The Consumer s Digital Day. A research report by Ofcom and Gfk

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1 A research report by Ofcom and Gfk Research Document Publication date: 14 th December 2010

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3 Contents Section Page 1 Executive summary 1 2 Methodology 7 3 Consumer behaviour and media consumption 12 4 Use of media devices 21 5 Media activities 34 6 The role of media multi-tasking 49 7 Attention and importance of media 66 8 Attitudes to media and technology 88 9 Segmentation Media use among year olds Other Research 148

4 Section 1 1 Executive summary 1.1 Introduction People have more flexibility and more choice than ever before when it comes to what, how and when they access media content and use communications services (for example, making voice calls). This is due to expansion in the range of devices that can support a wide variety of media content and service types; it has been influenced by the speed of take-up of different technologies, and the increasing convergence between media. Ofcom subscribes to a wide range of industry research such as BARB (television), RAJAR (radio), and Nielsen NetRatings (internet). This allows us to understand how people consume broadcast media and how they use web sites. However, there is little in the way of insight into how people use media and communications devices together and the relationships between them. Ofcom commissioned an in-depth quantitative study on UK adults total media and communications activities to provide an overview of the role of electronic media in people s lives. The study is part of our media literacy programme of work that we undertake as part of our duty under section 11 of the Communications Act 2003 to promote media literacy. We were interested in understanding the current media behaviour of younger teenagers alongside the claimed behaviour captured in the main Digital Day survey. Ofcom therefore commissioned a supplementary survey among year olds, which followed the same methodology as the main study, albeit simplified. The research provides a snapshot of people s media and communications behaviour over a seven-day period, with fieldwork undertaken in April-May The study has been designed to explore how people use media and communications devices throughout the day, which media and devices are used concurrently, where, and what attention people pay to the media they use. It covers both in- and out-of-home use. Note that in this analysis the phrase media consumption refers not only to viewing and listening but also to text and voice communications, alongside the use of other communications services, gaming and other computer use, as described in the methodology (page 7). 1.2 Key findings Media day Nearly half of people s waking hours are spent engaging in media and communications activities The average person spends 15 hours 45 minutes awake per day, and seven hours 5 minutes of this time is spent engaging in media and communications activities, amounting to 45% of waking hours. 1

5 Consuming media concurrently People spend about seven hours a day consuming different media, but they fit more into this time by media multi-tasking One-fifth of the 7 hours 5 minutes of media activity is spent using more than one form of media at the same time. This allows people to fit in more media and communications activity into the time; on average, 8 hours 48 minutes. The amount of actual time that 16-24s spend consuming media is lower (6 hours 35 minutes) than for older age groups. But 29% of their time with media is concurrent; the result is that they use more media and communications than any other age group, fitting 9 hours 32 minutes worth of activity into this time. Men spend more actual time than women consuming media (7 hours 33 minutes versus 6 hours 38 minutes respectively). And although men do not show a greater tendency to consume media concurrently, they are more likely to consume more media overall. For both groups, about one-fifth of their time with media is concurrent, with men fitting 9 hours 36 minutes into this time, compared to 8 hours 2 minutes for women. UK adults are most likely to watch scheduled TV on its own, whereas mobile phone and computer activities attract the most simultaneous media use Eighty-three per cent of scheduled television viewed on a TV set occurs without any concurrent media consumption. Other media activities that tend to be undertaken on their own include listening to the radio on a radio set (81%), and reading newspapers, magazines or books (71%). By contrast, activities on a mobile phone and a computer are the most likely to be undertaken at the same time as other media activities (55% of mobile phone use takes place concurrently with other media activity, as does 62% of computer use). Of any device, computers have the highest proportion of simultaneous media consumption (62%). (The research also found that 37% of media use on a computer is done in the same half hour as other media activity on a computer, indicating that some simultaneous media consumption appears to be on a single device, rather than between devices.) While media multi-tasking is popular across the day, scheduled television emerges as a solus activity for many people in the evening The proportion of people consuming more than one form of media simultaneously is broadly constant for most of the day (averaging at 24% of all respondents between 09:00 and 18:00). However, in the evenings, the proportion of people using media increases rapidly as more people focus on solus media consumption using just one form of media at a time and this is primarily watching scheduled television. 2

