COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION USING ABAQUS

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1 International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp , Article ID: IJARET_07_02_004 Available online at Journal Impact Factor (2016): (Calculated by GISI) ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION USING ABAQUS Praveen Padagannavar School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University) Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia ABSTRACT Modals with complicated geometry, complex loads and boundary condition are difficult to analyse and evaluate in the terms of strain, stress, displacement and reaction forces by using theoretical methods. A given modal can be analysed by using Finite Element Method easily with the help of computer software ABAQUS CAE and can get approximate solutions. This report is about modelling two dimensional and three dimensional analyses with the ABAQUS CAE for plane stress, plane strain, shell, and beam and 3d solid modal elements. The report will show hand sketch, procedure to simulate and solve the problems, submit and monitor analysis jobs and view results using ABAQUS CAE software for different elements and compare with theoretical calculation. The result also gives the information of stresses and strains generated in the Plate and its deformation for different boundary conditions and loads. In addition, this report will analyse the data, compare results and validate theoretical results, this will help us to understand the software, its capabilities and accuracy. Cite this Article: Praveen Padagannavar, Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology, 7(2), 2016, pp

2 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus 1. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis is an approach that uses mathematical approximation to simulate geometry and load conditions. ABAQUS is powerful finite element software for engineers which can solve linear analysis to nonlinear problems. This software will guide engineers to simulate, analyse and evaluate the results produced by modelling for different kinds of structures and can modify current modal. ABAQUS software used to analyse and investigate problems for two dimensional and three dimensional modelling with different element types based on the given theoretically structure. Finite Element Analysis is important tool to carry out results with using numerical method to solve engineering problems; it can solve any complex geometry. Finite element analysis is to identify the weakness of design and validate the proper material property required for particular modal. The ABAQUS/CAE has been designed for finite element analysis and to simulate two dimensional and three dimensional models for plane stress, plane strain, shell, beam and 3D model and shell elements and analyse the results. Objective: The objective is to analyse stresses and deformations under F1 and F2 loads and compare the model for plane stress, plane strain elements (2-D modelling), shell element, beam element and 3D model using ABAQUS/CAE and validate the results by comparing theoretical solution. 1.1 Requirements 1. Use the ABAQUS/CAE software to evaluate the stresses and deformations of the given load. 2. Compare the performance and suitability for the following modelling:- Plane stress elements Plane strain elements Shell elements Beam elements 3D solid elements 3. Validate the results by comparing with the theoretical. 2. MODAL DEVELOPMENT 2.1 HAND SKETCH 31

3 Praveen Padagannavar Figure 1 Hand sketch (full and half model) Figure 2 Hand sketch (beam model) 2.2 STEPS FOR MODELLING AND IT S EXPLANATIONS: Step 1: Go to program and select Abaqus CAE then the Abaqus window will open select for with standard modal. Step 2: Start with first part Module Part in this module we need to modal the frame, in this we can create, edit, and manage the part. This is functional units of Abaqus called modules. In our case we are creating modal. Click on part and then select part manager. For PLANE STRESS, PLANE STRAIN MODEL In the part manager click on create then the part create new window will open select for 2D planar modelling space, deformable type, Shell feature and approximate size and then continue and dismiss the previous window. For SHELL MODEL In the part manager click on create then the part create new window will open select for 3D planar modelling space, deformable type, Shell feature and approximate size and then continue and dismiss the previous window. Each node of the shell element can move in U1, U2,U3 and UR1, UR2,UR3 For BEAM In the part manager click on create then the part create new window will open select for 2D planar modelling space, deformable type, wire feature and approximate size and then continue and dismiss the previous window. For 3D element In the part manager click on create then the part create new window will open select for 3D planar modelling space, deformable type, Solid feature extrusion and approximate size and then continue and also add the value of depth. Create points in the grid coordinates points then create the line by selecting the coordinate s points. Then at the bottom click on done. Now we created the modal frame. We need to create partition in the modal so that we can apply boundary condition, forces and also important for proper meshing and its structure. The partition is created by using datum and partition feature which is in main toolbar tools. 32

