1 TSEK02: Radio Electronics Lecture 6: Propagation and Noise Ted Johansson, EKS, ISY
2 2 Propagation and Noise - Channel and antenna: not in the Razavi book - Noise: 2.3 The wireless channel The antenna Signal quality Noise
3 3 Propagation and Noise Channel and antenna: Frenzel, Principles of Electronic Communication Systems, chapter 14
4 19 Propagation and Noise The wireless channel The antenna Signal quality Noise
5 20 Introduction
6 21 Introduction The channel
7 22 The Channel In a communication system, the channel may be A transmission line connecting two physical points A trace on a printed circuit (e.g. CPU to HDD communication) Pair of twisted wires (e.g. telephone lines, indoor Ethernet) A coaxial cable (e.g. DSL lines combining TV, telephone, and data) A fiber optical cable (e.g. backhaul network) A waveguide (e.g. interconnection of a mm-wave system) A wireless media Air (free space): radio, light (electromagnetic waves), sound A time span The time difference between write and read instances in HDD
8 Ted's history corner 23 In 1887 German physicist Heinrich Hertz was the first to demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic radiation through space. The distance of transmission was only a few feet, but this transmission proved that radio waves could travel from one place to another without the need for any connecting wires. Hertz also proved that radio waves, although invisible, travel at the same velocity as light waves.
9 24 The electromagnetic spectrum
10 25 The electromagnetic spectrum used in electronic communication
11 US frequency allocation, GHz
12 27 Propagation and Noise The wireless channel The antenna Signal quality Noise
13 28 Antenna fundamentals A radio signal is called an electromagnetic wave because it is made up of both electric and magnetic fields. Apply voltage to an antenna: an electric field is set up. This voltage causes current to flow in the antenna, producing a magnetic field. The fields are emitted from the antenna and propagate through space over very long distances at the speed of light.
14 29 Antenna fundamentals (a) An open transmission line radiates a little. (b) Bending the open transmission line at right angles creates an efficient radiation pattern. (c) Standing wave to have good transmission.
15 30 Near field/far field The near field describes the region directly around the antenna where the electric and magnetic fields are distinct. These fields are not the radio waves, but they do contain any information transmitted, but weaken fast, approximately by the quadruple power of the distance. The far field, approximately >10 wavelengths from the antenna, is the radio wave with the composite electric and magnetic fields (2.4 GHz -> ~ 1.2 m). Weakens as square of the distance.
16 31 Basic antennas Antennas radiate most effectively when their length is directly related to the wavelength of the transmitted signal, to create a standing wave. λ/2 and λ/4 wavelengths are most common. Frequencies between 1 MHz and 100 GHz have wavelengths within the range of practical conductors and wires, e.g., a 900-MHz signal has a wavelength of ~30 cm. Antennas are reciprocal, i.e. work for transmit and receive in the same way.
17 Ted's history corner 32 A well-known radio transmitter is the Motala Long-Wave station that was used for broadcasting at 227 khz during , and is a museum since 1977). The antenna is 140 m between the two towers, and transmitted a 150 kw signal.
18 33 The dipole antenna (Hertz antenna) Equivalent circuit of a dipole
19 34 Isotropic Radiation (nondirectional antenna) If energy is emitted from a signal point, it will distribute equally in all directions over a hypothetical sphere. Density of power, is defined as the power that the point source emits divided by the area of this sphere: transmitted power density = 4πr 2 P t Since area of the sphere with radius r is given by 4πr 2, the power density reduces by r 2.
20 35 Directional antennas Most antennas are directional, i.e. radiate or receive energy in a specific direction. Typically the radiation is concentrated in a pattern that has a recognizable geometric shape. Dipole antenna: 3D and horizontal patterns.
21 36 Directional antennas Directional antennas provide great efficiency of power transmission because the transmitter power can be focused into a narrow beam directed toward the station of interest.
22 37 Antenna Gain It the transmitter is only aiming to send its signal towards a particular receiver, isotropic radiation may be regarded as loss of power. Directivity is a measure of how focused an antenna can transmit and receive power. Antenna gain is related to the directivity as the effective radiated power relative the input power: antenna gain [db] = 10 log (Pout/Pin) for the antenna A dipole is often used as a reference: gain=1.64 = 2.15 db. Other gains [dbd] are given relative to this level (dbi=dbd+2.15).
23 38 Antenna Gain The power gain of an antenna can be expressed as the ratio of the power transmitted P trans to the input power of the antenna P in. Power gains of 10 or more are easily achieved. This means that a 100-W transmitter can be made to perform as a 1000-W transmitter when applied to an antenna with gain.
25 40 Receiver Effective Area A receiver uses the antenna to collect parts of the transmitted power which reaches it after transmission The amount of received power depends on the receiver antenna effective area: Received power = (transmitted power density at r) * A RX P r = P t 4πr 2 A RX
26 TSEK02 Radio Electronics 2016/Ted Johansson 41
27 42 Antenna Gain If the antenna has a larger effective area (e.g. more directional), it collects more power. We can interpret this as antenna gain. A RX = 4π A eff λ 2 Antenna gain is therefore dependent on its size. Size of the antenna should always be stated in comparison to the wavelength What is the largest antenna you have seen?