6 Device use UK adults spend most of their media and communications time using TV and radio sets. However, year olds spend half of their time with computers, mobile phones Device use varies by age. Two-thirds (67%) of media and communications activity conducted by people over 55 is carried out through a TV set or radio set. By contrast, among 16-24s, over half of their media and communications time is undertaken on a computer or mobile phone. Men and women spend about the same proportion of media time on the TV set (39% for men and 42% for women). Men tend to spend a greater proportion of their media time (31%) on a computer, compared with 25% for women. Among those in the C2DE group, 47% of media use is on the television set, compared to 36% among those in the ABC1 group. Adults in the ABC1 group consume 31% of their media through the computer, compared with 23% for C2DE adults. Compared to people over 55, 16-24s are more likely to use the mobile phone for a wider range of activities Phone calls represent 58% of all mobile phone use by over-55s, compared with 22% for those in the age group. Text messaging accounts for half of all mobile phone use and social networking a further 13% among 16-24s. Women are more likely to use voice calls and text messaging, which make up 39% and 46% of their mobile phone use respectively. This compares to 33% of mobile phone use by men being voice calls, and 37% text messaging. One-fifth of men s mobile phone use constitutes internet-based communication ing, social networking and instant messaging compared with 11% for women. Two-fifths of the time UK adults spend on a computer is on communicating with other people Computer use varies by age. People aged 55+ spend just under 40% of their time on a computer using it to communicate with others, and they are more likely to use (28% of their computer time is spent on , 8% on social networking, and 1% on instant messaging). For 16-24s, over half their time on computers is spent communicating with other people, and they are more likely to use social networking (22% on social networking, 14% instant messaging and 14% ing). Those in the C2DE socio-economic group tend to spend a greater proportion of their computer time doing either social networking or instant messaging, which constitutes over a quarter (26%) of their computer activity, compared to 12% of such computer activity among ABC1 adults. Media categories Video content, and in particular scheduled television on a TV set, dominates people s total media consumption time As the research study offered a single-source approach to cross-device use, we were able to group media activities into categories and examine similar activities cross-platform, such as 3

7 video content or audio activities. The study found that video content, and in particular scheduled television on a TV set, dominated UK adults total media consumption time. This was followed by audio and then text communications. On average, UK adults watch 212 minutes of video content a day across all devices (e.g. watching TV on a TV set, on-demand, online or other video clips) this amounts to 40% of all media and communications. A further 91 minutes were spent listening to any audio content 1 (such as radio on a radio set, or music online). Eighty minutes per day are spent on text communications (which included text messaging, social networking, instant messaging and ing). Reading print media, voice communications and games activities made up much smaller proportions of total media consumption (at 31, 28, and 15 minutes per day respectively). Scheduled TV on a TV set dominates video content consumption overall A closer examination of all video consumption found that scheduled TV forms 82% of all video watched, amounting to an average of 173 minutes per day. This is also the case among year olds, for whom scheduled TV makes up 70% of all video content watched. While only a small proportion of their video consumption comes from watching video content via a computer (11%), this is higher than the UK average (3%) year olds are more likely to watch TV recorded on a PVR, with 14% of their video consumption undertaken this way, compared with 10% for all UK adults. Attention paid to media activities and their perceived importance The attention given to different activities varies, with more paid to those that require active involvement, such as playing games on a games console, or phone calls Activities such as games on a games console, computer-based activities, text and voice communications (landline and mobile phone), and on-demand television attract higher attention scores than live TV or live radio. Playing games using a games console attracts the most attention, with an average score of 4.2 out of 5, while listening to the radio on a radio set and watching scheduled TV attract some of the lowest attention scores, with average scores of 2.9 and 3.0 respectively 2. Communications activities such as ing and mobile phone calls command high attention and high importance scores Communications activities such as ing and mobile phone calls command high attention and high importance scores from respondents. Traditional TV, print and radio are valued, although on average they command less attention. By contrast, some activities receive higher-than-average attention scores, but are not considered as important, such as playing games on a computer, or watching TV/other video content on a computer, or through a DVD player. The relationship between attention and importance varies by age. ing is the most important activity for people aged 55+ and commands the greatest attention. For 16-24s, calls on a mobile phone receive the highest average attention and importance scores. That said, for this group ing is also perceived to have both high importance and receive high 1 The research study underestimates the amount of time spent listening to radio on a radio set in comparison to RAJAR. See methodology for further details. 2 The mean attention and importance scores are calculated from all people who undertook the activity in the 7- day diary period. 4

