proportion of young people saying they have played scratchcards has fallen since 2011 (4% compared with 7%), this is likely to be due to a change in the question wording. This year it specified that the scratchcard is bought in a shop, which is likely to capture purchased scratchcards only, rather than those non National Lottery games obtained for free. The wording now reflects that used prior to 2011, and rates of scratchcard play have reverted to levels seen in 2008 and 2007 (4%) when similar wording was used on the survey. 8

12 Looking at individual National Lottery products, rates of playing Lotto (4%), instant win games on the internet (1%) and other National Lottery games such as Thunderball and EuroMillions () are unchanged in 2012 compared with 2011, 2008 and One percent of children report playing the Health Lottery, the new lottery game not run by the National Lottery. As in previous years, rates of play on Lotto and Scratchcards exceed rates of play on these other games. Three percent have played a National Lottery game only, while one in ten (11%) have played a non-national Lottery gambling game only. Four percent reported playing both a National Lottery and non-national Lottery game within the past week. 9

13 Rates of gambling Paste co-brand logo here 1 Played any gambling game in past 7 days Played a National Lottery game in past 7 days Playing cards for money with friends 6% 6% 7% 10% 9% 9% 18% 18% 2 2 Fruit machines Placing a private bet for money (e.g. with friends) Lotto (the main National Lottery draw)*** National Lottery Scratchcards which you bought in a shop (not free Scratchcards)** Bingo at a bingo club Any other National Lottery games (e.g. Thunderball, Hotpicks, EuroMillions, Dream Number, Daily Play) Gaming machines at a betting shop Personally placing a bet at a betting shop (e.g. on football or horseracing) Casino games in a casino (not on-line) Gambling websites (e.g. internet poker, internet casinos, internet bingo, internet betting on sport or National Lottery instant win games on the internet The Health Lottery 6% 7% 8% 8% 8% 4% 6% 6% 4% 7% 4% 4% 4% 4% 1% 1% 11% All children aged (2531) Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential 5 5 *In 2008 question wording included 'remember, this is about games you might have played and not your parents' rather than 'we want to know about games you played yourself'. **In 2011 the code for Scratchcard was worded as 'Scratchcards', In 2008 the code was worded as 'National Lottery Scratchcards (not free Scratchcards) which you bought in a shop', and in 2007 the code read: 'National Lottery Scratchcards (not free Scratchcards)' ***Wording has changed slightly between waves: in 2008 two codes related to Lotto ('Lotto (the main National Lottery draw) where you bought your numbers at a shop', and 'Lotto (the main National Lottery draw) where you bought your numbers on the internet'). In 2007 a single code was used which read: 'Lotto (the main National Lottery draw)'. 10

14 % Played National Lottery game Gambling by age A quarter (24%) of 16 year olds say they have gambled at all in the past week, which is five percentage points higher than children aged 15. However, National Lottery play increases by a larger margin, from (8%) amongst those aged 15 to (18%) amongst 16 year olds. The jump in rates of gambling between the ages of 15 and 16 is much greater with National Lottery play than gambling overall. This is likely to be a function of age restrictions on some other gambling games being older than 16, such as some types of fruit machines and betting in a shop. In addition, amongst 16 year olds the rate of gambling on National Lottery products is higher than non-national Lottery games. This compares to gambling amongst 11-15s where non-national Lottery play is more prevalent. Gambling by age Have you spent any of your money on any of the following in the past 7 days? Paste cobrand logo here 1 25 Non-Lottery gambling game National Lottery game % 1 5 9% 8% 6% 6% 8% Age Base: All 11 year olds (276), 12 year olds (543), 13 year olds (622), 14 year olds (621), 15 year olds (469), 16 year olds (226) Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential Gambling online The great majority (90%) of children aged have no experience of gambling online. Three percent have played National Lottery games online using their parents account with their permission, while one percent have played without permission. Meanwhile, two percent have played non-national Lottery online gambling games using their parents account with their permission and one percent without permission. 11

