Broadband access. Nils Holte, NTNU. NTNU Department of Telecommunications Kursdagene ved NTNU, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

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1 Broadband access - properties of the copper network Nils Holte, Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Definition of broadband Overview Alternatives for fixed broadband access pair cable, coax cable, wireless, power cable,... Alternative xdsl systems (xdsl is a common term for all types of Digital Subscriber Line systems) Properties of twisted pair cables Conclusions Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

2 Definition of broadband Many different definitions exist. Both the standard European bitrate of 2 Mbit/s and the American T1 rate of 1.5 Mbit/s should be included. Hence, I will use the following definition: Broadband fixed access means a bitrate higher than 1 Mbit/s, at least in the downstream direction Only inexpensive solutions suitable for the private market are considered A further definition of different classes of speed is proposed in the next slide Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Classification of bitrates Classification: Range of bitrates Services Ultra-broadband Super-broadband Broadband Medium-band Narrowband Ultra-narrowband R > 100 Mbit/s 10 < R 100 Mbit/s 1 < R 10 Mbit/s 100 kbit/s < R 1 Mbit/s 2.4 < R 100 kbit/s R 2400 bit/s professional communication very high speed data, ++ multiple TV-programs, high speed data, ++ high quality video, high speed data, ++ Internet, data, video, pictures, speech, HiFi-sound speech, data, fax, text, pictures text, low speed data, alarms, etc. Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

3 Fixed broadband access alternatives Twisted copper pairs, xdsl Alternative 1 Coaxial cable, cable-tv systems Alternative 2 Fixed radio access Alternative 3 Fibre to the home Not realistic yet Power distribution cables Not feasible Broadband satellite access Not competitive Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Coaxial cable (cable TV) Total bandwidth 4 Gbit/s ( 100 chann, 40 Mbit/s) Tree structure of cable network Shared capacity, (different users + upstream - downstream) The cable TV network may provide broadband with broadcast TV in parallel Medium-band alternatives are in operation today Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

4 Fixed radio access Rapid deployment Suitable for rural districts Close to line of sight necessary for current solutions Frequency bands already allocated High frequencies (25-50 GHz) lead to expensive solutions (so far) Alternative frequency bands Inexpensive solutions in unlicensed bands at 2.5 GHz (IEEE ) Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Fibre to the home Still too expensive for single users Not competitive due to construction costs (digging) Installation of underground tubes during new construction will remove the latter restriction on a long term scale (~30 years) Fibres are already present, and there is increasing use of fibre in hybrid systems Fibre to the building Fibre to the curb Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

5 Power cables Broadband in power cables is not feasible due to EMC problems will disturb HF radio (radio amateurs + military) it is a choice whether frequencies up to 30 MHz shall be used for HF communication or broadband access in power cables Shared capacity, cable has a bus structure Implementation difficulties (couplers, noise,...) Maximum bitrate of a power cable in approved frequency bands is less than 1 Mbit/s Power cables are well suited for narrowband communication (already widely used) Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Satellite access Broadband satellite systems are not broadband according to our definition Satellite is suitable for narrowband and medium-band for professional users, primarily in regions which lack ordinary infrastructure Satellite is very well suited for TVbroadcasting Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

6 Pair cable alternatives ADSL - broadband 256 kbit/s - 8 Mbit/s downstream (asymmetric) all the way from central office to subscriber VDSL + fibre to the curb - super broadband up to 52 Mbit/s on hybrid copper - fibre VDSL + inverse multiplexing - super broadband up to 52 Mbit/s on copper all the way from central office to subscriber SHDSL - symmetric broadband or medium-band symmetric bitrates from 192 kbit/s to Mbit/s Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Classification of pair cable alternatives Downstream rate Super broadband ( Mbit/s) Super broadband ( Mbit/s) Broadband (1-10 Mbit/s) Broadband (1-10 Mbit/s) Medium-band (0.1-1 Mbit/s) Upstream rate Super broadband ( Mbit/s) Broadband (1-10 Mbit/s) Broadband (1-10 Mbit/s) Medium-band (0.1-1 Mbit/s) Medium-band (0.1-1 Mbit/s) System VDSL symmetric alternative VDSL SHDSL ADSL SHDSL Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

7 ADSL Km: Mb/s: Cabinets Telephone exchange building Telephone cable Local distribution cables Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Fibre + VDSL Optical cable VDSL Mb/s r < 1 km Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

8 Inverse multiplexing N x VDSL lines Gbit/s Gbit/s Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Inverse multiplexing + VDSL xdsl lines Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

9 Limiting factors for pair cables Signal attenuation attenuation is proportional to for f > 100 khz Near end crosstalk Far end crosstalk White noise (background noise) f Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Main coupling mechanisms: - capacitive coupling - inductive coupling Crosstalk mechanisms Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

10 Near end crosstalk, NEXT Cable Transmitter 1 Receiver 1 Disturbed receiver Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Far end crosstalk, FEXT Cable Transmitter 1 Receiver 1 Disturbed receiver Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

11 Shannon s theoretical channel capacity Maximum theoretical channel capacity in the frequency band [fl,fh]: fh C Sh = log 2 1+ S( f ) df bit/s N( f ) fl S(f): signal power density N(f): noise power density Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Capacity per bandwidth unit A realistic estimate of bandwidth efficiency: ( f ) = C f S( f) = k eff log N ( f) bit/s/hz S(f): signal power density N(f): noise power density λ 1: factor for margin (safety margin + margin for mod.meth.) k eff 1: factor for overhead (sync bits, RS-code, cyclic prefix) Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

12 Multicarrier modulation Example of output spectrum for multcarrier modulation Frequency Channel no Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Assumptions in calculations Identical systems in all pairs of the cable Adaptive multicarrier modulation Frequency band: f 100 khz 90% of transmitted bitrate is available for use Distance to Shannon ( ): 9 db (6 db margin + 3 db for modulation) White noise: 80 db below output signal Cable: 0.4 mm, 22.5 db/km at 1 MHz Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

13 Signal and noise models Signal: S( f ) = F L Noise models: N NEXT = 10 4 F 1.5 N( f ) = N FEXT = F 2 L e 2 L N AWGN = 10 8 NEXT FEXT AWGN Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Channel capacity vs. frequency Potential bandwith efficiency, bit/s/hz FEXT AWGN NEXT L=1 km Frequency, MHz Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

14 Channel capacity vs frequency II L=1 km L=3 km Potential bandwith efficiency, bit/s/hz one-way transmission two-way transmission 2*two-way transmission Potential bandwith efficiency, bit/s/hz one-way transmission two-way transmission 2*two-way transmission Frequency, MHz Frequency, MHz Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Potential range for.4 mm cable Bitrate, Bitrate, Mbit/s Mbit/s VDSL one-way transmission one-way two-way transmission two-way transmission ADSL Range, Km Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

15 Potential range for.4 mm cable II one-way transmission two-way transmission 3 Bitrate, Mbit/s SHDSL Range, Km Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar Conclusions xdsl systems in the existing network of twisted pair cables will be one of the major alternatives for broadband access Different xdsl systems will offer a wide range of bitrates for both asymmetric and symmetric communication The success of different types of xdsl systems and other alternatives for broadband access will mainly be decided by user demand, market issues and regulatory issues Kursdagene ved, Digitale telenett, 9. januar

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