8 attention. ing is also considered the most important activity, with higher than average attention, for men and women and for those in ABC1 and C2DE groups. The figure below provides a summary of some of the key measures from the UK adults study. Figure 1: Fast Facts All s 25-44s 45-54s 55+ Time Awake (minutes per day) Time spent with media and communications (minutes per day) Proportion of media and communications time that is solus 80% 71% 77% 81% 88% Proportion of media and communications time that is simultaneous 20% 29% 23% 19% 12% Amount of media and communications activity (minutes per day) Watching video (% of all activity) 40% 32% 36% 37% 52% Listening to audio (% of all activity) 17% 14% 17% 22% 17% Voice communication (% of all activity) 5% 6% 5% 6% 5% Text communication (% of all activity) 15% 30% 18% 11% 6% Print Media (% of all activity) 6% 3% 4% 5% 10% Games (% of all activity) 3% 5% 3% 2% 1% Other internet (% of all activity) 7% 5% 8% 9% 4% Other media (% of all activity) 7% 5% 9% 9% 4% Source: Ofcom research, base = All respondent days: 16+ = 7966; 16-24s = 1106; 25-44s = 3003; 45-54s = 1484; 55+ = Green indicates results higher than the UK average and red indicates results lower than the UK average. All 16+ Time Awake (minutes per day) Time spent with media and communications (minutes per day) Proportion of media and communications time that is solus 80% 80% 81% 78% 84% 80% 83% Proportion of media and communications time that is 20% 20% 19% 22% 16% 20% 17% i lt Amount of media and communications activity (minutes per day) Watching video (% of all activity) 40% 38% 42% 35% 48% 36% 46% Listening to audio (% of all activity) 17% 18% 17% 18% 16% 18% 17% Voice communication (% of all activity) 5% 5% 6% 6% 5% 5% 6% Text communication (% of all activity) 15% 16% 15% 16% 14% 15% 14% Print Media (% of all activity) 6% 5% 7% 5% 8% 7% 5% Games (% of all activity) 3% 3% 2% 3% 3% 3% 3% Other internet (% of all activity) 7% 8% 5% 8% 4% 7% 5% Other media (% of all activity) 7% 8% 5% 10% 3% 9% 4% Men Women Working Not Working ABC1 C2DE Source: Ofcom research, base = All respondent days: 16+ = 7966; men = 3815; women = 4151; working = 4417; not working = Green indicates results higher than the UK average and red indicates results lower than the UK average. Media segmentation Overall, this segmentation analysis identified a spectrum of media users, ranging from those who consume very little media and do very little multi-tasking, to those who can be characterised as consuming large volumes of media, almost always simultaneously with other media activities. Respondents who consume the most media are the most likely to consume media concurrently, to be confident using technology and to be positive about the 5

