1 News consumption in the UK: 2014 Report Research Document Publication date: June 2014
3 About this document This report provides key findings from Ofcom s 2014 research into news consumption across television, radio, print and online. It also examines changes to how UK adults have consumed news since The aim of this report is to inform an understanding of news consumption across the UK, and within each UK nation. The findings are published as part of our range of market research publications that examine the consumption and attitudes towards different types of content on different platforms. It examines various news consumption findings, including the sources and platforms used for news; the perceived importance of these; attitudes to individual news sources; how people define the news and their interest in news topics; and an overview of consumption of local media. The report also examines share of references data. This is a cross-media measure used by Ofcom to compare the share of individual news sources consumed across all platforms.
4 Contents Section Page 1 Introduction 1 2 News consumption in the UK 2 3 Attitudes towards news topics, and reasons for following news 7 4 Local media use 8 5 News consumption in the nations 9 6 Methodology 12
6 Section 1 1 Introduction This summary report provides key findings from Ofcom s 2014 research into news consumption across the four main platforms: television, radio, print and online, and highlights where these have changed since Further detailed information is available in the chart pack which accompanies the document. It is published as part of our market research range of publications that examine the consumption of content and attitudes towards that content on different platforms. The aim of this report is to inform an understanding of news consumption across the UK, and within each UK nation. The report details various findings relating to the consumption of news; the sources and platforms used, the perceived importance of different platforms and outlets for news, attitudes to individual news sources, the definition of news and interest in topics, and an overview of local media consumption. It provides details of our cross-platform news consumption metric share of references. The report also compares findings related to news consumption with those from 2013, where possible. This report uses a variety of data sources. The primary source is a news survey commissioned by Ofcom and conducted by Kantar Media in March/April 2014, comprising an omnibus survey of 2,731 people across the UK, which includes boosts of 350 in each devolved nation. This is the default source unless otherwise specified. Other sources include: Ofcom local media omnibus, conducted by Ipsos Mori, comprising 2,152 adults aged 15+ metrics on television viewing from the industry currency BARB; newspaper readership figures from the National Readership Survey; and online consumption metrics from UKOM/comScore. Any direct comparisons between the quantitative research we have commissioned and data from the industry measurement systems should be made with caution because of: methodological differences, e.g. claimed or measured consumption, face-to-face surveys or diary based methods, and differing sample sizes and data collection periods; time period differences e.g. nowadays is used in the Kantar Media survey, compared to real-time recorded consumption (BARB) or recency (average issue readership) for newspapers; and differing definitions of news, e.g. set by the provider (as in BARB) or self-defined by the people we questioned. 1
7 Section 2 2 News consumption in the UK 2.1 Platforms used for news nowadays The majority of adults in the UK (95%) say they follow the news. Television is by far the most-used platform for news 1, with 75% of UK adults saying they use TV as a source of news; this figure has seen a small decrease since 2013 (78%). There has been growth in the number of those who use any internet or apps for news, with over four in ten (41%) doing so this year, compared to just under a third last year (32%). This is particularly evident in the age group, where use of internet or apps for news has increased from 44% in 2013 to 60% in Newspapers are used by four in ten (40%), the same as last year (40%), and radio by just over one-third (36%), the same as last year (35%). Nine in ten (90%) people aged 55 and over use TV as a platform for consuming news, compared to three in five (59%) of the age group. The same pattern is observed for consumption of news through newspapers (54% in the 55+ age group vs. 33% for those aged 16-24) and for consumption of news through the radio (41% vs. 27%). Conversely, consumption of news through any internet or app is three times higher for those in the age group (60%) than in the 55 and over age group (21%). Women are more likely than men to consume news through television (78% women vs. 73% men); men are more likely than women to consume news through any internet or app (44% vs. 39%) and through newspapers (43% vs. 37%). There is no difference in the consumption of news through the radio by gender (37% men vs. 36% women). People in the AB socio-economic group are more likely than those in the DE