15 The strongest association with online gambling exists amongst those who have spent money on multiple gambling platforms. As outlined in the following chart, they are more likely to gamble online both with and without parental consent. Online gambling single versus multiple gambling games Please read all of the sentences below and tick the sentences that are true about you. Paste cobrand logo here 14 I have played National Lottery games online using my parents'/guardians' account with their permission 4% 1 Played one gambling game Played more than one gambling game I have played on other gambling websites (not National Lottery) online using my parents'/guardians' account with their permission 11% I have played National Lottery games online using my parents'/guardians' account without their permission 6% I have played on other gambling websites (not National Lottery) online using my parents'/guardians' account without their permission 1% 7% None of these sentences are true about me 77% 90% Base: All who have played one gambling game and stated an answer (228); all who have played more than one gambling game and who stated an answer (192). Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential Rates of playing free or practice gambling games online Children were asked whether they had played any of a list of free or practice gambling games over the internet. Just over one in ten (1) have played a free or practice game, which is in line with 2011 rates of play. Looking at specific free or practice games, as in 2011, Facebook remains the dominant website for playing a free or practice gambling game. One in ten (10%) report playing a Facebook gambling game, while one in twenty () had played online poker (e.g. Zynga poker). Very small proportions have played roulette (), bingo (), blackjack (), Myspace games (1%) and Bebo games (1%) online. The prevalence of participation in each of these games is identical to

16 Rates of free or practice gambling online amongst children Have you played any of these free or practice gambling games on the internet in the past 7 days? Paste cobrand logo here Facebook gambling games Free online poker websites Free online blackjack Free online bingo Free online roulette Any other free or practice gambling games on the internet Bebo gambling games MySpace gambling games Don't know Not stated No, I have not played any free or practice gambling games 10% 11% 1% 1% 1% 4% 4% 80% 78% Base: All (2,531), 2012 Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential Age is not a discriminating factor; rates of playing free and practice gambling games are consistent amongst children of all ages between 11 and

17 Profile of children who gamble The profile of children playing different types of game is notably consistent, as illustrated in the table below, across a range of gambling games: the National Lottery; online gambling games; free or practice online gambling games; and gaming/fruit machines. It is also worth noting that the majority of players of any single gambling game also play at least one other gambling game: for example 69% of those who play Lotto play other games, while 31% play on the Lotto only; likewise, 71% of those who play Scratchcards play on other games too, while 29% play only on Scratchcards. The findings suggest that there may be a particular type of child who is likely to gamble per se, rather than different types of children being attracted to different types of game. The profile of children who have gambled in the past week is consistent with previous research: most notably, boys are more likely than girls to gamble, as are children from single parent households and households where neither parent works. Those who perceive they are not doing well at school are more likely to say they gamble than those who feel they are doing well academically. The key characteristics of gamblers are outlined in the table below. 14

18 Table 1: Profile children aged who gamble Gambling on any game Gambling on a National Lottery game Gambling online Gender Parent working status Household status Perception of doing well at school View on importance of being lucky in life Boys more likely than girls (24% vs. 1) Households where neither parent works more likely than where both parents work are more likely (2 vs. 17%) Boys more likely than girls (10% vs. ) Households where neither parent works more likely than where both parents work are more likely Boys more likely than girls to play without consent ( vs. 1%) Households where neither parent works are more likely than households where both parents work to play without consent ( vs. 1%) (1 vs. 7%) - - Those living in single parent households more likely than two parent households to play gambling games on websites other than the National Lottery ( vs. 1%) Children who feel they are not doing very or at all well at school more likely than those who feel they are doing quite or very well (24% vs. 17%) Those who feel being lucky is important to being successful in life more likely than those who do not feel it is important (21% vs. 16%) - Children who feel they are not doing very or at all well at school are more likely than those who feel they are doing quite or very well to play without consent (4% vs. 1%) Those who feel being lucky is important to being successful in life are more likely than those who do not feel it is important (9% vs. 6%) Those who feel being lucky is important to being successful in life are more likely than those who do not feel it is important to play gambling games on websites other than the National Lottery ( vs. 1%) Free or practice gambling online Boys more likely than girls (18% vs. 8%) Households where neither parent works more likely than where both parents work are more likely (18% vs. 8%) Those living in single parent households more likely than two parent households (17% vs. 1) Children who feel they are not doing very or at all well at school more likely than those who feel they are doing quite or very well (20% vs. 1) Those who feel being lucky is important to being successful in life more likely than those who do not feel it is important (18% vs. 11%) Gaming machines in betting shops Boys more likely than girls ( vs. 1%) - Those living in single parent households more likely than two parent households (4% vs. ) Children who feel they are not doing very or at all well at school more likely than those who feel they are doing quite or very well (4% vs. ) Those who feel being lucky is important to being successful in life more likely than those who do not feel it is important ( vs. 1%) 15