9 internet. The computer and the mobile phone are the two devices that tend to drive media multitasking as well as overall media consumption year olds Ofcom undertook a supplementary study among children aged years old who had the internet at home. This research found that year olds use a wide range of media across the day, and different activities dominate media consumption at different times. Across the day, video and text communications attract the highest proportion of year olds, with 83% using video daily and 69% using text communications daily. Seventy-two per cent of year olds watch television on a television set on an average day, 43% text or video message, and 40% social network on a computer on an average day. The key devices for this group are the TV and the computer, followed by the mobile phone. Seventy-five per cent of the time that year olds spend with media is with a TV or computer. Mobile phone accounts for a further 10% year olds do around two activities at once when media multi-tasking. Much of the time that they read, watch television, listen to the radio, or play games on a television console, they do so without doing any other media activities at the same time. When they do an activity on a mobile phone or a computer, however, they are more likely to be engaging in more than one media activity. According to this research, 12-15s media multi-task for 39% of the time that they used a computer. Of all media activities done in the same half hour as watching scheduled television, 52% are done on a computer. Mobile phones are also frequently used alongside other media. Playing games on a television console, reading and watching recorded TV attract the highest levels of attention among year olds. These are also the activities for which year olds attention drops the most when media multi-tasking. Playing games on a television console is also seen as an important activity by its users. Text communication and listening to music on portable devices are also seen as important, despite being given less attention, while print and recorded TV are given higher than average attention but considered less important. Scheduled TV attracts just below average importance and attention scores. The internet is an integral part of most year olds lives. Almost universally, they see it as a useful source of information and use it widely for communication. Examining which medium they value the most, the survey found that year olds value the internet on the computer in particular, while internet-based activities on the mobile phone remain niche. 6

10 Section 2 2 Methodology 2.1 Introduction The study set out to explore the media and communications behaviours of UK adults aged 16+, and we conducted a supplementary survey among UK teenagers aged years. The methodologies used for each sample varied slightly; we modified the UK adults approach for the UK teenagers sample, to ensure that the task was achievable for this age group. The two methodologies are explained in brief in the following sections, and more detail is provided in the technical appendix to this report. 2.2 Overview of UK adults methodology A nationally-representative sample, comprising 1,138 UK adults aged 16+, was recruited predominantly via a face-to-face method (with a quarter recruited online) to take part in the study. The research took place in April and May The study consisted of three stages: - a face-to-face recruitment questionnaire that included information on media device ownership and use; - an aide-memoire that respondents completed for all media and communications activities undertaken over a seven-day period, recorded on a half-hour basis. Responses were captured on a daily basis either by telephone or by self-completion online; and - an attitudinal survey undertaken at the end of the seven days, again administered either by telephone or by self-completion online. Respondents were asked to record a wide range of media activities undertaken on the following media devices: - TV set; - radio set - computer; - mobile phone; - landline phone; - print media; - music stereo; and -handheld device (e.g. MP3 player, portable DVD player, etc). The survey covered 45 media and communications activities, including using video and audio content, playing games, reading (magazines, books or newspapers), text, and voice communications. The seven-day diary included personal and business use, in-home and out-of-home use. 7