socio-economic group to consume news via the internet (58% for ABs vs. 25% for DEs), radio (47% vs. 27%) and newspapers (45% vs. 38%). There is no difference in consumption of news through television between ABs (80%) and DEs (79%). Of the four main platforms (TV, newspapers, radio and online) three in ten (30%) of respondents use only one platform for news, with just under two in ten (18%) using just TV, 9% using internet only (up 4 percentage points from 2013), 2% using newspapers only and 2% using radio only. The use of TV only is more prominent among those aged 55+ (20%) and those in the DE socio-economic group (28%) than among 16-24s (13%) or those in the AB socio-economic group (9%). Nearly two in ten (19%) people aged report that they use only the internet for news, compared to 1% of those aged Multiple and single sourcing of news Across all platforms, UK adults use an average of 3.8 sources for news, which shows no change to last year (3.7). The average number of sources used on TV is 2.0 (vs. 1.9 in 2013); for newspapers it is 1.9 (vs. 2.1 in 2013); for radio it is 1.4 (vs. 1.4 in 2013); and online it is 2.0 (vs. 1.9 in 2013). 1 The definition of news used for questions about consumption in the news survey was By news I mean news and current affairs in your region (England)/ in Wales/Scotland/Northern Ireland (in respective nations), across the UK and around the world. 2
8 At a wholesale level 2, the majority of those who consume news use no more than three providers (76%), which is unchanged since 2013 (78%). Twenty six per cent of those who consume news use only one provider, which is unchanged since 2013 (27%). The figures are very similar on a retail level; 72% of those who consume news use no more than three providers and 26% use only one provider. Looking within each platform at the different sources of news people might use, over three in five (62%) radio news listeners use just one source; this is unchanged since 2013 (64%). Over four in ten (45%) online news users and TV news users (42%) use only one source, as do just over a third (35%) of newspaper readers. The top two news sources, in terms of reach, among UK adults are TV channels, with BBC One being by far the most used (53%) and one-third (33%) of people saying they use ITV/ITV Wales/UTV/STV news. BBC One has seen a small decrease in terms of reach since 2013 (57%). In 2013 the top three news sources were all TV channels, although this year the BBC website/app has seen an increase in use (24% in 2014 vs. 16% in 2013) making it the third most-used news source. Sky News Channel is now the fourth most-used source (17%) followed by the BBC news channel (16%). The most-used newspaper is The Sun (11%) and the most-used radio station is BBC Radio 2 (10%). Just over one in twenty (7%) adults say they use Facebook for news. 2.3 Importance of news sources When asked to indicate the single most important news source to them personally, over a quarter (28%) of those who consume news in the UK named BBC One, compared to over one-third (34%) in BBC One has around double the number of mentions than the next source, ITV (12%) and over five times more mentions than the BBC News Channel (5%) and the Sky News Channel (5%). Since 2013 there has been an increase in the number of people stating a website/app as their most important news source (21% in 2014 vs. 14% in 2013). Almost half (45%) of 16-24s say their most important news source is a website/app, up 15 percentage points since 2013 (30%). Those aged are less likely than those aged 55+ to name a TV channel as their most important news source (36% vs. 65%). For both age groups (16-24s and 55+) there has been a decrease, since last year, in those who nominate a TV channel as their most important news source (46% and 70% respectively in 2013). Almost two-thirds of those in the DE socio-economic group (65%) state that a TV channel is their most important source of news, compared to 54% for all UK adults. Users of each news source were also asked how important that source was for them. For television, 61% of those who watch BBC TV for news rate it between 7 and 10 out of 10. Sky News is rated by 58% of its viewers in this way, ITV is rated by 51% and Channel 4 by 42%. For newspapers, local paid-for weeklies are rated by 72% of their readers, the Guardian/Observer is rated by 71%, and the Daily/Sunday Express by 59%. Across websites/apps, the Sky News website is rated by 62% of its users, the BBC site by 61%, the Guardian/Observer site by 59% and YouTube by 58%. Across most news sources, levels of importance have decreased since last year. 2 Wholesale is classified as the company that provides the news for the given source. This is distinct from retail which is classified as the branded title/service through which the news is provided. The wholesale category is derived from responses given about individual news titles. 3