4 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus Figure 3 3D, shell, beam geometry Step 3: Select the second part that is Property Module in this module we need to apply material properties to the given modal frame that is define materials, material behaviour and define section. Assigning each material property and region the part. Start with Material which is located at the top main menu toolbar, click on it and then select on create. Here we are defining material. Edit material new window box will open. Select on mechanical, change to elasticity elastic. Linear elastic modal is isotropic and have elastic strain. Put the values of Young s Modulus and Poisson s Ratio and then click OK. These are parameter area to be defined. Secondly, select Section in this feature we need to apply cross sectional of the modal frame. For PLANE STRESS, PLANE STRAIN MODEL: Create section dialogue box will open then click on solid homogeneous and continue and also put the values of thickness. For SHELL MODEL: Create section dialogue box will open then click on solid homogeneous and continue and also put the values of thickness and also create the shell homogeneous and continue. For BEAM MODEL: Create section dialogue box will open then click on beam beam. Edit beam section window will open. Click here to create beam profile, select rectangular profile and continue. Rectangular profile is geometric data of rectangle solid. For 3D MODEL: Create section dialogue box will open then click on solid homogeneous and continue. Finally, select Assign and click on section and then select the region to be assigned select entire modal frame and click Done at the bottom. Section properties that have assigned to the part assigned automatically to all instance. Step 4: The third part is Assembly Module. In our modal we have only one assembly. 33

5 Praveen Padagannavar Select Instance and click on create-instance means own coordinate system. In this new window we need to select parts and dependent instance type and click OK. Click only OK, because if we click apply and ok means then we are creating two instances and one is sitting behind the modal, so here is important to click only ok. Dependent is the original part. Step 5: The fourth part is Step Module Select step which is located at the top of the toolbar and click on create. In step we can edit or manipulate the current modal. In this new window box change the setting to linear perturbation procedure type and static, linear perturbation and click Continue. Linear perturbation analysis provides linear response of the modal. Give description to the step-1 and click Ok. Step 6: The fifth part is Load Module in this module we will apply boundary condition and load to the modal frame. Boundary condition fixes the degree of freedom and has two types rotational and translational degree of freedom. Select BC which is located at the top of the toolbar and click on create. Then create boundary condition dialogue box will open and then change the settings to Initial -- mechanical category displacement/ rotation and then click continue. Select the region to apply BC. Displacement / rotation means holding the movement of selected nodes dof to 0 Select the two corner points to of the modal frame. Now it s time to apply Load select for it which is located at the top. We should name the load, type of load and apply. Then click on create load, change the setting to Step-1, mechanical and concentrated force (applied to vertices) and click continue. Concentrated force is to the nodes Now pick up the points to apply load. After picking the points when you click done, another window will open this window will show the direction of the load. Figure 4 load and boundary condition Step 7: The sixth part is Mesh Module in this module we will mesh the modal frame according to the requirement to get proper results. Mesh means converting whole material into small network and also we can define mesh density, mesh shape 34

6 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus (1 or 2 or 3 dimensional) and mesh element. The main aim of mesh is to reduce the error while solving the results. We can also mesh by partition so that the mesh structure will be finer and perfect shape. Mesh is created to confirm the node position and element. Click on Part-1 First, select seed which is located at the top and click on part and put the values of approximate global size seeds and then click OK and Done. Seeding is used to specify mesh density. Seeds are only located at the edges. While, putting the value we need to select properly otherwise it will show deformation size is large error, that time we must decrease the number. Secondly, select Mesh and click on element type. Select the region to be assigned element type, select the entire modal frame and click Done. We need to compare the performance, relevance and suitability of modelling. The new window box will open that is element type, change the settings: Element type: Plane stress modal the family is plane stress. Plane strain modal the family is plane strain. Plane shell modal the family is shell and quadratic. Beam modal the family is beam. Finally, again select Mesh and click on part and then click yes at the bottom mesh the part. Step 8: The final part is Job Module in this module we will submit the modal frame for analysis and evaluation and get the results. This is the last step. Select the Job located at the top and click on create. In this dialogue box name the job and click continue and OK. Again select job and click on manager and submit the job (modal frame) for evaluation. Check for the command completed successfully Then click on results to view the results. Then click on report which is at the top and then click on field output. Give the location to save the abaqus.rpt, so that we can check the report. Save the modal. Results can also be viewed in visualisation module. We can see deformed shape, undeformed shape and contours. 2.3 MODEL GEOMETRY DETAILS: Load for condition (i) F1=50 and F2=0 AND (ii) F1=50 and F2=50 (Depends upon condition) F1 is in y- direction and F2 is in x direction Poisson ratio v = 0.33 and E=200Gpa Mpa Thickness = 2X, X= *101 Thickness = 2.202mm Full model or half model is done depending on required conditions 35