11 The diary collected information on respondents claimed amounts of media consumption and concurrent media use, including time spent undertaking just one media activity ( solus activity), and time spent doing more than one media activity ( simultaneous activity). It captured the levels of attention paid to the different media and communications activities, and how this varied in terms of solus and simultaneous activity. The survey also included information on respondents other daily activities, such as eating, preparing food, travelling or working, which enabled us to understand media consumption within a broader context. The attitudinal questionnaire undertaken on the last survey day captured further information on the perceived importance of different media activities, as well as general attitudes towards technology and the internet. Segmentation We have also undertaken a segmentation analysis of the data for the UK adults sample, which is reported in chapter 9 of this report. First, we used a factor analysis to examine which variables drove the most variation between respondents in their claimed media and communications consumption. This analysis identified: - the total amount of media and communications consumption (volume); - the ratio between solus and simultaneous media and communications consumption; and - attitudes towards technology. Once the factor analysis was complete, a hierarchical cluster analysis was run to identify the number of groups into which respondents could be separated. This process identified eight distinct groups of interest. But three groups, although distinct, were very small, and each represented high-volume, skilled users. These were grouped into one, making six groups in total. The statistical method of K-means analysis, was then used to group the respondents, with the initial number of groups set at eight. As mentioned above, three of these clusters were grouped together due to their small sample size. 2.3 Overview of methodology for UK teenagers aged A demographically-representative sample of 179 teenagers aged were recruited to take part in the survey, which took place between April and June All the teenagers had access to the internet. This study followed the same overall approach as the main study, with: - a recruitment questionnaire, which included information on media device ownership and use. Some teens were recruited face to face, but the majority were recruited online. - an aide memoire that respondents completed for all media and communications activities undertaken over a seven-day period, recorded on a half-hourly basis. Responses were captured by self-completion online; and - an attitudinal survey undertaken at the end of the seven days, again captured by selfcompletion online. 8

12 Respondents were asked to record the same 45 media and communications activities as the main sample see Figure 2. The seven-day diary included in-home and out-of-home use but, unlike the main survey, did not capture personal and work use. The seven-day diary collected information on when respondents claimed to consume media at a half-hourly level as well as concurrent media use (i.e. when activities were undertaken on their own ( solus activity), and when they were undertaken together with other media activities ( simultaneous activity). The 12-15s survey differed from the main survey in that it captured overall volume levels at a daily rather than at an event level, and captured this for only a restricted number of activities. This was in order to make the survey manageable for these younger respondents. As a result, the overall volume levels and solus and simultaneous volume levels should not be compared with those from the main survey, as they were collected in a more truncated fashion. The study captured the levels of attention paid to the different media and communications activities and how this varied in terms of solus and simultaneous activity. The only difference was that the attention question was asked as a three-point scale. The survey also included information on respondents daily activities, such as eating, preparing food, travelling, working and studying, to enable us to understand their behaviour in the round. The attitudinal questionnaire, undertaken on the last survey day, captured further information on the perceived importance of different media activities, as well as general attitudes towards the different media and the internet and any rules surrounding teens use of media. Importance levels were collected in the same way as for the adults, on a 1-10 scale. Notes on analysis: For details of the analysis presented in this report for the UK sample see Section 10. The dataset analysed in the teenagers section includes only those respondents who completed all seven days of the survey. 2.4 Comparisons with industry measures Comparisons with industry data for television (BARB), radio (RAJAR) and the internet (Nielsen NetRatings) show comparable weekly reach levels with this study. However, this study recorded lower volumes than industry data, particularly for radio. A range of factors may have contributed to this difference. These include: - The broad nature of the survey, which covers a wide range of media, rather than focusing on one specific medium. - The sample covers all adults aged 16+, rather than consumers of a specific medium. - The use of a diary method relies on consumer recall rather than tracking actual behaviour. This could introduce a recall bias, which is common in diary studies. For example, respondents may remember less actual behaviour because they do not record activity often enough. For this study, information was recorded daily. Respondents were encouraged to update their diary at least four times a day and to carry it with them to record behaviour both in and outside the home. - Activities that receive lower consumer attention or are undertaken passively may be less likely to be recalled. 9