19 Boys, who are more likely than girls to gamble overall and play the National Lottery, are also more likely to gamble on each of the games asked about. This strong association with gambling mirrors research on adults, which shows that men are more likely to gamble than women 6. As such, regulators should monitor in particular the potential avenues of boys becoming attracted to and accessing games. The following chart outlines the greater prevalence of boys gambling across each gambling game: Rates of gambling by gender Boys Girls Paste co-brand logo here 1 Played any gambling game in past 7 days 1 24% Played a National Lottery game in past 7 days 10% Lotto (the main National Lottery draw)*** 6% Playing cards for money with friends Fruit machines Placing a private bet for money (e.g. with friends) 4% 7% 8% 9% National Lottery Scratchcards which you bought in a shop (not free Scratchcards)** Bingo at a bingo club Any other National Lottery games (e.g. Thunderball, Hotpicks, EuroMillions, Dream Number, Daily Play) Gaming machines at a betting shop Personally placing a bet at a betting shop (e.g. on football or horseracing) Casino games in a casino (not on-line) * 4% 1% 1% 1% Gambling websites (e.g. internet poker, internet casinos, internet bingo, internet betting on sport or National Lottery instant win games on the internet 1% 1% Base: All boys (1,213) and girls (1,306) aged Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential 6 consultations/research/bgps/bgps_2010.aspx 16

20 2. How young people play the National Lottery 17

21 2. How young people play the National Lottery The following chapter looks at the setting in which children buy National Lottery tickets. This includes analysis of how much is spent on Lotto, where tickets are bought, when they are bought, who is present when they are bought and who hands over the money at the till. How much money is spent on Lotto? Young people who had played Lotto the main National Lottery draw game - were asked how much they had spent playing it in the past week. Half (51%) spent up to 2, one in seven (14%) had spent between 2 and 5 and over a third (3) over 5. Comparisons of spending over time are limited by the small numbers of children who have bought National Lottery tickets (and therefore small numbers of respondents answering these questions). Table 2: Amount of money spent on Lotto in the seven days preceding survey completion (And how much of your own money did you spend on Lotto in the past 7 days? 7 ) (2012) (2012) (2011) (2008) (2007) Base: all those who bought a National Lottery ticket and specified an amount (84) (61) (85) (89) (81) % % % % % Less than or more More than Small base sizes prevent meaningful comparisons being made between different groups of children. Indicatively, it seems that the characteristics of the highest spenders match those of 7 Columns which do not sum to 100% is due to rounding. This is the case with 2008 figures where the percentages add up to

22 the children most likely to gamble at all. This includes boys, children from single parent households, and those who play free or practice gambling games. Who accompanies young people when they play the National Lottery? It is clear that on the great majority of occasions, children buy tickets accompanied by an adult. Indeed, nine in ten (90%) children who had ever bought a ticket say they were with someone aged 16 or over when they last bought a ticket. In contrast to this one in twenty (4%) say they were own when the ticket was bought. Four in five (78%) children who had ever bought a ticket were accompanied by their parent when they last bought a ticket. In a minority of cases, children say they were accompanied by friends aged 16 or older (10%), brothers or sisters aged 16 or older (9%), brothers or sisters aged 15 or younger (), friends aged 15 or younger (4%) or someone else (8%). These figures are all broadly in line with results from 2011, which also pointed to tickets being mainly being bought with adults. Who accompanies children when they buy National Lottery tickets? Paste cobrand logo here The last time you bought National Lottery tickets (e.g. Lotto and Euromillions) or Scratchcards, WHO WERE YOU WITH when you bought them? My parent(s) or guardian(s) Friend(s) aged 16 or older Brother(s) or sister(s) aged 16 or older Friend(s) aged 15 or younger Brother(s) or sister(s) aged 15 or younger I was on my own Someone else 10% 10% 9% 7% 4% 4% 8% 1 78% 7 Base: All children aged who have bought a National Lottery ticket in the past and remember when it was bought (431), 2012 Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential The profiles of children most likely to buy tickets on their own and those who buy tickets with their family vary markedly: 19