7 Praveen Padagannavar 2.4 BOUNDARY CONDITION Roller support means fixing and making the model movable only in the x direction and constrained at y-axis. Fixed support means fixing in the respective x and y direction making the structure rigid. Translational motion in axis 1 and 2 are constrained for both the nodes. Mesh: Finite Element Method involves breaking a given structure into smaller element with simple geometry and theoretical solution. The elements are joined to each other at Nodes, this procedure is called Meshing. According to this paper, there are three types of mesh element type: - (1) Linear Reduced Integration (2) Linear and (3) Quadratic. Geometric order of the mesh elements: There are two types of mesh elements, namely linear order and Quadratic order. Linear means first order elements and Quadratic means second order elements. 3. ABAQUS RESULTS 3.1 Element Type: Plane Stress Model: Full Model (case (i) F1=50, F2=0) Figure 6 Deformation of plane stress element (full model case (i)) Node Label Loc 1 Loc E E E E E-03 Min E E E E Node Max E E E E Node Total E E E-03 Table 2 Output data of plane stress element (full model case (i)) 36

8 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 48. The upper layer of the model is tension and bottom layer is compression. Further, consider the nodal label 48 stress values that are S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 3.2 Element Type: Plane Stress Model: Full Model (case (ii) F1=50, F2=50) Node Label1 Figure 7 Deformation of plane stress element (Full model case (ii)) Loc 1 Table 3 Output data of plane stress element (full model case (ii)) Loc E E E E E-03 Min E E E E Node Max E E E E Node Total E E The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 48. The upper layer of the model is compression and bottom layer is tension. Further, consider the nodal label 48 stress values that is S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 37

9 Praveen Padagannavar 3.3 Element Type: Plane Strain Model: Half Model (case (i) F1=50, F2=0) Node Label1 Figure 8 Deformation of plane strain element (half model case (i)) Loc 1 Loc E E E E E-03 Min E E E E Node Max E E E E Node Total E E E E E E+03 Table 4 Output data of plane strain element (Half model case (i)) The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 9. Further, consider the nodal label 9 stress value that is S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 38

10 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus 3.4 Element Type: Plane Strain Model: Full Model (case (ii) F1=50, F2=50) Figure 9 Deformation of plane strain element (full model case (ii)) Node Loc Loc 1 Label E E E E E-03 Min E E E E Node Max E E E E Node Total E E Table 5 Output data of plane strain element (full model case (ii)) The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 48. The upper layer of the model is compression and bottom layer is tension. Further, consider the nodal label 48 stress values that are S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 39

11 Praveen Padagannavar 3.5 Element Type: Shell Model: Half Model (case (i) F1=50, F2=0) Figure 10 Deformation of shell element (half model case (i)) Node Label Loc 3 Loc E E E E E E-03 Min E E E E Node Max E E E E Node Total E E E E Table 6 Output data of shell element (half model case (i)) The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 15. Further, consider the nodal label 15 stress values that are S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 40

12 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus 3.6 Element Type: Shell Model: Full Model (case (ii) F1=50, F2=50) Figure 11 Deformation of shell element (full model case (ii)) Node Label Loc 3 Loc E E E E E-06 Min E E E E Node Max E E E E Node Total E E Table 7 Output data of shell element (full model case (ii)) The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 71. The upper layer of the model is compression and bottom layer is tension. Further, consider the nodal label 71 stress values that are S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 41

