# Introduction to RF Engineering. Andrew CLEGG

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Introduction to RF Engineering Andrew CLEGG 1

2 Comparing the Lingo

3 Radio Astronomers Speak a Unique Vernacular We are receiving interference from your transmitter at a level of 10 janskys What the ^#\$& is a jansky? 3

4 Spectrum Managers Need to Understand a Unique Vernacular Huh? We are using +43 dbm into a 15 dbd slant-pol panel with 2 degree electrical downtilt 4

5 Why Bother Learning other RF Languages? Radio Astronomy is the Leco of RF languages, spoken by comparatively very few people Successful coordination is much more likely to occur and much more easily accommodated when the parties involved understand each other s lingo It s less likely that our spectrum management brethren will bother learning radio astronomy lingo we need to learn theirs 5

7 Received Signal Strength: Radio Astronomy The jansky (Jy): > 1 Jy W/m 2 /Hz > The jansky is a measure of spectral power flux density the amount of RF energy per unit time per unit area per unit bandwidth The jansky is not used outside of radio astronomy > It is not a practical unit for measuring communications signals The magnitude is much too small > Very few RF engineers outside of radio astronomy will know what a Jy is 7

8 Received Signal Strength: Communications The received signal strength of most communications signals is measured in power > The relevant bandwidth is fixed by the bandwidth of the desired signal > The relevant collecting area is fixed by the frequency of the desired signal and the gain of the receiving antenna Because of the wide dynamic range encountered by most radio systems, the power is usually expressed in logarithmic units of watts (dbw) or milliwatts (dbm): > 1 dbw 10log 10 (Power in watts) > 1 dbm 10log 10 (Power in milliwatts) 8

9 Translating Jy into dbm While not comprised of the same units, we can make some reasonable assumptions to compare a Jy to dbm. 9

10 Jy into dbm Assumptions > 10 MHz LTE bandwidth > 1.8 GHz frequency (λ = 0.17 m) > Isotropic receive antenna Antenna collecting area = λ 2 /4π = m 2 How much is a Jy worth in dbm? > P mw = W/m 2 /Hz 10 MHz m mw/w = mw > P dbm = 10 log ( mw) = 187 dbm Radio astronomy observations can achieve microjansky sensitivity, corresponding to signal levels (under the same assumptions) of 247 dbm 10

11 Jy into dbm: Putting it into Context The lowest reference LTE receiver sensitivity is 100 dbm > minimum reported signal strength; service is not available at this power level > assumes 10 MHz bandwidth and QPSK A 1 Jy signal strength (~-187 dbm) is therefore some 87 db below the LTE reference receiver sensitivity A µjy is a whopping 147 db below the LTE handset reference sensitivity A radio telescope can be more than 14 orders of magnitude more sensitive than an LTE receiver 11

12 Other Units of Signal Strength: µv/m Received signal strengths for communications signals are sometimes specified in units of µv/m or db(µv/m) > You will see µv/m used often in specifying limits on unlicensed emissions [for example in the U.S. FCC s Unlicensed Devices (Part 15) rules] and in service area boundary emission limits (multiple FCC rule parts) This is simply a measure of the electric field amplitude (E) Ohm s Law can be used to convert the electric field amplitude into a power flux density (power per unit area): > P(W/m 2 ) = E 2 /Z 0 > Z 0 (µ 0 /ε 0 ) 1/2 = 377 Ω = the impedance of free space 12

13 dbµv/m to dbm Conversion Under the assumption of an isotropic receiving antenna, conversion is just a matter of algebra: P(mW) = 1000P 2 (W/m ) 2 λ P 2 ( W/ m ) = π 2 EV/m = Z ( Ω) 6 ( 10 E ) Which results in the following conversions: Z 0 0 µv/ m ( Ω) 2 2 c 6 4π (10 f (Ohm s law) MHz ) 2 10 = 4πZ 21 2 EµV/ mc ( Ω) f 0 2 m/s 2 MHz P(mW) = P(dBm) = E where E dbµ V/m = 8 dbµ V/m E 20 log 2 µv / m 10-2 MHz 20 log E f 10 µv / m f MHz, 13

14 Antenna Specifications 14

15 Antenna Performance: Radio Astronomy Radio astronomers are typically converting power flux density or spectral power flux density (both measures of power or spectral power density per unit area) into a noise-equivalent temperature A common expression of radio astronomy antenna performance is the rise in system temperature attributable to the collection of power in a single polarization from a source of total flux density of 1 Jy: k Ae (m ) = 10 F A B 26 e ΔT F = k ΔT K Jy 2760G ( K/Jy) The effective antenna collecting area A e is a combination of the geometrical collecting area A g (if defined) and the antenna efficiency η a > A e = η a A g B K 15