23 Independent players appear to be attracted to gambling generally, for example they are more likely to play multiple National Lottery games and play free or practice gambling games. In contrast, children who buy tickets with their parents do not tend to gamble in other settings. Children who have played more than one National Lottery game are more likely to have last bought a ticket on their own (1 compared with who have bought one ticket). In contrast, those who have played one National Lottery game are more likely to have been with their parent when they last bought a ticket (81% compared with 6 who have played multiple gambling games within the past week). Children who have played free or practice gambling games online are more likely to have bought tickets on their own (14% compared with 1% who have not). Conversely, children who have not played a free or practice gambling game are more likely to have bought a ticket with their parent than those who have played a free or practice game in the past week. (84% compared with 6). Handing money over at the till Children aged were asked specifically who handed over the money at the till when they last bought a ticket. Results show that, as well as being present when a ticket is bought, parents also most often take the lead in buying tickets by handing over the money. Four in five (77%) children say their parents handed over the money the last time they bought a ticket, while just one in twenty () say they did so themselves this equates to less than one percent of children overall. One in twenty (6%) report that it was their brother or sister who bought the National Lottery ticket, while one in ten (8%) say someone else handed over the money. 20

24 Who makes the transaction when buying a Lottery ticket? The last time you bought National Lottery tickets (e.g. Lotto and Euromillions) or Scratchcards, who actually handed over the money at the till? Paste cobrand logo here 2 My parents 77% Me My older brother/sister A friend My younger brother/sister 1% Someone else 8% Base: All who know who handed over the money (435), 2012 Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential Older children are more likely to hand over money on their own, while younger children are more likely to be with their parents. Fifteen year olds are more likely to hand over the money than all children on average (1 compared with ). This might illustrate challenges shop keepers have in identifying children legally able to buy tickets the nearer they are to 16 years old. Meanwhile, less than one percent of all 11 and 12 year olds who report buying a ticket handed over the money at the till. Furthermore, around nine in ten 11 and 12 year olds (91% and 8 respectively) report being with their parents, compared with under eight in ten (77%) overall. There is a shift in how tickets are bought once young people become legally able to play the lottery. Sixteen year olds are far more likely to hand over money at the till themselves (66% compared with of 11-15s). Moreover, just a fifth (19%) of all 16 year olds parents handed over the money when they last bought a ticket (compared with between 6 and 91% of year olds). The demographic profile of those who buy tickets themselves reflects that of those more likely to gamble generally. In contrast, children whose parents hand over the money are less likely to share characteristics associated with gambling. 21

25 Past experience of buying National Lottery tickets with adults or alone Children were asked about their past experiences of buying a National Lottery ticket during their lifetime. Almost three in ten (29%) report they had bought a ticket in the past with a parent, while just three percent say they have gone into a shop and bought a ticket without an adult and two percent say they have gone into a shop with friends on their own and bought a ticket without an adult. Past experiences of buying National Lottery tickets with others Please read all of the sentences below and tick the sentences that are true about you. Paste cobrand logo here 11 I have gone into a shop with my parent(s) and we have bought National Lottery tickets together 29% I have gone into a shop on my own and bought National Lottery tickets, without my parents or any other adults I have gone into a shop with my friend(s) and bought National Lottery tickets, without my parents or any other adults None of these sentences are true about me 66% Base: All who stated an answer (2,422) Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential Where are National Lottery tickets bought? Children were asked where they last bought a National Lottery ticket. Tickets are most often bought at a corner-shops or newsagents (49%) or a supermarket (3). A small proportion of tickets are also bought in post offices (9%), petrol stations (6%) and stalls in shopping centres (1%). Less than one percent of children bought tickets over the internet on the National Lottery website. Meanwhile, three percent of tickets were reported to be bought somewhere else. 22

