# III. Beyond Linear Optimization

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1 Optimization Models Draft of August 26, 2005 III. Beyond Linear Optimization Robert Fourer Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois , U.S.A. (847) er/ Copyright c Robert Fourer

2 A 96 Optimization Models 7.0

3 Draft of August 26, 2005 A Max-Min and Min-Max Formulations There are a few kinds of models whose objectives are not quite linear, but that can be can be solved by converting them to linear programs. This chapter looks in particular at problems of maximizing the minimum or similarly minimizing the maximum among several linear functions. 7.1 A max-min assignment model We begin with two examples that illustrate the usefulness of max-min and min-max objectives and that demonstrate the principles involved. Then we summarize the transformations in a more general setting. A problem of assigning m people to m jobs was modeled as a linear program in Section 3(c). The data values are the individual preferences: c ij preference of person i for job j, on a scale of 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest), for i = 1,..., m and j = 1,..., m The variables are the decisions as to who is assigned what job, represented as follows: x ij = 1 person i is assigned to job j x ij = 0 person i is not assigned to job j We argued that the preference of person i for the job assigned to i can be represented as j=1 c ijx ij. This suggested the following linear program for maximizing the total preference of all individuals for the jobs to which they are assigned: Maximize i=1 j=1 c ijx ij j=1 x ij = 1, i = 1,..., m i=1 x ij = 1, j = 1,..., m x ij 0, i = 1,..., m; j = 1,..., m We explained how the constraints, together with the integrality property of transportation models, insure that each person is assigned exactly one job, and each job is given to exactly one person. The solution to this model could leave some people quite dissatisfied. Although the overall sum of the preferences is maximized, certain individuals may be assigned jobs for which their preference is very low. A direct way to avoid this possibility is to change the objective so that it maximizes the leastpreferred assignment. More precisely, we seek values x ij of the variables so that the minimum preference of person i for the job assigned to i, over all i = 1,..., m, is maximized. Since the preference of person i for the job assigned to i is j=1 c ijx ij, the

4 A 98 Optimization Models 7.2 assignment model with the new objective might be written as follows: Maximize ] m [min i=1,...,m j=1 c ijx ij j=1 x ij = 1, i = 1,..., m i=1 x ij = 1, j = 1,..., m x ij 0, i = 1,..., m; j = 1,..., m The objective no longer has the proper form for a linear program. Nevertheless, the problem can be reduced to one of linear programming. Suppose that we define a new variable z to represent the minimum within the brackets above. The minimum of several things is less than or equal to all of them, from which it follows that z min i=1,...,m j=1 n c ij x ij n z c ij x ij for all i = 1,..., m. j=1 This equivalence suggests that, if we add all the inequalities on the right as constraints, then we can substitute z for the minimum in the objective. The result is: Maximize z z j=1 c ijx ij, i = 1,..., m j=1 x ij = 1, i = 1,..., m i=1 x ij = 1, j = 1,..., m x ij 0, i = 1,..., m; j = 1,..., m This is indeed a linear program. Since the constraints include z j=1 c ijx ij for all i, any solution must satisfy z min i j=1 c ijx ij. But how do we know that z = min i j=1 c ijx ij in an optimal solution? We can reason as follows. If z is strictly less than min i j=1 c ijx ij, then z can be increased to yield a larger objective value that still satisfies all the constraints. Hence, in a solution that achieves a maximum, z can only be equal to min i j=1 c ijx ij, which is exactly what we want. Unfortunately, there is one difficulty that has been ignored here. When the extra constraints involving z are added, the integrality property of the linear program is lost. An optimal solution may include fractional values between zero and one for some of the variables. If you want to insist on an integer solution, then you must solve a more difficult integer program. Since requiring the variables to be integral does impose a tighter constraint, the maximum achieved in the above linear program is generally greater than the maximum for the associated integer program. You can think of a fractional value for x ij as representing assignment of person i to do some fractional part of job j. The constraints insure that each person is assigned fractions that sum to one job, and that each job is covered by fractions of people that sum to one; the expression j=1 c ijx ij can be interpreted as the average satisfaction of person i with the jobs assigned to i.