9 2.4 Share of references Share of references is Ofcom s cross-media metric designed to measure the share of individual news sources consumed across all platforms. It is calculated by asking people which sources of news they use nowadays, and how frequently they use them. If a respondent uses more than one source from a particular provider, it is counted each time. Frequency is used to weight the references. The share of each provider is then calculated as the aggregate number of references, expressed as a proportion of all references for all news sources. This produces a cross-media metric with consistent methodology and a consistent definition of news across all platforms. It is also possible to use this metric to look at each platform separately. Television has a 42% share of references; this is a decrease from last year (47%). This is followed by the internet (27%), which has seen an increase in share of references since last year (21%). Radio has a share of 19% (18% in 2103) and newspapers have a share of 12% (13% in 2103). At a wholesale level, the BBC has a 43% share of news consumption, followed by Sky (15%), ITN (12%), News Corp (4%), DGMT (4%) and Trinity Mirror (2%). While there have been no statistically significant changes since 2013, Sky now has a higher share of references than ITN. At the retail level, the BBC (43%) is followed by ITV (10%), commercial radio (7%) and Sky (7%). Social media come next (5%), followed by News Corp (4%), DGMT (4%), search engines (3%) and Channel 4 (2%). There are no significant changes since News consumption via television BARB figures show that each adult watched an average of 115 hours of national and international news on television 3 in 2013, the same as the year before (115 hours). The majority of this (64%) was on BBC One or BBC Two and a further 12% on the BBC News channel. However, year olds consumed only 27 hours of news on television in the same period, compared to 196 hours for those aged 55 and over. Although the BBC channels account for the majority of news and international news viewing for 16-24s, this group are more likely than older viewers to consume news on ITV (18% vs. 13% for those aged 55+) and Channel 4 (6% vs. 2% for those aged 55+). According to our survey, television news viewers use an average of 2.0 different news sources on this platform; this remains unchanged since last year (1.9). Over seven in ten (71%) adults who use television for news use BBC One, the highest proportion of any television channel, unchanged since 2013 (73%). As well as being used by the largest proportion of people, BBC One is the most frequently accessed channel across all TV news sources, with 78% of those who use it for news doing so once a day or more frequently. ITV is the next most-used television channel for news, with 43% of adults who use TV for news watching it on ITV, the same as in 2013 (43%). Almost seven in ten (68%) of those who use this channel for news use it at least once a day or more often, unchanged since 2013 (72%). Since 2013 Sky News has seen a small increase among those who use TV for news (20% to 23%). Sky News is followed by the BBC News Channel, which has remained at 21% since 2013, then Channel 4 (11%), BBC Two (7%) and Channel 5 (4%). Al Jazeera (the English 3 BARB listed channels only 4
10 version) follows Channel 4, with 4%, then BBC Three (4%), CNN (2%) and Russia Today (1%). When users of TV news outlets were asked to consider whether the news sources they used were trustworthy, accurate and reliable, impartial and unbiased and offer a range of opinions, around half of news users rated them highly. In general, levels of trust and accuracy are higher than perceptions of impartiality. 2.6 News consumption via radio Over a third (36%) of UK adults say they consume news through radio. Of these, 75% say they use any BBC radio station for this purpose; this has increased since 2013 (68%). Almost four in ten (39%) UK adults say they use commercial radio to consume news, compared to 43% in RAJAR 4 figures indicate that the BBC network stations Radio 2, Radio 4 and Radio 1 have the highest reach 5. Respondents to the Ofcom news survey who have consumed news through radio are also more likely to name these three sources than any other station (28%, 25% and 20% respectively). Since 2013 the use of Radio 2 for news has risen from 23% to 28%. The use of different BBC radio stations is differentiated by age with 35% of radio news listeners aged 55+ saying they listen to Radio 4, compared to 11% of those aged Conversely, 48% of 16-34s who use radio for news say they use Radio 1, compared to 8% of those aged 55+. Men are more likely than women to listen to Radio 4 (29% vs. 20%). When asked to evaluate the attributes of each radio source, seven in ten BBC radio users find it accurate and trustworthy (72% and 70%) while two-thirds find it impartial and offering a range of opinions (65% and 66%). Similarly, for commercial stations, responses are higher for accuracy and trust (54% and 58%) and slightly lower for impartiality and for offering a range of opinions (49% and 46%). 