13 These factors may have influenced the results and should be considered when assessing the findings. For example, this research reports lower radio listening volume relative to RAJAR results. However, the study still provides an overview of radio listening within the context of people s other media activities. 2.5 Analysis presented in this report for UK adult sample The dataset analysed in this report includes those respondents who completed all seven days of the survey. We have reported on the 45 media and communications activities individually and also aggregated them into the categories (e.g. video, audio, voice communications) and subcategories (e.g. video comprises television on a TV set, television on another device and other video). These categories and sub-categories are shown in Figure 2. The categories are designed to reflect the broad purposes of media and communications activities across a range of devices. Figure 2: Media consumption activities Activity category Video Audio Voice communications Text communications Print media Games Other Activity subcategories Television TV Television - other Other video Radio radio set Radio other device Other audio Other internet Other media Activities Television set: TV live; Television set: recorded TV on PVR; Television set: recorded TV on DVD/VHS; Television set: TV on-demand TV or films on-demand or live on a computer; TV or films on-demand on a mobile phone DVDs or videos (rented or bought); Video clips on a computer; Downloaded TV, films or video clips on a computer; Downloaded TV, films or video on a mobile phone; Downloaded TV, films or video on hand-held device. Live radio on a fixed or portable set Radio on a TV set; Radio live or on-demand on a computer, mobile phone or hand-held device Streamed music, streamed podcasts, downloaded music or other audio, music or other audio on a stereo or music centre or portable devices. Making or receiving phone calls on a landline; Making or receiving phone calls on a mobile phone; Making or receiving phone calls or video calls on a computer. ing, social networking or instant messaging on a computer or mobile phone and texting or video messaging on a mobile phone Reading newspapers, magazines or books Playing games on a TV set, computer or portable device (e.g. hand-held games console or MP3 player. Internet activity on a computer or mobile phone that is not covered by the previous categories. All other media and communications activity on a hand-held device, and all other noninternet activity on a computer or mobile phone. The analysis examines a range of claimed media behaviours. These include when respondents said that they were undertaking more than one media activity at the same time ( simultaneous media consumption) and doing them separately ( solus media consumption). In presenting the findings it uses the terms laid out in Table 1. It is important to note that the solus and simultaneous media activity analysis focuses on media activities only and does not take account of respondents doing daily activities (such as eating, travelling, etc.). 10

14 Table 1: -Terminology used in this section Definition Simultaneous media consumption Solus media consumption Weekly reach Daily reach Volume Attention Importance Description Media consumed while doing another media activity at the same time, e.g. texting on a mobile phone and watching television. Media consumed while doing no other media activity. The proportion of individuals consuming each media activity within the week. The proportion of individuals consuming each media activity on a typical day. Average minutes consumed per day based on the total sample. The average score or the claimed attention by activity for all activities recorded in the diary (on a scale of 1 to 5). Based on users of each activity as reported in the 7 day survey. The average score of claimed importance overall for each activity (on a scale of 1 to 10). Reported here on users of each activity within the 7 day survey. The data presented in this report, where possible, is tested at 99% confidence level when making comparisons between different demographic groups versus the total sample. Differences are indicated with a circle on the chart or colour-coded green when higher than the UK average and red when lower. The demographic groups reported in this study for the UK adult sample are age, gender, working status, and socio economic group. 11

15 Section 3 3 Consumer behaviour and media consumption 3.1 Key findings This study found that consumers spend almost half of their waking hours engaging in media and communications activities. The average adult spent 15 hours 45 minutes awake every day. As the study also found that the average adult spends just over seven hours a day with media, it follows that the average adult spent 45% of their waking hours undertaking some form of media or communications activity. Video content, and in particular television viewing, dominates people s total media consumption time. This is followed by audio content and then text communications (e.g. ing, social networking, and texting). On average, UK adults watch 212 minutes of video content a day across all devices (e.g. watching TV on a TV set, TV on demand, TV online or other video clips) this amounts to 40% of all media and communications. Within this, video consumption remains dominated by live TV viewing, at 173 minutes, followed by PVR viewing at 21 minutes. Video is the most highly-consumed media type among all the demographics considered in the report, but is followed closely by text communications among year olds. The average year old watches 181 minutes of video content a day, and undertakes 171 minutes of text communications activity. Young people undertake more media and communications activity than any other age group but spend less time doing so year olds manage to fit just over nine and a half hours worth of media into a little over six and a half hours of actual time. To achieve this, they consume around five hours of simultaneous media per day in less than two hours of actual time (29% of the time they spend with media is concurrent media use). By contrast those over 55 spent the least proportion of their time multitasking, at 12% of the actual time they spent with media. In terms of actual time spent consuming media, year olds spend the most time on an average day (at 7 hours 22 minutes), and year olds the least time (6 hours 35 minutes). The study found that men consume 20% more media than women overall, but men and women media multitask to the same degree. 12