16 Antenna Performance Example: Nobeyama 45-m 24 GHz Measured gain is ~0.36 K/Jy Effective collecting area: > A e (m 2 ) = 2760 * 0.3 K/Jy = 994 m 2 Geometrical collecting area: > A g = π(45m/2) 2 = 1590 m 2 Antenna efficiency = 994/1590 = 63% 16

17 Antenna Performance: Communications Typical communications applications specify basic antenna performance by a different expression of antenna gain: > Antenna Gain: The amount by which the signal strength at the output of an antenna is increased (or decreased) relative to the signal strength that would be obtained at the output of a standard reference antenna, assuming maximum gain of the reference antenna 17

18 Common Standard Reference Antennas Isotropic > Point source antenna > Uniform gain in all directions > Effective collecting area λ 2 /4π > Theoretical only; not achievable in the real world Half-wave Dipole > Two thin conductors, each λ/4 in length, laid end-to-end, with the feed point in-between the two ends > Produces a doughnut-shaped gain pattern > Maximum gain is 2.15 db relative to the isotropic antenna

19 Antenna Performance: Gain in dbi and dbd dbi > Gain of an antenna relative to an isotropic antenna (in logarithmic units) dbd > Gain of an antenna relative to the maximum gain of a half-wave dipole (in log units) > Gain in dbd = Gain in dbi 2.15 If gain in db is specified, how do you know if it s dbi or dbd? > You don t! (It s bad engineering to not specify dbi or dbd) 19

20 Antenna Performance: Translation The linear gain of an antenna relative to an isotropic antenna is the ratio of the effective collecting area to the collecting area of an istropic antenna: > G = A e / (λ 2 /4π) Using the expression for A e previously shown, we find > G = 0.4 (f MHz ) 2 G K/Jy Or in logarithmic units: > G(dBi) = log 10 (f MHz ) + 10 log 10 (G K/Jy ) Conversely, > G K/Jy = 2.56 (f MHz ) G(dBi)/10 20

21 Antenna Performance: In Context Cellular Base 1800 MHz > G = 2.5 x 10-5 K/Jy > A e = 0.07 m 2 > G = 15 dbi 24 GHz > G = 0.36 K/Jy > A e = 994 m 2 > G = 79 dbi 1400 MHz > G = 11 K/Jy > A e = 30,360 m 2 > G = 69 dbi 21

22 EIRP & ERP An antenna provides gain in some direction(s) at the expense of power transmitted in other directions EIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated Power > The amount of power that would have to be applied to an isotropic antenna to equal the amount of power that is being transmitted in a particular direction by the actual antenna ERP: Effective Radiated Power > Same concept as EIRP, but reference antenna is the half-wave dipole > ERP = EIRP 2.15 Both EIRP and ERP are direction dependent! > In assessing the potential for interference, the transmitted EIRP (or ERP) in the direction of the victim antenna must be known 22

23 Antenna Pattern Example 23

25 Radio propagation Propagation is how a signal gets from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna In the majority of cases, propagation will cause signals to lose strength with > Distance > Number of obstacles in the path > Frequency > Other factors

26 Free space loss (FSL) Surface area of sphere increases as it expands

27 Free space loss (FSL) An antenna of fixed size will intercept a larger fraction of the signal power if it s closer to the transmitter

28 Propagation: Free space loss Assumes direct line-of-sight path between transmitter and receiver > Also assumes no significant blockage of an imaginary ellipsoidal volume surrounding the direct path, called the first Fresnel zone Direct ray First Fresnel zone Reflected Direct = ¼λ Free space loss Reflected ray

29 Propagation: Free space loss Common scenarios where simple free space loss is all that needs to be considered > Satellite communications > Some aeronautical communications > Fixed microwave links > Worst-case interference analysis Outside of special cases, FSL is the least amount of loss between two points All propagation starts with free space loss, then adds other considerations FSL (db) = 20log 10 (d km ) + 20log 10 (f MHz )

30 Propagation: Diffraction Radio waves can bend (diffract) around obstacles Amount of diffraction depends on: > Frequency Diffraction is greater at lower frequencies > Relative geometry of path and obstacle Bigger obstacles require greater bending > Composition of obstacle Diffraction effects depend on conductivity of obstacle

31 Propagation: Refraction & Reflection Reflection Refraction

32 Propagation: Scattering Scattering

33 Atmospheric attenuation

34 Rain attenuation

35 Interference

36 Types of interference Co-channel interference > When the undesired signal fully or partially overlaps the same channel as the desired signal Adjacent-channel or adjacent band interference > When the undesired signal is operating on an adjacent or nearby channel or band from the desired signal, but either some of the transmitted signal spills over into the desired channel the receiver has an undesired response to signals that aren t on its intended channel

37 Adjacent channel interference Channel 1 2 MHz Channel 2 2 MHz

38 Transmitter Considerations

39 Modulation & out-of-band emissions Modulation is the act of imparting information (voice, data, etc.) onto a radio signal When you modulate a signal, it spreads out in frequency This spreading of the signal due to modulation is one reason that transmitted signals impact channels other than their own