5 Draft of August 26, 2005 A 99 Thus we conclude that, in some cases, it will be possible to achieve a greater minimum average satisfaction if jobs can be divided between people. 7.2 Two-person zero-sum games A variety of very simple games can be modeled in the following way. There are two players, A and B. In each round of the game, A chooses any one of n moves, while B chooses any of m moves. If A takes move j while B takes move i, then A wins a payoff of a ij and B loses an equal amount. If a ij > 0 then A actually wins a positive amount and B loses, while if a ij < 0 then A looses and B wins. This is a zero sum game because the winnings of one player in any round always equal the losses of the other. The following simple game can serve as an example. At the start of each round, player B hides either 1, 2 or 3 coins. Player A then guesses the number of coins hid. If the guess is correct, player A gets four coins; if not, A must pay B the number of coins hidden. The payoff values a ij for this game can be presented in a table: A guesses B hides As in any interesting game, there are at least one positive and one negative entry in every row and column of this table. This means that any move for A might win or lose, depending on what B does; and the same for B. Clearly it would be unwise for A to play successive rounds in any predictable pattern. Eventually B could figure out the pattern, and could choose moves that would always win. For example, if A guesses 1,2,3,1,2,3,1,2,3,... then B can simply hide 2,3,1,2,3,1,2,3,1,... and win every round. By the same argument, it would be equally unwise for B to play in a predictable way. Instead, the players can try a random strategy. For example, B might randomly hide 1, 2 or 3 coins with equal probability, after which A could randomly guess 1, 2 or 3 with equal probability. Then each of the nine outcomes in the table would be equally likely; since the sum of all nine is zero, the players would tend to come out even in the long run. We can still ask, however, whether some other random strategy might give A or B an advantage. To analyze the implications of a random strategy more generally, suppose that A plays move j with probability x j. Any values x 1,..., x n define such a strategy, provided that they satisfy the usual rules for probabilities: j=1 x j = 1, and x j 0 for j = 1,..., n. Then, if B plays i over and over, the average (or expected) winnings of A are n (payoff from playing j when B plays i) (probability of playing j) j=1 or j=1 a ijx j. A can expect to make or lose money with this strategy, when

6 A 100 Optimization Models 7.2 B plays i, depending on whether this sum comes out positive or negative. (If it comes out zero, then A can expect to break even.) Of course, A doesn t know what B will play. Thus a prudent approach would be to choose a strategy that maximizes the minimum expected winnings of A, over all possible moves by B. This would require A to solve the following optimization problem: ] n [min i=1,...,m j=1 a ijx j Maximize j=1 x j = 1 x j 0, j = 1,..., n The objective is just the minimum of the expected payoffs, using the formula derived above. The constraints merely ensure that the variables x j are appropriate probabilities. This max-min problem can be solved by transformation to a linear program, much like the one in the previous example. Letting z stand for the minimum in the objective, we get Maximize z z j=1 a ijx j, i = 1,..., m j=1 x j = 1 x j 0, j = 1,..., n In the example, substituting from the payoff table gives the following particular linear program: Maximize z z 4x 1 x 2 x 3 z 2x 1 + 4x 2 2x 3 z 3x 1 3x 2 + 4x 3 x 1 + x 2 + x 3 = 1 x 1 0, x 2 0, x 3 0 Using a method for solving linear programs (which you will learn later) we find that the optimal solution is x 1 = 23/107, x 2 = 37/107, x 3 = 47/107, giving z = 8/107. Thus by randomly guessing one, two or three coins in the ratios 23:37:47, A can accumulate winnings at an average of no worse than 8/107 coins per round, regardless of the strategy (random or otherwise) that B adopts. It stands to reason that B should also play a random strategy. If y i is the probability that B plays i, then B s expected loss when A plays j is i=1 a ijy i. The prudent approach is to find a strategy that minimizes the maximum expected losses of B, over all possible moves by A: ] m [max j=1,...,n i=1 a ijy i Minimize i=1 y i = 1 y i 0, i = 1,..., m

7 Draft of August 26, 2005 A 101 To convert this to a linear program, we can define a new variable w to represent the maximum in the brackets. We observe that w max j=1,...,n i=1 m a ij y i m w a ij y i for all j = 1,..., n. i=1 from which it follows that the equivalent linear program is Minimize w w i=1 a ijy i, j = 1,..., n i=1 y i = 1 y i 0, i = 1,..., m For the example, this gives Minimize w w 4y 1 2y 2 3y 3 w y 1 + 4y 2 3y 3 w y 1 2y 2 + 4y 3 y 1 + y 2 + y 3 = 1 y 1 0, y 2 0, y 3 0 The solution to B s problem is y 1 = 42/107, y 2 = 35/107, y 3 = 30/107, giving w = 8/107. Thus by hiding one, two or three coins in the ratios 42:35:30, B can guarantee expected losses averaging at worst 8/107 coin per round, no matter what A does. This is the same amount as A s guaranteed expected winnings. Clearly if B hides coins with probabilities in the proportions 42:35:30 while A guesses with probabilities in the proportions 23:37:47, then both will do as well as possible. B will lose (and A will win) an average of 8/107 coin per round. This is a stable pair of strategies. It is possible to imagine a game in which the optimal value for A s linear program is strictly less than the optimal value for B s. Then there would be no stable pair of strategies as in our example. For two-person zero-sum games, however, it turns out that such an unstable situation can never occur. A certain fundamental property of linear programs (to be described later) implies that the maximum of z above always equals the minimum of w. Either both are zero in which case the game is fair or the two players can settle on strategies that guarantee the largest achievable expected winnings to one, and the smallest achievable expected losses for the other. 7.3 General max-min and min-max models The approach taken in the above two examples can be used with any similar max-min or min-max model. We conclude by summarizing the general principles. In a max-min problem, the objective is to maximize the minimum of several linear functions of the variables, subject to linear constraints. The general form