16 3.2 Take-up of media and communications devices and services Consumer take-up of digital technology is growing People face a great deal of flexibility and choice when deciding how, when and where to access content and communications services. This has been driven by the introduction of a range of converged devices and by their widespread adoption. Ofcom s technology tracker (quarter 1, ) identified some of the more popular digital technologies and services now embraced by many people in the UK (see Figure 3): digital television decoders, which are connected to over nine in ten (92%) main television sets in the home; broadband connections, which are now available to seven in ten (71%) people; and games consoles, which are installed in five in ten homes. Figure 3: Take-up of a range of communications devices and services Proportion of individuals (%) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Q Q Q n/a CAGR (%) 1 yr 3 yr n/a n/a n/a Digital television DVD player Broadband Games console MP3 player DAB digital radio PVR 3G handset Blu-Ray/ HD-DVD Source: Ofcom research Q1 2010, based on claimed ownership of devices Younger people are more likely to adopt new technology These technologies outlined above have not been uniformly adopted across all age groups. Younger people have a greater tendency to exhibit early adopter characteristics, which means that they are more likely to have access to a wide range of new communication technologies. Mobile phone penetration is highest among year olds and year olds, at 98% among both age groups. 3G handset penetration is highest among both these age groups as well, at 37%. PVR ownership is highest among year olds, at 70%, and the same is true for computer ownership (87%) and broadband access (83%) year olds are the most likely to own an MP3 player (58%) (see Figure 4). 3 Ofcom s quarter technology tracker data are used in this report, as they represent the period just prior to the fieldwork for the Digital Day research. 13

17 Figure 4: Adoption of new technologies, by age 100% Digital TV Proportion of individuals (%) 80% 60% 40% 20% Mobile phone Computer Broadband MP3 player PVR DAB radio 0% G handset Source: Ofcom research Q1 2010, based on claimed ownership of devices. 3.3 Consumer behaviour across the day Consumers spend almost half of their waking hours engaging in media and communications activities The research explored people s media use within the context of their total day, when undertaking different lifestyle activities (such as sleeping, eating, working and shopping). The study showed that the average adult spent 15 hours 45 minutes awake every day, with most people up by 09:00 and asleep by midnight. As the study also found that the average adult spent just over seven hours a day with media, it follows that the average adult spent 45% of their waking hours undertaking some form of media or communications activity. Figure 5 shows how the proportion of all lifestyle and media activities being done each hour is split throughout an average day 4. Overall, people s media use was highest in the evening, peaking at 21:00 and driven by television viewing. Later on, the proportion of people sleeping increased rapidly, reaching almost 80% by 23:00. Prior to 21:00, non-media activity was mainly made up of eating, working, childcare and housework, all of which had declined substantially by 21:00. This suggests that TV viewing in the evening peak time is predominately an activity undertaken exclusive of not only other media and communications consumption but also exclusive of other lifestyle activities. 4 Note: This chart shows the proportion of media and lifestyle activities. Respondents may be represented in more than one category in any hour period. 14