28 The TSEK02 Arecibo Radio Electronics Observatory 2016/Ted Johansson in Puerto Rico has the world's second largest 43 single-aperture telescope (diameter 305 m).
29 45 The 500 meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) in the remote Pingtang county in southwest China's Guizhou province. China has begun operating the world's largest radio telescope to help search for extraterrestrial life.
30 46 Friis Transmission Equation If we include transmitter and receiver antenna gains, ratio of the received power to transmit power will be given by Received power decreases with distance λ P receive = P transmit G t G r 4πr increases by using directive antennas (large) decreases with frequency (smaller), but at the same time, antenna sizes are now larger compared to λ increases as transmitted power increases 2
31 Ted's history corner 47 Friis transmission equation was derived in Friis is also known for the Friis formulas for noise (cascaded noise figure).
32 48 Propagation of radio waves Radio waves can propagate in many different ways: < 3 MHz: ground/surface waves, following the curvatures of the earth 3-30 MHz: sky waves (reflections) in the ionosphere > 30 MHz: direct/space waves, "line-of-sight"
33 49 Propagation and Noise The wireless channel The antenna Signal quality Noise
34 50 Signal quality
35 51 Signal quality
36 52 Signal Quality Signal impairment could be due to Random noise Distortion (nonlinearity) These impairments can be reduced but cannot be removed completely. Note that amplitude loss is not an impairment! Weak signals can always be amplified It is also possible to correct linear distortion Equalization, predistortion
37 53 Signal Quality Signal-to-Noise Ratio: SNR = Signal Power Noise Power all random noise and distortion regarded as noise sometime also S/N often in db there are number of other related similar ratios
38 54 Detector (digital signals) There is always some error in the detection Probability of Error (P e ) indicates the rate at which an error may occur P e is often stated as Bit Error Rate (BER) or Symbol Error Rate (SER) Ex: BER=10-8 => in every 100, 000, 000 detected bits, 1 bit may be estimated incorrectly
39 SNR BER 55 BER vs SNR BER depends on SNR of the received signal, i.e. the signal after the receiver block. More complicated modulation schemes require higher SNR for the same error (trade off between BW and BER) It may be possible to correct errors with advanced Forward Error Correction (FEC) Coding (reduce BER for the same SNR)
40 56 Propagation and Noise The wireless channel The antenna Signal quality Noise
41 57 Receiver Design How good does a receiver have to be to achieve a certain BER? Detector Requirements Signal in Noise in Find the required SNR for the given modulation format to achieve targeted BER (SNR)in (SNR)out
42 58 Noise Figure Signal in Noise in Signal out Noise out Noise added Noise figure: NF = (SNR) in (SNR) out >=1 A receiver degrades the SNR (SNR)in (SNR)out Often called "noise factor" as above, "noise figure" in db
43 59 Questions Q1: If the receiver degrades the SNR and therefore increases BER, then why do we use a receiver at all? Q2: Is it at all possible to improve the SNR with the receiver and therefore improve BER?
44 60 Questions Q1: If the receiver degrades the SNR and therefore increases BER, then why do we use a receiver at all? A1: Incoming signals are often very weak (e.g dbm) and must be amplified before they can be detected. Q2: Is it at all possible to improve the SNR with the receiver and therefore improve BER? A2: Yes, by limiting the incoming noise from reaching the detector. This can be done by filtering.
45 61 Questions AMPLIFICATION Q1: If the receiver degrades the SNR and therefore increases BER, then why do we use a receiver at all? A1: Incoming signals are often very weak (e.g dbm) and must be amplified before they can be detected. FILTERING Q2: Is it at all possible to improve the SNR with the receiver and therefore improve BER? A2: Yes, by limiting the incoming noise from reaching the detector. This can be done by filtering.
46 62 Noise Noise is the most fundamental limiting factor in all communication systems
47 63 Types of Noise Noise may have different physical origins (outside the scope of this course) It is good however to know some types of noise: Thermal Noise (also known as Johnson or Nyquist noise) Flicker Noise (also known as 1/f or low frequency noise) Phase Noise (also known as jitter) Shot noise... Strictly, noise is random and can not be predicted (except average values).
49 65 Noise Power Noise, n(t), is a random process, so its average power can be calculated by measuring the area under n 2 (t) over a long time.
50 66 Noise Power Spectral Density Since it is impractical to analyze noise in the time-domain, we turn into its frequency domain representation Note that this is the noise Power Spectral Density (PSD), unit [W/Hz] or [V 2 /Hz] At radio frequencies, noise power density is independent of frequency and is white (it contains all frequencies) Frequency Domain
51 67 Noise Power Spectral Density Since it is impractical to analyze noise in the time-domain, we turn into its frequency domain representation For a given bandwidth, the area under S n (f) equals the noise power Frequency Domain f 2 constant x B We f often use filters to limit the 1 bandwidth of the incoming signal How much is B this constant? f 1 f 2
52 68 Thermal Noise Due to random movements of electrons, a resistor (R) at temperature T [K] generates noise Average Power of this noise across a matched load (R L =R) measured over B Hz at any frequency is given by ktb * B Noise power is: Only determined by T Independent of value of R Independent of frequency At temperature T [K] At temperature T=0[K] * T [K] * Boltzmann Constant k = 1.38 x [J/K]
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