2.7 News consumption through newspapers According to NRS 6 figures, the reach of national newspapers has declined considerably in the past ten years, with reach among all adults falling by one quarter (25.1 percentage points) since Despite fairly stable readership between 2012 and 2013, there has been further decline in print readership in the past year, particularly among the under-35s. Readership among the 15-24s has fallen by 9.9 percentage points during this period, and by 7.8 percentage points among the 25-34s. When print and PC/laptop readership is combined 7, the Daily Mail is the most widely-read news title in the UK, with just over six million users. Among the 40% of respondents in the Ofcom news survey who said they consumed news through newspapers, the most used titles are: The Sun (26%), the Daily Mail (21%), the Daily Mirror (13%), the Metro (9%) which has seen a significant decrease since 2013 (12%) and The Guardian (9%). There have been decreases in both of the daily free-sheets (the Metro and the Evening Standard) since 2013 (from 13% to 10%). Newspaper readers aged are more likely to read The Sun (39%) and the Metro (18%) than older readers (19% of those aged 55+ say they read The Sun and 2% say they read the 4 Radio Joint Audience Research 5 29%, 21%, 20% reach among all adults 15+ respectively (March 2014 figures) 6 National Readership Survey 7 Using Ofcom analysis of NRS/comScore PADD, March
11 Metro). Those aged are more likely to say they read The Guardian (14% vs. 5% of those aged 55+) while older readers are more likely to read the Daily Mail (30% vs. 12% of 16-34s). Men are more likely than women to read The Sun (29% vs.23%) and the Daily Star (4% vs. 1%), but there are no other differences in readership by gender. When asked to evaluate the attributes of each newspaper source, perceived levels of impartiality are highest for readers of The Guardian/Observer, local weekly paid-for titles, and local daily newspapers. Levels of trust and accuracy are more varied than for broadcast media. 2.8 News consumption via the internet Four in ten (41%) UK adults say they use the internet for news. Six in ten (60%) UK adults in the age group say they use any internet or apps for news, compared to two in ten (21%) of those aged 55 and over. Over half (55%) of those in the ABC1 socio-economic group use online sources, compared to three in ten (29%) of those in the C2DE socioeconomic group. Thirteen per cent of UK adults say they use a tablet for news. This is more likely among those aged (15%) and (17%) than those aged 55+ (7%). One in five (21%) of UK adults say they use a mobile phone for news, rising to two in five 16-34s (40%),21% of 35-54s and 4% of those aged 55+. The most common method of accessing news online is by reading news stories online; this method has seen an increase since 2013, from 54% to 60%. Reading comments or articles on blogs or social media has decreased to 23%, from 27% in Those aged are more likely than over-55s to do this (28% vs. 7%). Almost three in five (59%) online news users say they use the BBC website or app. This is followed by 18% who say they use the Google search engine, 17% who use Facebook and 17% who use the Sky News website or app. Overall aggregators are used by 15% of online news users, which is a decrease from 25% in 2013 (some of this decline could be attributable to the closure of Google Reader in 2013). Social media (Facebook and Twitter) are used by 20% of online news users, and 19% use search engines. Three in ten 16-34s (29%) use social media for news, and 60% use the BBC website or app. When asked to evaluate the attributes of each online source, users of the BBC, Sky News and The Guardian/Observer websites/apps rated levels of accuracy and trustworthiness more highly than importance or impartiality. In general, people using websites for news are more likely than those who use other platforms to see these sources as offering a range of opinions. This is particularly true for users of Twitter and Facebook, relative to other attributes. 6
12 Section 3 3 Attitudes towards news topics, and reasons for following news 3.1 Topics considered to be news, personal interest and societal importance When asked which topics they considered to be news, six in ten UK adults (61%) nominated the weather. This was followed by crime (53%), worldwide current affairs (53%), UK-wide current affairs (51%) and UK-wide politics (49%). When asked which types of news were of personal interest, the weather was again most popular, with half (49%) of people saying they were personally interested. Other types of news were much less likely to be rated as being of personal interest, with UK and worldwide current affairs being of interest to 37% of UK adults, sports to 36%, local events 35% and crime 35%. Comparing personal interest and societal importance, most topics are deemed to be more societally important than they are personally interesting, with the exception of sports, local events and entertainment, which are seen as equally personal interesting and societally important. UK politics and current affairs, and worldwide current affairs, are seen to have societal importance by half (49%) of UK adults, crime by 48% and weather by 45%. Younger and older age groups find different news topics personally interesting. The weather is the topic that both 16-24s and over-55s find most interesting (42% and 54% respectively). Among the 16-24s, specific news categories such as crime, sports, technology and science/ environment fall into the top ten topics, while the over-55s are more likely to nominate, general world news and UK and regional current affairs. Local news