13 Praveen Padagannavar 3.7 Element Type: Beam Model: Full Model (case (i) F1=50, F2=0) Figure 12 Deformation of Beam element (full model case (i)) Node Label Loc E E E Min E E E Node Max E E E E-12 Node Total E E+03 Table 8 Output data of Beam element (full model case (i)) The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 50. The upper layer of the model is tension and bottom layer is compression. Further, consider the nodal label 50 stress values that are S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 42

14 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus 3.8 Element Type: Beam Model: Full Model (case (ii) F1=50, F2=50) Figure 13 Deformation of Beam element (full model case (ii)) Node Label Loc E E E Min E E E Node Max E E E Node Total E E Table 9 Output data of Beam element (full model case (ii)) The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 50. The upper layer of the model is compression and bottom layer is tension. Further, consider the nodal label 50 stress value that is S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 43

15 Praveen Padagannavar 3.9 Element type: 3D Solid Model: Half Model (case (i) F1=50, F2=0) Figure 14 Deformation of 3d solid element (half model case (i)) Node Label Loc 1 Loc E E E E Min E E E E Node Max E E E E Node Total E E E-03 Table 10 Output data of 3D solid element (full model case (i)) The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 45. Further, consider the nodal label 45 stress values that are S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 44

16 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus 3.10 Element type: 3D Solid Model: Full Model (case (ii) F1=50, F2=50) Figure 15 Deformation of 3d solid element (full model case (ii)) Node Label Loc 1 Loc E E E E E-03 Min E E E E Node Max E E E E Node Total E E Table 11 Output data of 3D solid element (full model case (ii)) The table shows the ABAQUS results that is displacement, strain components and stress components. In order to analyse the stress we need to select top middle point that is node label 284. The upper layer of the model is compression and bottom layer is tension. Further, consider the nodal label 284 stress values that are S11 and compare this value with calculated theoretical values at the same point. 45

17 Praveen Padagannavar 4. THEORETICAL CALCULATION 46

18 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus 47

19 Praveen Padagannavar 48

20 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus The calculation is done on the element point C 49

21 Praveen Padagannavar 5. VALIDATION Comparison between theoretical and ABAQUS for values Half or full model Case (i) F1=50, F2=0 ELEMENT TYPE STRESS THEORETICAL ABAQUS (S11) Plane stress Mpa Mpa Plane strain Mpa E-03 Mpa Shell Mpa E-03 Mpa Beam Mpa Mpa 3D solid Mpa Mpa Table 12 Theoretical and ABAQUS results for case (i) F1=50, F2=0 The table shows theoretical and ABAQUS values for the case (i) F1=50 and F2=0 for full or half model. According to theoretical calculation the stress value is Mpa and ABAQUS results vary. In the case of beam the theoretical and Abaqus results are same that is In the case of plane stress, the theoretical stress value is Mpa and Abaqus value is , the values are not accurate. Comparison between theoretical and ABAQUS values for full model Case (ii) F1=50, F2=50 ELEMENT TYPE STRESS THEORETICAL ABAQUS (S11) Plane Stress 6.187Mpa Mpa Plane Strain 6.187Mpa Mpa Shell 6.187Mpa Mpa Beam 6.187Mpa Mpa 3D solid 6.187Mpa Mpa Table 13 Theoretical and ABAQUS results for case (ii) F1=50, F2=50 The table shows theoretical and ABAQUS values for the case (ii) F1=50 and F2=50. According to theoretical calculation the stress value is 6.187Mpa and ABAQUS results more or less similar. In the case of beam the theoretical values is 6.187Mpa and Abaqus result is Mpa, the values are closer. In the case of plane stress, the theoretical stress value is 6.187Mpa and Abaqus value is Mpa which is almost similar. 50