40 Modulation example (BPSK) Signal in Time Signal in Frequency Sine wave + 1 Mbps digital data ( ) Spectrum before modulation Spectrum after modulation = BPSK modulated signal

41 Defined bandwidths of our BPSK signal Necessary bandwidth (2 MHz) Occupied bandwidth (10.4 MHz) 0.5% of power below this edge 0.5% of power above this edge

42 Filtered BPSK spectrum Filter

43 Occupied bandwidth after filtering Necessary bandwidth (2 MHz) Occupied bandwidth (3.2 MHz) 0.5% of power below this edge 0.5% of power above this edge

44 Benefits and drawbacks of filters Benefits > Limits the occupied bandwidth of transmitted signals, which helps reduce interference to nearby signals Drawbacks > Distorts signal > Reduces signal power across desired frequencies > Requires space, weight, power, and cost to implement

45 Bit pattern after filtering Bit pattern before filtering Bit pattern after applying Gaussian filter Effect of a 3.3 MHz wide Gaussian filter on a 1 Mbps bit pattern.

46 Nonlinearities & spurious emissions Non-linearities in transmitter components cause the production of spurious emissions > Nonlinear means the output signal is not directly proportional to the input signal > Usually most troublesome when strong input signals are present Harmonics > Emissions at exact multiples of the intended frequency Intermodulation > Mixing of two signals to produce other signals at various sums and differences of the original frequencies Power Out Ideal amplifier Power Out Power In Real amplifier Power In

47 Harmonics and intermodulation Harmonics > Original signal at frequency f, with bandwidth df > 2 nd harmonic: 2*f, bandwidth 2*df > 3 rd harmonic: 3*f, bandwidth 3*df > Etc. Intermodulation f 2f 3f > Two signals at frequency f1 and f2, each with bandwidth df > 2 nd order intermod: f1±f2, bandwidth 2*df > 3 rd order intermod: 2f1±f2, 2f2±f1, bandwidth 3*df > Etc. > Odd-order intermod products are usually most troublesome because their frequency can be near f1 and f2

50 Spurious response, overload, etc. Receivers will also have other undesired responses and imperfections that result in interference from undesired signals > Spurious responses Some receiver designs will have responses to image frequencies frequencies that are related to byproducts of the mixing and downconverting process Digital receivers can have undesired responses due to aliasing, produced by undersampling and poor filtering > Overload and desensitization Receiver amplifiers can be overloaded by nearby undesired strong signals, causing desensitization to weaker signals on other frequencies Often the culprit in near/far effect Generally speaking, receivers that cover more bands and/ or are inexpensively constructed are more prone to these type of effects

51 Quantifying and Predicting Noise and Interference

52 Some definitions C: Carrier (desired) signal power, after all filtering by the receiver S: Desired signal power, after all filtering by the receiver. Basically the same as C I: Interference power, after all filtering by the receiver N: Receiver system noise power, after all filtering by the receiver N0: Noise power spectral density (noise per bandwidth) Eb: For digital systems, the energy per bit, which is the carrier power divided by the bit rate Noise floor: The baseline level of noise in a receiving system. This is often used to define N

53 Quantifying interference and noise The following ratios (expressed in db) are often used to quantify the effects of interference and/or noise > C/I: Ratio of desired Carrier power to Interference power > C/(I+N): Ratio of desired Carrier power to the total power caused by Interference and Noise > C/N: Ratio of desired Carrier power to system Noise > Eb/N0: For digital systems, the ratio of the Energy per bit to the power spectral density of Noise > I/N: Ratio of received Interference power to the Noise floor of a receiver > S/N: Normally refers to post-detection ratio of desired Signal to Noise. For analog voice communications, for example, this would apply to what the user actually hears coming out of the radio s speaker or headset.

54 Overall receiver response Filter Desired Signal (Filtered) Signal (Filtered) What Undesired the Receiver Signal Sees Undesired Signal (Filtered) Total Interference + Noise Noise Filtered Noise

55 C/(I+N) example C/(I+N) ~ 3 db in this example. Not good. Desired Signal (C) Total Interference + Noise (I+N)

56 Predicting performance Predicting system performance comes down to estimating C and I, and measuring N Propagation prediction is key to predicting C and I > Consistently accurate propagation prediction is virtually impossible except in the simplest of cases > Coordination disputes often degenerate into disputes over propagation models > For calculating interference, free space loss is often used for worst case analysis, since it is generally the least amount of loss (greatest amount of interference) for a given distance Other coordination considerations include > the number and distribution of potential interference sources > minimum performance metrics (C/I, I/N, etc.) for the victim receiver > the fraction of time that the victim system can accept interference