8 A 102 Optimization Models 7.3 is something like this: Maximize [min k=1,...,k j=1 f kjx j ] any linear constraints. The equivalent linear program is Maximize z z j=1 f kjx j, k = 1,..., K and the same other constraints. The variable z is not constrained to be nonnegative; indeed, in the game example above its optimal value was 1/9. The min-max problem is virtually the same, except that the roles of min and max are switched. The becomes in the corresponding linear program.

9 Draft of August 26, 2005 A Piecewise-Linear Formulations In another nearly-linear kind of model that can often be converted to a linear program, some linear terms like c j x j are replaced by piecewise-linear terms that are linear in stretches but that change slope abruptly at certain points. We show in this chapter how such models arise in applications to data fitting, network flows, and minimum-cost input, and to finding feasible solutions for linear inequalities. 8.1 Data fitting models A surprising variety of linear optimization models do not quite have all linear terms like c j x j in their objectives. Instead, some terms are linear almost everywhere, but change slopes at certain critical points. This chapter gives several examples of models that incorporate these piecewise linear terms, and explains how solutions may be found by transformations to purely linear programs. The full range of possible piecewise linear terms is broader than those shown in the examples. A brief discussion of piecewise linear programming in general is included at the end of this chapter. Problems in statistics, econometrics and many experimental fields involve fitting equations to data. Often they are linear equations, n? a ij x j = bi, i = 1,..., m, j=1 where the number of equations m is much greater than the number of variables n. In such a situation there is unlikely to be an exact solution; the idea is to find values for the variables x j that make the difference between j=1 a ijx j and b i small in some sense. As an example, you could have n pieces of experimental data on m patients in a medical experiment; a ij would represent the jth piece of data on the ith patient. Some of the data pieces would represent uncontrollable factors such as age, while others would indicate the levels of certain treatments that had been tried. The b i values might represent the degree of recovery after a certain period. If the equations could be satisfied exactly, then recovery could be predicted entirely from the data. In fact, a useful experiment must have many more patients than data pieces, and the equations can only be satisfied approximately. Even so, the approximate solution may provide some indication as to whether certain treatments have a measurable effect. In an economic study, there might be n series of indicators, each running for m months; a ij would be the value of the jth indicator in the ith months. The b i values would be some measure of the economy, such as gross national product, for which data is also measured by month. If an approximate solution to the equations can be found, then the x j values may provide strong clues to the effect of future economic policies on gross national product. All popular methods for finding an approximate solution rely on minimizing some measure of the closeness of approximation. Thus all involve solving some

10 A 104 Optimization Models 8.1 kind of optimization problem. The most widely used approach is to minimize the sum of squares of the deviations between j=1 a ijx j and b i : Minimize ( m n ) 2 i=1 j=1 a ijx j b i Clearly the minimum must be zero if the equations have an exact solution, and must be positive otherwise. It has long been known that the answer to this least squares problem can be found by simply forming and solving a related set of equations, which do have a solution. In statistics this is called the linear regression problem, and the x j values have numerous statistical properties. One potential drawback of the least squares approach is its sensitivity to outliers : equations that do not fit the pattern of most of the others, due to data errors or special factors not included in the data. Since j=1 a ijx j b i is squared in the objective, an outlier can give rise to a very large term that distorts the solution. To avoid this effect, we can consider minimizing the sum of absolute values instead of squares: Minimize i=1 n j=1 a ijx j b i. Again the minimum will be zero if the equations have an exact solution, and will be positive otherwise. This least absolute deviations problem cannot be reduced to solving some derived equations. However, it can be converted to a linear program. First, to make it look more like one, a variable s i can be defined to represent j=1 a ijx j b i, for each i = 1,..., m. Then the problem becomes Minimize i=1 s i n j=1 a ijx j b i = s i, i = 1,..., m The constraints, at least, are linear. However, the s i terms in the objective are not linear, as their graph shows clearly: s i This function is linear with slope 1 to the left of zero, but is linear with slope +1 to the right. It is a simple example of what is called a piecewise linear function. To convert this to a linear program, we rely on the observation that any number s i can be expressed as the difference of two nonnegative numbers: s i s i = s + i s i : s + i 0, s i 0.