18 Figure 5: Proportions of all lifestyle and media activities throughout the day Proportion of all media and lifestyle activities (%) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Sleep Text comms (e.g. s, texting, social networking Phone calls Radio Peak-time TV Work Lunch Dinner Travelling Time of day Sleep Sleeping Washing/dressing Travelling Cooking and eating Working/studying Childcare Housework Shopping Free Time TV on TV set TV on other device Other video Radio on radio set Radio on other device Other audio Print media Voice comms Text comms Games Other internet media Other non-internet media Source: Ofcom research, base = all respondent days: 7966 Television is the dominant form of media consumption in the evening Figure 6 focuses on the proportion of media and communications activity undertaken during each hour of the day. The data illustrate the popularity of television in the evening, when over half (52%) of all media activities undertaken involved watching television on a TV set. In the morning, radio was more popular, but declined by the evening when TV was at its peak. Text communications and voice communications both made up a fair proportion of media activity during the daytime, but both were less popular in the evenings. However, after the end of television peak time, text communications accounted for a similar proportion of media activity as in daytime. Print media made up an average of 6% of all media activity between 10:00 and 22:00, before peaking at 12% of all media activity at 23:00. Figure 6: Proportions of all media activities throughout the day Proportion of all media activities (%) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Radio Text comms (e.g. , text messaging, social networking Voice comms (e.g. phone calls) Time of day TV TV on TV set TV on other device Other video Radio on radio set Radio on other device Other audio Print media Voice comms Text comms Games Other internet media Other non-internet media Source: Ofcom research, base = all respondent days:

19 3.4 Overall media and communications consumption People spend more time watching video and listening to audio than any other media or communications activity Our research found that the time spent by people using media would take 8 hours 48 minutes in total if it were all consumed on its own. (Simultaneous media consumption allowed people to fit this into 7 hours 5 minutes a day as illustrated in Figures 10 and 11.) Video, and in particular television viewing, dominated people s total media consumption time. This was followed by audio and then text communications (e.g. ing, social networking or texting). On average, an adult watched 212 minutes of video content a day across all devices (e.g. watching TV on a TV set, on-demand, online or other video clips). This amounted to 40% of all media and communications. A further 91 minutes were spent listening to any audio content 5 (such as radio on a radio set, or music online). Eighty minutes per day were spent on text communications. Figure 7: Average amount of media used per day Minutes of media consumption per day Total media All video All audio Text communication Other offline Media Other internet media Print media Voice communication Games Source: Ofcom research, base = All respondent days: s spend almost as much time watching video content as undertaking text communication activities Video content was the most highly-consumed media type among all the demographics considered in this report. It was followed closely by text communications among year olds. The average year old watched 181 minutes of video content a day, and 171 minutes of text communications activity. Use of games was almost as high as voice communications among year olds, at 31 minutes a day, compared with 32 minutes of voice communication. Those in the C2DE socio-economic group were more likely to watch video than those in the ABC1 group (3 hours 50 minutes per day, compared with 3 hours 14 minutes), while the latter, who used more media overall, were more likely to listen to audio, read print, and use other online or offline media. 5 The research study underestimates the amount of time spent listening to radio on a radio set in comparison to RAJAR. See methodology for further details. 16

20 Men used more of most types of media than women, with the exception of print media (used for 30 minutes per day by men and 32 minutes per day by women) and voice communications (28 minutes per day for men, 30 minutes per day for women). Those adults who worked consumed an average of 3 hours 12 minutes of video content per day, compared with 3 hours 57 minutes consumed by those who did not work. Adults who worked were more likely to use audio, voice and text communications, and other online and offline media. Figure 8: Average daily minutes of media used per day, by demographic group Device All s 25-44s 45-54s 55+ Men Women Working Not Working ABC1 C2DE Total Media Video Audio Text Communication Other online media Other offline media Print Voice communication Games Younger people undertake more media and communications activities in total Figure 9 shows that average daily media consumption differs substantially by age group, perhaps reflecting the varying levels of technology access, set out in Figure 4. People aged used media and communications most heavily, at just over nine and a half hours a day in total; this was one-fifth (22%) more than adults aged 55 and over, who consumed the lowest volume of communications activity every day - 7 hours 47 minutes. 17

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