### Antennas & Propagation. CS 6710 Spring 2010 Rajmohan Rajaraman

Antennas & Propagation CS 6710 Spring 2010 Rajmohan Rajaraman Introduction An antenna is an electrical conductor or system of conductors o Transmission - radiates electromagnetic energy into space o Reception

### is the power reference: Specifically, power in db is represented by the following equation, where P0 P db = 10 log 10

RF Basics - Part 1 This is the first article in the multi-part series on RF Basics. We start the series by reviewing some basic RF concepts: Decibels (db), Antenna Gain, Free-space RF Propagation, RF Attenuation,

### SHARING BETWEEN TERRESTRIAL FLIGHT TELEPHONE SYSTEM (TFTS) AND RADIO ASTRONOMY IN THE 1.6 GHz BAND. Paris, May 1992

European Radiocommunications Committee (ERC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) SHARING BETWEEN TERRESTRIAL FLIGHT TELEPHONE SYSTEM (TFTS) AND RADIO

### T = 1 f. Phase. Measure of relative position in time within a single period of a signal For a periodic signal f(t), phase is fractional part t p

Data Transmission Concepts and terminology Transmission terminology Transmission from transmitter to receiver goes over some transmission medium using electromagnetic waves Guided media. Waves are guided

### Interference to radio astronomy from unwanted (spurious and out-of-band) emissions

Rec. ITU-R RA.1237 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R RA.1237 PROTECTION OF THE RADIO ASTRONOMY SERVICE FROM UNWANTED EMISSIONS RESULTING FROM APPLICATIONS OF WIDEBAND DIGITAL MODULATION (Question ITU-R 145/7) Rec.

### Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT)

Page 1 Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) ECC RECOMMENDATION (05)08 (replacing recommendations T/R 20-08 and 22-07)

### Introduction t o to Wireless Wireless Communication

Introduction to Wireless Communication History of wireless communication Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph in 1896 Communication by encoding alphanumeric characters in analog signal Sent

### This Antenna Basics reference guide includes basic information about antenna types, how antennas work, gain, and some installation examples.

Antenna Basics This Antenna Basics reference guide includes basic information about antenna types, how antennas work, gain, and some installation examples. What Do Antennas Do? Antennas transmit radio

### EE4367 Telecom. Switching & Transmission. Prof. Murat Torlak

Path Loss Radio Wave Propagation The wireless radio channel puts fundamental limitations to the performance of wireless communications systems Radio channels are extremely random, and are not easily analyzed

### A Sampling of Current Issues: BPL, >275 GHz, & Airborne Cell Phones. Andrew Clegg National Science Foundation

A Sampling of Current Issues: BPL, >275 GHz, & Airborne Cell Phones Andrew Clegg National Science Foundation Broadband over Power Lines The provision of consumer broadband internet access using existing

### COMPATIBILITY AND SHARING ANALYSIS BETWEEN DVB T AND OB (OUTSIDE BROADCAST) AUDIO LINKS IN BANDS IV AND V

European Radiocommunications Committee (ERC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) COMPATIBILITY AND SHARING ANALYSIS BETWEEN DVB T AND OB (OUTSIDE BROADCAST)

Introduction to Receivers Purpose: translate RF signals to baseband Shift frequency Amplify Filter Demodulate Why is this a challenge? Interference (selectivity, images and distortion) Large dynamic range

### RECOMMENDATION ITU-R RA (Question ITU-R 145/7)

Rec. ITU-R RA.769-1 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R RA.769-1 PROTECTION CRITERIA USED FOR RADIOASTRONOMICAL MEASUREMENTS (Question ITU-R 145/7) (1992-1995) Rec. ITU-R RA.769-1 The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

### CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 2: RF Basics and Signal Encoding September 22, 2005 2005 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Basics of wireless communications

### Understanding Range for RF Devices

Understanding Range for RF Devices October 2012 White Paper Understanding how environmental factors can affect range is one of the key aspects to deploying a radio frequency (RF) solution. This paper will

### CS647: Advanced Topics in Wireless Networks Basics of Wireless Transmission

CS647: Advanced Topics in Wireless Networks Basics of Wireless Transmission CS 647 2.1 Outline Frequencies Signals Antennas Signal propagation Multiplexing Spread spectrum Modulation CS 647 2.2 Types of

### Antenna Deployment Technical Brief

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

### Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna

Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna Document ID: 82068 Contents Introduction Prerequisites Requirements Components Used Conventions Basic Definitions and Antenna Concepts Indoor Effects Omni Antenna Pros

### COMPATIBILITY AND SHARING ANALYSIS BETWEEN DVB T AND RADIO MICROPHONES IN BANDS IV AND V

European Radiocommunications Committee (ERC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) COMPATIBILITY AND SHARING ANALYSIS BETWEEN DVB T AND RADIO MICROPHONES

### INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA

COMM.ENG INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA 9/6/2014 LECTURES 1 Objectives To give a background on Communication system components and channels (media) A distinction between analogue

### Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance. Dr. Steven R. Best. Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013

Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance Dr. Steven R. Best Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013 Phone (603) 627-7877 FAX: (603) 627-1764 Email: sbest@cushcraft.com

### Sample Solution to Problem Set 1

College of Computer & Information Science Spring 21 Northeastern University Handout 3 CS 671: Wireless Networks 19 February 21 Sample Solution to Problem Set 1 1. (1 points) Applying low-pass and bandpass

### Application Note AN-00126

Considerations for Operation within the 902-928MHz Band Application Note AN-00126 Introduction This application note is designed to give the reader a basic understanding of the legal and technical considerations

### A FIRST LOOK AT THE POTENTIAL INTERFERENCE FROM MOBILES DEVICES OPERATION IN THE 3.5GHZ BAND ON DVB BASED SATELLITE LINKS OPERATING IN THE C BAND

CBC/Radio-Canada A FIRST LOOK AT THE POTENTIAL INTERFERENCE FROM MOBILES DEVICES OPERATION IN THE 3.5GHZ BAND ON DVB BASED SATELLITE LINKS OPERATING IN THE C BAND Guy Bouchard Sunday Nyamweno October 2015

### RF Communication System. EE 172 Systems Group Presentation

RF Communication System EE 172 Systems Group Presentation RF System Outline Transmitter Components Receiver Components Noise Figure Link Budget Test Equipment System Success Design Remedy Transmitter Components

### A. Jraifi, R. A. Laamara, A. Belhaj, and E. H. Saidi Lab/UFR-groupe Canal Propagation Radio PHE, Faculté des Sciences, Rabat, Morocco

Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 12, 15 25, 2010 A PROPOSAL SOLUTION FOR INTERFERENCE INTER-OPERATORS A. Jraifi, R. A. Laamara, A. Belhaj, and E. H. Saidi Lab/UFR-groupe Canal Propagation

### The front end of the receiver performs the frequency translation, channel selection and amplification of the signal.

Many receivers must be capable of handling a very wide range of signal powers at the input while still producing the correct output. This must be done in the presence of noise and interference which occasionally

### 1 Lecture Notes 1 Interference Limited System, Cellular. Systems Introduction, Power and Path Loss

ECE 5325/6325: Wireless Communication Systems Lecture Notes, Spring 2015 1 Lecture Notes 1 Interference Limited System, Cellular Systems Introduction, Power and Path Loss Reading: Mol 1, 2, 3.3, Patwari

### Microwave signal generators

Course on Microwave Measurements Microwave signal generators Prof. Luca Perregrini Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering University of Pavia e-mail: luca.perregrini@unipv.it web: microwave.unipv.it

### FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LAND MOBILE SERVICE

RALI : LM 8 DATE OF EFFECT : 23/09/2015 Radiocommunications Assignment and Licensing Instruction FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LAND MOBILE SERVICE AUSTRALIAN COMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA AUTHORITY

### Digital vs. Analog Transmission Nyquist and Shannon Laws

1 Digital vs. Analog Transmission Nyquist and Shannon Laws Required reading: Garcia 3.1 to 3.5 CSE 3213, Fall 2010 Instructor: N. Vlajic Transmission Impairments 2 Transmission / Signal Impairments caused

### FURTHER READING: As a preview for further reading, the following reference has been provided from the pages of the book below:

FURTHER READING: As a preview for further reading, the following reference has been provided from the pages of the book below: Title: Cellular/PCS Management Author: Paul Beddel Publisher: McGraw-Hill

### Maximizing Range. Contents. Application Note. XST-AN010a June 2012. Abstract...1 RF Communication Systems...1 Installing an RF System...

Maximizing Range Contents Abstract...1 RF Communication Systems...1 Installing an RF System...5 Application Note XST-AN010a June 2012 Website: Email: www.digi.com rf-experts@digi.com Abstract This document

### Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits

Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits General radio services (operating above 0 MHz) (Edition May 0) Disclaimer Unless otherwise specified, the information contained

### Antenna Selection for Optimum Wireless LAN Performance

Antenna Selection for Optimum Wireless LAN Performance Dr. Steven R. Best Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03108 (603) 627-7877 PURPOSE Overview of antenna properties and performance

### ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

### Submission on TV White Space Licensing Rules. September 2014

Submission on TV White Space Licensing Rules September 2014 1. Summary We thank the Ministry for the opportunity to comment on the draft TV White Space (TVWS) licensing rules. We make the following comments:

### Implementing Digital Wireless Systems. And an FCC update

Implementing Digital Wireless Systems And an FCC update Spectrum Repacking Here We Go Again: The FCC is reallocating 600 MHz Frequencies for Wireless Mics 30-45 MHz (8-m HF) 174-250 MHz (VHF) 450-960 MHz

### Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point

Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point Overview To optimize the overall performance of a WLAN in an outdoor deployment it is important to understand how to maximize coverage

### Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range. Application Note

Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range Application Note Table of Contents 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 1. Introduction What is dynamic range?