is of personal interest to 42% of over-55s compared to 20% of those aged Reasons to follow news Almost three in five (58%) UK adults say they follow the news to find out what s going on in the world. The next most-cited reason is to know what s going on across the UK (56%), followed by to know what s going on in my local area (49%), then to know what s going on in respective nations (46%) and because I feel it s important to keep informed about certain issues (42%). Reasons for following the news are broadly similar for those aged and for those aged over 55. However, over-55s are more likely to cite most of the reasons, perhaps illustrating a stronger engagement with news. Younger age groups are more likely that those aged 55+ to nominate to pass the time when waiting/travelling/commuting/bored (17% of 16-24s, 23% of 25-34s vs. 9% of those aged 55+). 7
13 Section 4 4 Local media use According to the Ofcom local media omnibus survey, television is the most-used local media source for regional and local news, with over three-quarters (77%) of all adults saying they use it at least weekly. Half of all adults say they use newspapers and radio for local news (49% and 50%), and four in ten adults say they use any online sources for local news (39%). As well as being the most frequently used, regional and local news on television is more likely to be considered personally important to regular local media users. The internet is equally as important as BBC local radio and paid-for local newspapers. Regional and local news on television was considered to be the most important type of local media by four in ten (40%) of regular local news users. One in five (19%) nominated any online source as their most important type of local media. Any local newspaper is most important for 17%, and 13% nominate any local radio. Local media users are most satisfied with regional and local news on television, with six in ten (59%) regular local media users rating TV between 7 and 10 out of 10. Around half rate the other platforms in this way - 53% local online sources, 50% local radio and 49% local newspapers. The reported use of local media is increasing over time. Almost half (48%) of those who say they use local media say they use the internet for local news information now more than they did two years ago. 8
14 Section 5 5 News consumption in the nations 5.1 Platforms used for news nowadays Television is by far the most-used platform for news 8 in every nation of the UK, although the proportion of people using TV for news varies across the nations. Almost nine in ten adults (86%) in Northern Ireland watch news on television, compared to eight in ten (81%) in Wales, and three-quarters (75%) of adults in England and in Scotland. People in Northern Ireland are more likely to use TV, radio, online sources and word of mouth than across the UK as a whole. Nearly half of people in Scotland and Northern Ireland (46% and 45%) use newspapers for news. One quarter (24%) of people in Northern Ireland use word of mouth for news, compared to 13% in Wales and 11% in England and Scotland. 5.2 Multiple sourcing of news As was the case in 2013, adults in Northern Ireland use news sources across more platforms than any other nation, with an average of 4.6 (5.2 last year), compared to 4.0 in Wales (4.0 last year), 3.9 in Scotland (3.9 last year) and 3.8 in England (3.8 last year). With the exception of newspapers, people in Northern Ireland also use the highest number of sources within each platform, watching an average of 2.2 different television news sources, listening to an average of 1.6 radio news sources and using an average of 2.3 online sources. People in Wales use the most newspaper sources, with an average of Importance of news sources At a wholesale level, the BBC is the most important source across all nations. ITN is the next most important news source and is particularly important for news users in Northern Ireland; over one in five news users in Northern Ireland (22%) cite ITN as their most important news source, compared to the 13% UK average. 5.4 Share of references and cross-platform reach Share of reference measures, across platforms and news providers, are relatively similar across all of the nations, although ITN has a higher share in Northern Ireland at a wholesale level. The share of other providers is also higher in Northern Ireland. In terms of wholesale reach, ITN reach is higher in Northern Ireland (66%) than in the other nations (40% UK average). Sky has a higher reach in Wales (36%) than the UK average (30%). 5.5 Personal interest in news When asked which types of news they were personally interested in, 44% of UK adults said they were interested in political news. This is less likely in Wales (32%) and more likely in Northern Ireland (51%) and Scotland (52%). More starkly, while 53% of people across the 8 The definition of news used for questions about consumption in the news survey was By news I mean news and current affairs in your region (England)/ in Wales/Scotland/Northern Ireland (in respective nations), across the UK and around the world. 9