26 Where do children buy National Lottery tickets? The last time you bought National Lottery tickets (e.g. Lotto and Euromillions) or Scratchcards, WHERE did you buy them? Paste cobrand logo here Corner shop/newsagent Supermarket Post Office Petrol station shop Stall in a shopping centre Over the internet (National Lottery website) Somewhere else 9% 10% 6% 6% 1% 1% 0% 3 29% 49% 46% Base: All children aged who have bought a National Lottery ticket in the past and remember where it was bought (400), 2012 Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential Although most gambling locations are broadly in line with 2011, the proportion of those buying tickets on the National Lottery website has dropped (less than one percent compared with three percent in 2011). Places where young people would buy a National Lottery ticket In order to identify the most likely targets for underage National Lottery ticket purchases, children were asked where they would go to buy a ticket if they wanted to get one. It should firstly be noted that three in five (59%) children did not state an answer, with half (5) saying they would not try to buy National Lottery tickets or Scratchcards. Of those who did suggest a location, two-thirds (66%) say they would go to a cornershop, two-fifths (4) a supermarket a fifth (20%) a post office and one in ten (1) a petrol station shop. Small proportions would either buy a ticket on the National Lottery website (7%) or at a shopping centre stall (6%). Young people aged 16 are more likely to report that they would go to buy a National Lottery ticket in a newsagent or corner shop and a supermarket (81% and 5 respectively compared with 66% and 4 of 11-15s). 23

27 Where would children go to buy National Lottery tickets if they wanted to buy them? If you wanted to buy National Lottery tickets or National Lottery Scratchcards, where would you go to buy them? Paste cobrand logo here 10 Aged Aged 16 Corner shop/newsagent 66% 81% Supermarket 4 5 Post Office Petrol station shop 20% % Over the internet (National Lottery website) Stall in a shopping centre 7% 6% Base: All aged (1058) and all aged 16 (160) who stated an answer Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential When are National Lottery tickets bought? Children were asked when they last bought a National Lottery ticket. Half (51%) bought a ticket at the weekend, three in ten (27%) during the school holidays and one in twenty (18%) after school in the evening. A small minority last bought a ticket on the way to and home from school ( and 1% respectively). The periods during the week when tickets are bought is likely to be a reflection of who children are with at the time. The fact that children most often buy tickets when accompanied by parents and at the supermarket may also relate to tickets being most frequently bought at the weekend. For example, it may be that tickets are often bought as part of a family weekly shopping trip. Conversely, the small proportion who buy tickets to and from school is perhaps because children can be identified by their uniform during these times, and that children most often make their way to and from school on their own. 24

28 When do children buy National Lottery tickets? The last time you bought National Lottery tickets (e.g. Lotto and Euromillions) or Scratchcards, WHEN did you buy them? Paste cobrand logo here At the weekend 51% 49% During the school holidays After school, in the evening 27% 20% 18% 24% On the way to school On the way home from school 1% Base: All children aged who have bought a National Lottery ticket in the past and remember when it was bought (346), 2012 Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential 25

29 3. Exposure to the National Lottery 26

30 3. Exposure to the National Lottery The following chapter examines event and activities that expose children to the National Lottery outside of participating in gambling, such as visiting the National Lottery website, checking parents National Lottery tickets and watching the National Lottery Saturday night television programme. The National Lottery website Just over one in ten (1) children have visited the National Lottery website. This figure is in line with Proportion of children who have visited the National Lottery website Have you ever visited the National Lottery website? Paste cobrand logo here 6 Don t know/ can t remember Not stated 1 Yes % % No 77% % 6% 81% Base: All children aged (2,531), 2012 Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential 27

31 Reasons for visiting the National Lottery website Paste cobrand logo here Thinking about all the times that you ve been to the National Lottery website, which of the following reasons below, if any, explain why you went to that website? 7 To check my parents' or guardians' numbers 74% I only went to the website once, just out of interest 11% To play games for money with someone else's money Research for a school project To play games for money with my own money I only went to the website once, by mistake 6% 4% Base: All who have ever visited the National Lottery website (333), 2012 Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential The majority of children who have visited the National Lottery website have done so to do something other than actively play the National Lottery. Three-quarters (74%) of those who have been on the National Lottery website have done so to check their parents numbers, while one in ten (11%) have visited just out of interest and one in twenty () have visited for school research projects () or by mistake (). Just under one in ten (8%) have visited the website to play games for money; six percent with their own money and four percent with someone else s money 8. Children participating in National Lottery activities with their parents Children were asked to state which of a number of statements linked to playing the National Lottery with their parents are true about them. Almost half (47%) of all children have watched the National Lottery television programme with their parents. A third (3) have checked their parents numbers; this breaks down to a quarter (24%) on television, a fifth (17%) on the internet and one in twenty () in a newspaper. Meanwhile, one in ten (11%) say their parents have actually bought them a National Lottery ticket in the past. 8 Children could give more than one answer at this question. 28