### GSM frequency planning

GSM frequency planning Band : 890-915 and 935-960 MHz Channel spacing: 200 khz (but signal bandwidth = 400 khz) Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN) lower band: upper band: F l (n) = 890.2 +

### Interpreting the Information Element C/I

Prepared Date Rev Document no pproved File/reference 1(17) 2000-04-11 Interpreting the Information Element C/I This document primarily addresses users of TEMS Investigation. 2(17) 1 Introduction Why is

### Radio Physics for Wireless Devices and Networking. The Radio Physics of WiFi. By Ron Vigneri

Radio Physics for Wireless Devices and Networking By Ron Vigneri The Radio Physics of WiFi The standard for wireless LANs (WLANs) was completed in 1997 with the release of the IEEE 802.11 specification

### Multi-Carrier GSM with State of the Art ADC technology

Multi-Carrier GSM with State of the Art ADC technology Analog Devices, October 2002 revised August 29, 2005, May 1, 2006, May 10, 2006, November 30, 2006, June 19, 2007, October 3, 2007, November 12, 2007

### HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011 SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS HD Radio and the HD, HD Radio, and Arc logos are proprietary trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation. ibiquity,

### Outlines. LECTURE 3: Wireless Transmission Technologies. Wireless Transmission on Unguided Media

LECTURE 3: Wireless Transmission Technologies CIS 472 Wireless Communications and Networks Winter 2016 Instructor: Dr. Song Xing Outlines Wireless Data Transmission Modulation Spread Spectrum Department

### LTE-U Forum: Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Qualcomm Technologies Inc., Samsung Electronics & Verizon

LTE-U Forum LTE-U Forum: Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Qualcomm Technologies Inc., Samsung Electronics & Verizon enb Minimum Requirements for LTE-U SDL V1.0 (2015-02) (Modifications to 3GPP TS 36.104) Disclaimer

### DVB-T and Wireless Microphone Exclusion Area Computation Through Interference Analysis

SE43(11)Info 12 DVB-T and Wireless Microphone Exclusion Area Computation Through Interference Analysis Rogério Dionísio Instituto de Telecomunicações - Portugal 11th SE43 meeting, 19 September 2011 Page

### Chapter 4 Solution to Problems

Chapter 4 Solution to Problems Question #1. A C-band earth station has an antenna with a transmit gain of 54 db. The transmitter output power is set to 100 W at a frequency of 6.100 GHz. The signal is

### Chapter 2 Mobile Communication

Page 77 Chapter 2 Mobile Communication 2.1 Characteristics of Mobile Computing 2.2 Wireless Communication Basics 2.3 Wireless Communication Technologies PANs (Bluetooth, ZigBee) Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11)

### Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements

Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements Table of Contents 1. Overview... 2 2. Theory of Intermodulation Distortion... 2 3. Optimizing IP3 Measurements... 4 4. Theory of Adjacent Channel Power Ratio... 9 5.

### GPS, LNA, Sensitivity, Jamming, Cohabitation, TTFF

Global Position System Low Noise Amplifier GPS, LNA, Sensitivity, Jamming, Cohabitation, TTFF This White Paper explains why an external low noise amplifier results in a better performance. Next generation

### Pointers on using the 5GHz WiFi bands

Pointers on using the 5GHz WiFi bands Legalities In the UK, there are two main types of radio devices that use the 5GHz frequency bands. The most common are those devices that conform to the 11a standard.

### Maximizing Receiver Dynamic Range for Spectrum Monitoring

Home Maximizing Receiver Dynamic Range for Spectrum Monitoring Brian Avenell, National Instruments Corp., Austin, TX October 15, 2012 As consumers continue to demand more data wirelessly through mobile

### RADIO WAVE TRANSMISSION PRINCIPLES. What Are Radio Waves? 74 Chapter 3 How Wireless Works

3 C H A P T E R T H R E E HOW WIRELESS WORKS Copyright 2005 by Course Technology. All rights reserved.this publication is protected by federal copyright law. No part of this publication 73 74 Chapter 3

### UNDERSTANDING THE FCC REGULATIONS FOR LOW-POWER, NON-LICENSED TRANSMITTERS

Office of Engineering and Technology Federal Communications Commission UNDERSTANDING THE FCC REGULATIONS FOR LOW-POWER, NON-LICENSED TRANSMITTERS OET BULLETIN NO. 63 October 1993 (Supersedes September

### Tx/Rx A high-performance FM receiver for audio and digital applicatons

Tx/Rx A high-performance FM receiver for audio and digital applicatons This receiver design offers high sensitivity and low distortion for today s demanding high-signal environments. By Wayne C. Ryder

### The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam

The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam This document contains every question from the Extra Class (Element 4) Question Pool* that requires one or more mathematical