15 UK say they are interested in any type of local/regional news, this rises to 71% of people in Scotland and 78% of people in Northern Ireland. 5.6 England Over half (52%) of adults in England use BBC One for news, followed by ITV (31%). In line with overall UK use of specific news sources, half of the top ten sources used by people in England are from the BBC. Those living in England are less likely than those in Wales and Northern Ireland to say they use television to access news (75% vs. 81% in Wales and 86% in Northern Ireland). Those living in England are less likely than those in Scotland or Northern Ireland to say they consume news through newspapers (39% vs. 46% in Scotland and 45% in Northern Ireland). 5.7 Scotland People in Scotland are less likely to rate a BBC source as their most important news source than the UK as a whole (46% vs. 52% UK average). Over half of adults in Scotland say they use BBC One for news (55%), followed by STV (37%) and then the BBC website or app (24%). There has been no change in the use of BBC One or STV for news, but use of the BBC website or app has increased since 2013 (14%). TV is considered relatively more important for news among its users in Scotland than among those in England and Wales; the mean importance for television was 7.5 in Scotland, compared to 6.8 in England and 6.9 in Wales. 5.8 Wales Just over six in ten (61%) of adults in Wales use BBC One for news, followed by ITV Wales (42%) and then Sky News (23%). Among TV news users, the Sky News channel is more popular in Wales (29%) than it is in England (22%) and Scotland (21%). Over one-third (35%) of people in Wales who consume news by listening to the radio say they use BBC Radio 2 for this purpose, over double the proportion in Northern Ireland (14%). More people in Wales than in England use Facebook as a source of online news (26% vs. 16%). 5.9 Northern Ireland The majority of platforms have higher penetration for news in Northern Ireland than across the UK as a whole. The reach of BBC One is highest in Northern Ireland, with almost two-thirds (65%) of adults naming it as a source, compared to 53% across the UK as a whole. Use of UTV for news is the highest of any nation, at 56% compared to 31% for ITV in England, 37% for STV in Scotland and 42% for ITV in Wales. In Northern Ireland, one in five (20%) adults say they listen to the news on BBC Radio Ulster, which is higher than the equivalent BBC stations in other nations (BBC Radio Scotland at 8% and BBC Radio Wales or Cymru at 7%). 10
16 Among those who use the internet for news, use of Facebook for news is higher in Northern Ireland than in England (24% vs. 16%). Use of Twitter for news is also higher in Northern Ireland than in England and Scotland (17% vs. 9% and 8% respectively). 11
17 Section 6 6 Methodology 2731 interviews were conducted in total, using Kantar s face-to-face Omnibus. 6.1 Omnibus sampling method The Omnibus uses a comprehensive address-based system using PAF and CD-Rom, crossreferenced to the census data. For each wave, 143 sample points are selected and, within the selected primary sampling points, a postcode sector is chosen. Postcode selection within primary sampling points alternates between A and B halves to reduce clustering effects. All interviews are conducted via the field team and in accordance with strict quality control procedures. Quotas (by sex, working status and presence of children) are set during interviewing to ensure representivity. Any sample profile imbalances are corrected at the analysis stage through weighting. 6.2 Nations boosts A standard wave of UK omnibus (c2060) provides samples of roughly 175 in Scotland, 100 in Wales and 60 in Northern Ireland. However, in order to provide robust analysis by nation, fieldwork boosts took place to ensure a minimum sample of 350 respondents for each. To achieve this in the most efficient manner it required four waves of the regular GB Omnibus, plus a standalone Northern Ireland wave. The sample sizes achieved per nation were as follows: England = 1641 Scotland = 363 Wales = 376 N Ireland = Weighting The following weighting matrix was applied to the data to address any imbalances. Sex Age Working status Region Total sample Male Female Working Not working % % % % % % % % SOUTH EAST 14% 7% 7% 4% 5% 5% 8% 5% LONDON 12% 6% 6% 5% 5% 3% 8% 5% NORTH WEST 11% 5% 6% 3% 4% 4% 6% 5% EAST 9% 5% 5% 3% 3% 3% 6% 4% WEST MIDLANDS 9% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 5% 4% SOUTH WEST 9% 4% 4% 2% 3% 3% 5% 4% YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER 9% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 5% 4% EAST MIDLANDS 7% 4% 4% 2% 2% 3% 4% 3% NORTH EAST 4% 2% 2% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% ENGLAND TOTAL 84% 41% 43% 26% 29% 29% 49% 35% SCOTLAND 9% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 5% 4% WALES 5% 2% 3% 1% 2% 2% 3% 2% NORTHERN IRELAND 3% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 1% NATIONS TOTAL 16% 8% 8% 5% 5% 6% 9% 7% TOTAL 100% 49% 51% 31% 34% 35% 58% 42% 12
18 6.4 Sources Mid 2010 Population Estimates from ONS (latest currently available) for Age, Gender & Region (Including Nations). Annual Population Survey (ONS Crown Copyright Reserved [from Nomis on 28 February 2012] for Working Status 13
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