32 Playing the National Lottery with parents Please read all of the sentences below and tick the sentences that are true about you. Paste cobrand logo here 11 I have watched the National Lottery television programme on Saturday nights with my parents I have checked my parents' National Lottery numbers on television 24% 47% I have checked my parents' National Lottery numbers on the internet 17% My parents have bought me National Lottery tickets 11% I have checked my parents' National Lottery numbers in the newspaper None of these sentences are true about me 38% Base: All (2,531), 2012 Source: Ipsos MORI Ipsos MORI Version 1 Public (DELETE CLASSIFICATION) Version 1 Internal Use Only Version 1 Confidential Version 1 Strictly Confidential The profile of those who watch the National Lottery programme with their parents does not mirror that of past week gamblers for example, no differences exist by gender, age or work status of household. Children who have been involved with National Lottery-related activities with their parents tend to come from the top two-third most affluent households. Indeed, children in the middle and top third of the Family Affluence Scale 9 are more likely to have: Watched the National Lottery programme with their parents (48% compared with 40% of those in the lowest third); Checked their parents National Lottery ticket numbers (3 compared with 2 in the lowest third); and Been bought a National Lottery ticket by their parents (11% compared with 6% in the lowest third). 9 The family affluence scale is derived from questions asked of children about their household, including how many bedrooms, cars and computers it contains. Children are then classified as being in families of high, medium or low affluence. 29

33 National Lottery play is more prevalent amongst children who have previously been exposed to the National Lottery through different ways. Those who have watched the Saturday night National Lottery television programme (47%), bought in the past bought tickets with parents (14%), been bought tickets by parents (11%), and checked their parents ticket numbers (10%) are all slightly more likely to play the National Lottery than average (7%). However these differences do not suggest exposure to the National Lottery via parents and television necessarily leads to playing it underage; a relatively small minority (between a tenth and a fifth) of all children exposed to the National Lottery in these ways go on to play it. The findings suggest that exposure to the National Lottery through playing alongside parents is not necessarily an avenue into underage gambling: only a minority of those playing with parents gamble independently. The profile of those who play with parents is starkly different to the profile of those who gamble independently; in other words, it seems to be a different type of child that gambles independently than the children who play alongside parents, with parental permission. The findings suggest that variables other than being involved in parents playing of the National Lottery are important in explaining underage gambling behaviour. 30

34 Appendices Sample profile Table 3: Sample profile Number Unweighted % Weighted % Total 2757 Gender of Pupils Male Female Age of Pupils Year of Pupils Ethnic Origin White BME Household Composition Two parents in household Single parent in household Sibling in household Work Status of Household Two parents work One parent works No parent works Region London South East South West North East North West Eastern East Midlands West Midlands Yorkshire & Humberside Wales Source: Ipsos MORI 31

35 Statistical reliability The respondents to the questionnaire are only samples of the total population, so we cannot be certain that the figures obtained are exactly those we would have if everybody had been interviewed (the true values). We can, however, predict the variation between the sample results and the true values from knowledge of the size of the samples on which the results are based and the number of times that a particular answer is given. The confidence with which we can make this prediction is usually chosen to be 9 - that is, the chances are 95 in 100 that the true value will fall within a specified range. The table below illustrates the predicted ranges for different sample sizes and percentage results at the 9 confidence interval. Table 4: Size of sample on which survey results is based Approximate sampling tolerances applicable to percentages at or near these levels 10% or 90% 30% or 70% 50% interviews interviews ,000 interviews ,531 interviews (Young People Omnibus children aged 11-15) Source: Ipsos MORI For example, with a sample of 2,531 where 30% give a particular answer, the chances are 95 in 100 that the true value (which would have been obtained if the whole population had been interviewed) will fall within the range of plus or minus 2 percentage points from the sample result. Strictly speaking the tolerances shown here apply only to random samples, although they offer an approximation for the complex design used by the current study. When results are compared between separate groups within a sample, different results may be obtained. The difference may be real, or it may occur by chance (because not everyone in the population has been interviewed). To test if the difference is a real one - i.e. if it is statistically significant, we again have to know the size of the samples, the percentage giving a certain answer and the degree of confidence chosen. If we assume 9 confidence interval, the differences between the two sample results must be greater than the values given in the table overleaf: 32

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