22 Computational Engineering of Finite Element Modelling For Automotive Application Using Abaqus Comparison between theoretical and ABAQUS values for Beam model Case (i) F1=50, F2=0 ELEMENT TABLE BEAM THEORETICAL BEAM ABAQUS S11 (CASE i) Table 14 Beam Theoretical and ABAQUS results for case (i) F1=50, F2=0 The table shows theoretical and ABAQUS values for the Beam case (i) F1=50 and F2=0 model. According to theoretical calculation, the stress value is 18.56Mpa and ABAQUS results are which exactly the same is. 6. DISCUSSION The Purpose of this paper is to compare the results from ABAQUS and theoretical calculation. Though hand calculations are accurate but it is more complicated or nearly impossible to do it in some cases and time consuming and also increases computational cost. The use of ABAQUS software is much easier and reliable. Plane stress, plane strain and beam elements were modelled in 2D analysis while Shell and 3D Solid elements were modelled in 3D elements. Different types of 2D and 3D elements can be selected for model analysis in ABAQUS/CAE. It was observed that out of plane normal and shear stresses are equal to zero. For Plane Stress elements, linear analysis was used and since 2D modelling was done on it, it is less expensive and less time consuming than 3D or Shell elements. Although the results were highly accurate. For Beam Elements, transverse shear deformations were allowed since element type for the given model was B21-linear node. This type of elements uses linear interpolation method for analysis. Also, results were very accurate. For 3D solid Elements, reduced integration was used. Also these elements do not have rotational degrees of freedom. The computational time is high. Also the bending behaviour is much stiffer. When we have a fine mesh it is best recommended to have the reduced integration method. In linear elements when there is no bending moment we use full integration point method. This happens because the element has edges that are unable to curve. The simulation gives values that are closer to the theoretical values. Stress Distribution: the stresses are mostly distributed/induced in the middle point of the full model because the force generated is higher in this point. The different forces would generate different stress. The beam element is most accurate because it is similar to the theoretical results. In contrast, the Shell and 3D model would have relatively more error when compared 51

23 Praveen Padagannavar with the theoretical results, this is due to three components x, y, and z directions of the displacement. Model simplification technique is used to simplify complex structural applications. This can be done without considering the thickness of the model and the forces can be assumed on respective nodes. To simplify the model analysis, we use step as linear perturbation for linear problems. Quadratic reduced-integration is the method that does not pose locking when there are stresses present. Thus these methods are used for simulation of stresses, strains and displacements. There are 2 types of shell elements, mainly linear full integration and reduced integration of elements. By using the linear reduced integration method and appropriately sizing the mesh distortion could be identified clearly. When the mesh is finely created the values are more accurate. This is experienced because the elements used here are tolerant to distortion. Shell elements are two types i.e. linear full and reduced integration elements. In linear elements when bending moment is not present we use full integration point. The element type for structure is kept same throughout the analysis. Manual calculations for these structures are done using theoretical and mathematical formulas. These are then compared. 7. CONCLUSION ABAQUS is a tool that is comprehensive and powerful that provide various analysis of structures by changing the modelling process during designing to get different results. This report analyses the deformations in a 2D planar, plane stress element, plane strain element, 3D shell element, beam element and 3D solid element. The values were manually calculated and the values were obtained by using ABAQUS. These were compared and assessed. These values and figures are tabulated and presented above. The simulations and calculations were performed for planar stresses, strains and the deformation in the shell structures. As seen in the above sections the figures clearly show sections with more stress/strain and deformations. During analysis it was understood that the techniques chosen such as linear or quadratic could influence the result of the analysis performed. Also different modules such as seeding, meshing, boundary conditions etc. need to be assigned carefully to get the best results. Compared values from ABAQUS and theoretical calculations nearly match each other. However there was slight difference. Since calculating the stresses/strain in real life structures is difficult and complex more accurate values could be obtained by using FEA with quadratic element method. Thus FEM using ABAQUS helps us in understanding the deformations and strength of the different engineering materials used more accurately and easily. REFERENCE [1] Takla, M 2015, Introduction to the finite element method, Lecture notes at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. [2] Takla, M 2015, Introduction to ABAQUS/CAE, Lecture notes at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. [3] Abaqus Version6.7 ABAQUS Analysis User Manual Engineering forums 52

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