Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained

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1 Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained 2G 3G Aerial Second Generation Mobile Phone System. See GSM See Third Generation Mobile Phone System. Device designed to radiate and receive electromagnetic energy. Antenna Cabin See Aerial Air-conditioned weather-proof enclosure housing transmitters and receivers. Cell The area of geographic coverage from a mobile phone transmitter.

2 Dish Antenna Dish antenna transmit and receive a highly focussed radio wave in one direction and are used for point to point communication links. Face Mount Antenna fixed directly to brick work or other material of an existing structure. Feeder Frequency, Wavelength and Velocity Co-axial cable which connects an antenna to a base station transmitter or receiver. Frequency 'f' is the number of complete cycles passing a fixed point in one second. If one cycle passes a fixed point in one second this corresponds to a frequency of 1 Hertz (Hz). Wavelength is the distance in metres between any two 'similar' points on a radio wave. This portion of the wave is referred to as one complete cycle. Wavelength is given the symbol ' ' In free space the velocity of an electromagnetic wave (such as a radio wave) is approximately 3 x 10 8 ms -1. This is the speed of light

3 (since light is also an wave) and is usually given the symbol 'c'. The relationship between 'c' (velocity), 'f' (frequency) and ' ' of an wave is given by the equation:- c = f or = c/f A lower frequency wave will have a long wavelength, while a high frequency wave corresponds to a short wavelength. GSM Global system for Mobile Communications or Groupe Speciale Mobile. The international, pan-european operating standard for the second generation of digital cellular mobile communications. It enables mobile phones to be used across national boundaries. RA publishes details of the technical requirements for GSM technology operating in the UK in the form of UK Interface Requirement [IR2014] GSM systems are operated by O2 and Vodafone at 900 and 1800 MHz, and by T-Mobile and Orange at 1800 MHz. Macrocell A macrocell provides the main radio coverage infrastructure for a mobile network. The antennas for macrocells are mounted on ground-based masts, rooftops and other existing structures, at a height that provides a clear view over the surrounding buildings and terrain. Macrocells provide radio coverage over varying distances dependent upon frequency capacity and clutter. Macrocell base stations have power outputs of typically tens of watts. Mast Ground-based structure, which supports antennas at a height where they can satisfactorily send and receive radio waves. A mast is typically 15m high, and of steel lattice or tubular steel monopole construction, although other designs, including disguised structures, are available. Masts play no part in the transmission of the radio waves.

4 Microcell Microcells provide infill radio coverage and additional capacity where there are high numbers of users within urban and suburban macrocells. The antennas for microcells are mounted at street level (i.e. below the surrounding buildings and terrain) typically on the external walls of existing structures, lamp-posts and other street furniture. Microcell antennas are smaller than macrocell antennas and when mounted on existing structures can often be disguised as building features. Microcells provide radio coverage over distances, typically, between 300m and 1000m. Microcell base stations have lower output powers than macrocells, typically a few watts. Picocell Picocells provide more localised coverage than microcells, inside buildings where coverage is poor or there are high numbers of users. Pole Mount Small diameter pole fixed to an existing structure or roof, which supports one or two antenna and/or dish antenna at a height where it can satisfactorily send and receive radio waves. Pole mounts play no part in the transmission of the radio waves.

5 Radio Base Station A base station is a macrocell, microcell or picocell site and consists of transmitters and receivers in a cabin or cabinet connected to antennas by feeders. Second Generation Sectored Antenna See GSM Antenna which transmits or receives higher signal levels in one particular horizontal direction. Several sectors are required, (typically three or six) to provide 360 degree coverage.

6 Stub Mast Roof-mounted mast structure, which supports multiple antennas at a height where they can satisfactorily send and receive radio waves. A stub mast is typically 4m - 6m high and of steel lattice construction. Stub masts play no part in the transmission of the radio waves. Third Generation Transmitter UMTS Third generation mobile communications systems have high-speed data capabilities and will offer advanced services to users on the move. These services operate at 2GHz, the third generation technology used in the UK is called UMTS. Electronic equipment that generates radio frequency electromagnetic energy and is connected to an antenna via a feeder cable Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. The type of technology used in the UK for the 3G (see Third Generation) mobile phones have video and multimedia capabilities. RA publishes details of the technical requirements for UMTS technology operating in the UK in the form of UK Interface Requirement [IR2019] Wavelength See Frequency

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