### RECOMMENDATION ITU-R S.524-5. (Questions ITU-R 48/4 and ITU-R 70/4)

Rec. ITU-R S.524-5 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R S.524-5 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF OFF-AXIS e.i.r.p. DENSITY FROM EARTH STATIONS IN THE FIXED-SATELLITE SERVICE TRANSMITTING IN THE 6 AND 14 GHz FREQUENCY BANDS

### 102 26-m Antenna Subnet Telecommunications Interfaces

DSMS Telecommunications Link Design Handbook 26-m Antenna Subnet Telecommunications Interfaces Effective November 30, 2000 Document Owner: Approved by: Released by: [Signature on file in TMOD Library]

### Welcome. Rulon VanDyke RF System Architect, Agilent Technologies. David Leiss Senior RF Simulation Consultant, Agilent Technologies

Welcome Rulon VanDyke RF System Architect, Agilent Technologies David Leiss Senior RF Simulation Consultant, Agilent Technologies January 12, 2012 Agenda RF Architecture Definition Costs of Poor Architecture

### Signal-to-Noise, Carrier-to-Noise, EbNo on Signal Quality Ratios. by Wolfgang Damm, WTG

Signal-to-Noise, Carrier-to-Noise, EbNo on Signal Quality Ratios by Wolfgang Damm, WTG Agenda Signal Measurement Environment Ratios: S/N, C/N, C/No, C/I, EbNo Shannon Limit Error Correction BER & Coding

### Mobile Communications Chapter 2: Wireless Transmission

Mobile Communications Chapter 2: Wireless Transmission Frequencies Signals Antennas Signal propagation Multiplexing Spread spectrum Modulation Cellular systems Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/

### Characteristics of terrestrial IMT-Advanced systems for frequency sharing/ interference analyses

Report ITU-R M.2292-0 (12/2013) Characteristics of terrestrial IMT-Advanced systems for frequency sharing/ interference analyses M Series Mobile, radiodetermination, amateur and related satellite services

### ETSI EN 302 774 V1.2.1 (2012-02)

EN 302 774 V1.2.1 (2012-02) Harmonized European Standard Broadband Wireless Access Systems (BWA) in the 3 400 MHz to 3 800 MHz frequency band; Base Stations; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### DT3: RF On/Off Remote Control Technology. Rodney Singleton Joe Larsen Luis Garcia Rafael Ocampo Mike Moulton Eric Hatch

DT3: RF On/Off Remote Control Technology Rodney Singleton Joe Larsen Luis Garcia Rafael Ocampo Mike Moulton Eric Hatch Agenda Radio Frequency Overview Frequency Selection Signals Methods Modulation Methods

### COMPATIBILITY STUDY FOR UMTS OPERATING WITHIN THE GSM 900 AND GSM 1800 FREQUENCY BANDS

Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) COMPATIBILITY STUDY FOR UMTS OPERATING WITHIN THE GSM 900 AND GSM 1800 FREQUENCY

### Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP

Products: Spectrum Analyzer FSP Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP This application note explains the concept of Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) measurement

### Data Transmission. Raj Jain. Professor of CIS. The Ohio State University. Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@ACM.Org http://www.cis.ohio-state.

Data Transmission Professor of CIS Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@ACM.Org http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ 2-1 Overview Time Domain and Frequency Domain Bit, Hertz Decibels Data vs Signal Attenuation, Delay

### Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits

Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits Paging services (Edition May 2002) Disclaimer Unless otherwise specified, the information contained in these guidelines is intended

### HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. E January 30, 2008 Doc. No. SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS The ibiquity Digital logo and ibiquity Digital are registered trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation.

### International Civil Aviation Organization

CNS/MET SG/16 IP/30 (Rev.) Agenda Item 7 (3) 23/07/12 International Civil Aviation Organization SIXTEENTH MEETING OF THE COMMNICATIONS/NAVIGATION/SRVEILLANCE AND METEOROLOGY SB-GROP (CNS/MET SG/16) OF

### The Salzburg Model: A Precautionary Strategy for Siting of Base Stations

The Salzburg Model: A Precautionary Strategy for Siting of Base Stations Dr. Gerd Oberfeld, Dr. Christoph König Federal State of Salzburg, Public Health Department, Environmental Health P.O. Box 527, A-5010

### 3GPP TS V8.3.0 ( )

TS 51.026 V8.3.0 (2010-03) Technical Specification 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network; Base Station System (BSS) equipment specification; Part

### Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP - 1-1 Introduction In this lab you will use software reconfigurable RF hardware from National

### White Paper: Microcells A Solution to the Data Traffic Growth in 3G Networks?

White Paper: Microcells A Solution to the Data Traffic Growth in 3G Networks? By Peter Gould, Consulting Services Director, Multiple Access Communications Limited www.macltd.com May 2010 Microcells were

### ENTERPRISE. Functionality chart

ENTERPRISE Functionality chart Cellular Expert Enterprise module features Tasks Network data management Site, sector, construction, customer, repeater management: Add Edit Move Copy Delete Site re-use

### TV-Whitespace More radio spectrum for the commons

TV-Whitespace More radio spectrum for the commons Elektra Wagenrad ( Directors cut of the slides used at re:publica, WCW2015, Battlemesh V8, CCC-Camp 2015, Das war Netzpolitik 2015, MABB with additional

### Site Survey Report MAH

Site Survey Report MAH Index 1. Introduction...3 1.1 Contact Information... 3 1.2 Scope of Survey and Spectrum... 3 1.3 Validity... 3 2. Report...4 2.1 Coverage... 4 2.1.1 Signal Strength vs. Signal to

### RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE AND CAPACITY REDUCTION IN DSL

RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE AND CAPACITY REDUCTION IN DSL Padmabala Venugopal, Michael J. Carter*, Scott A. Valcourt, InterOperability Laboratory, Technology Drive Suite, University of New Hampshire,

### SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference

SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference Publication Date: May 27, 2015 KCF Technologies, Inc. Background The SmartDiagnostics wireless network is an easy to install, end-to-end machine

### Data Transmission. Data Communications Model. CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies. Presentation B

CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies Data Transmission Presentation B Kannan Srinivasan 08/30/2012 Data Communications Model Figure 1.2 Studying Assignment: 3.1-3.4, 4.1 Presentation

### AN INTRODUCTION TO TELEMETRY PART 1: TELEMETRY BASICS

AN INTRODUCTION TO TELEMETRY PART 1: TELEMETRY BASICS Telemetry is defined as the sensing and measuring of information at some remote location and then transmitting that information to a central or host

### RF Network Analyzer Basics

RF Network Analyzer Basics A tutorial, information and overview about the basics of the RF Network Analyzer. What is a Network Analyzer and how to use them, to include the Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA),

### Understand the effects of clock jitter and phase noise on sampled systems A s higher resolution data converters that can

designfeature By Brad Brannon, Analog Devices Inc MUCH OF YOUR SYSTEM S PERFORMANCE DEPENDS ON JITTER SPECIFICATIONS, SO CAREFUL ASSESSMENT IS CRITICAL. Understand the effects of clock jitter and phase

### Sistemi di Trasmissione Radio. Università di Pavia. Sistemi di Trasmissione Radio

Programma del corso Tecniche di trasmissione Modulazioni numeriche Sistemi ad allargameneto di banda Sistemi multi-tono Codifica di canale Codifica di sorgente (vocoder) Programma del corso Sistemi di

### Which antenna for Wi-Fi?

Which antenna for Wi-Fi? Introduction Wi-Fi is a brand originally licensed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to describe the underlying technology of wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802.11 specifications.

### Wireless Communication Technologies

1 Wireless Communication Technologies Lin DAI Requirement 2 Prerequisite: Principles of Communications A certain math background Probability, Linear Algebra, Matrix Be interactive in class! Think independently!

### 1 Multi-channel frequency division multiplex frequency modulation (FDM-FM) emissions

Rec. ITU-R SM.853-1 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R SM.853-1 NECESSARY BANDWIDTH (Question ITU-R 77/1) Rec. ITU-R SM.853-1 (1992-1997) The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that the concept of necessary

### RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer

RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer Modern modular digitizers, like the Spectrum M4i series PCIe digitizers, offer greater bandwidth and higher resolution at any given bandwidth than ever before.

### EECC694 - Shaaban. Transmission Channel

The Physical Layer: Data Transmission Basics Encode data as energy at the data (information) source and transmit the encoded energy using transmitter hardware: Possible Energy Forms: Electrical, light,

### The main purpose of the study was to answer the three following questions:

MEETING DATE: March 19, 2003 SUBJECT: Cellular Phones In The Subway RECOMMENDATION It is recommended that: 1. the Commission authorize staff to issue a Request for Expression of Interest (REOI) to determine

Radio-Tracking of Birds: Regulation and Ruling of Radio Frequencies Animal Tracking workshop @ Hula Valley 7-9 Nov 1 Dr. Haim Mazar; Israeli Ministry of Communications Vice Chairman ITU-R Study Group 1

### Data and Computer Communications

CT30A2003 Tietoliikennetekniikan perusteet Data and Computer Communications Chapter 3 Data Transmission Ninth Edition by William Stallings 1 Kommunikointijärjestelmä 2 Tiedonsiirto The successful transmission

### Principles of Digital Modulation. Dr Mike Fitton, Telecommunications Research Lab Toshiba Research Europe Limited

Principles of Digital Modulation Dr Mike Fitton, mike.fitton@toshiba-trel.com Telecommunications Research Lab Toshiba Research Europe Limited 1 Principles of Digital Modulation: Outline of Lectures Introduction