11 Draft of August 26, 2005 A 105 For example, if s i is 10, then we can take s + i = 10 and s i = 0, or s + i = 26.3 and si = 16.3, or any of an infinite number of other combinations. If s i is 5, then we can take s + i = 0 and s i = 5, or perhaps s + i = 12.2 and s i = You can think of s + i and s i as the positive part and negative part of s i, respectively. In representing s i, the key property of s + i and s i is that s i s + i + s i, no matter how s + i and s i are chosen. Continuing the example, when s i = 10 = s i, if s + i = 10 and s i = 0 then s + i + s i = 10 = s i also. If instead s + i = 26.3 and s i = 16.3, however, then s + i + s i = 42.6 > s i. In the opposite case, when s i = 5 and thus s i = 5, if s + i = 0 and s i = 5 then s + i + s i = 5 = s i. If instead s + i = 12.2 and s i = 17.2, then s + i + s i = 29.4 > s i. These illustrations suggest that, for any value of s i, there is a way to write s i = s + i s i so that either s + i 0 and s i = 0 (if s i 0) or so that s + i = 0 and s i 0 (if s i 0). If the representation is chosen in this way, then s + i + s i will equal s i, whereas if some other representation is chosen then s + i + s i will be greater than s i. Suppose, then, that we substitute s + i s i for s i in the constraints of the least absolute deviations problem, and that we substitute s + i + s i for s i in the objective. We then get the following linear program: Minimize i=1 (s+ i + s i ) n j=1 a ijx j b i = s + i s i, i = 1,..., m s + i, s i 0, i = 1,..., m Could an optimal solution have both s + i > 0 and s i > 0 for some i? The answer is no; if both were positive, then both could be decreased by the same amount, to give another feasible solution with a lower objective value. Hence in an optimal solution either s + i = 0 or s i = 0 for every i = 1,..., m. It follows by our previous remarks that, if we take s i = s + i s i, then the term (s+ i + s i ) in the objective does represent s i, which is what we wanted to minimize. The variables x j in this model are not constrained to be nonnegative. However, you could add constraints x j 0 (or even x j 0) if appropriate, and the result would still be a linear program that you could solve. Indeed, you can add any linear equations or inequalities to a least absolute deviations problem, and the result is still a linear program. By comparison, the least squares problem does not accommodate additional constraints so readily. (It s also possible to consider minimizing the largest of the absolute deviations, instead of their sum: [ Minimize max ] n j=1 a ijx j b i i=1,...,m This objective tends to exaggerate the effect of outliers. It can also be solved as a linear program, by combining the ideas for min-max problems in Section 4 with some of the ideas above.)

12 A 106 Optimization Models Two-way flows Imagine that, in the network model of Section 3, there are arcs both from node i to node j and from node j to node i. Then it makes sense to think of s j i = x ij x ji as the net flow from i to j. When the net flow is positive then j is receiving s j i more units of material from i than it is sending. When the net flow is negative then i is receiving s j i more units of material from j than it is sending. It s reasonable to assume that the shipment costs are positive both ways; that is, both c ij > 0 and c ji > 0. Then it never makes sense to ship material in both directions; there is always a cheaper way that ships just the amount of the net flow in one direction or the other. For example, if x ij = 26.3 and x ji = 16.3, the net flow is s j i = 10. A less expensive solution to the constraints is achieved by just shipping x ij = 10 and x ji = 0. On the other hand, if x ij = 12.2 and x ji = 17.2 then the net flow is s j i = 5, and a less expensive solution is achieved by shipping x ij = 0 and x ji = 5. In terms of the net flow, the total cost of the most sensible shipments can be graphed as cost net flow This is just another piecewise linear function. Indeed, for the special case c ij = c ji = 1, it is the same as the absolute value function above. The pair of flows x ij and x ji play the same role as s + i and s i in the data fitting model; they allow the net flow to be decomposed into the difference of two nonnegative flows, so that the network model can be solved as a linear program. In an optimal solution, at least one of them must be zero. This example shows how piecewise linear terms may can be implicit in certain kinds of objective functions. The presence of arcs running both ways between two nodes turns out to be just a way of representing piecewise linear costs on the net flow between these nodes. Similar situations arise in other models that involve reversible activities. As an example, some multiperiod models provide for both inventories (which meet demands in future periods) and backorders (which carry over demand from previous periods). In any optimal solution, at least one of them must be zero for each period; they can be viewed as a representation of a single quantity, the net inventory, that can be either positive or negative and that is subject to a piecewise linear cost.

13 Draft of August 26, 2005 A An input model with increasing costs The minimum-cost input model of Section 1 assumed that up to u j units of input j were all available at the same cost c j. Sometimes it is more realistic to specify that a certain amount is available at a low cost, some more is available at a higher cost, still more is available at an even higher cost, and so forth. For example, if labor is an input, then only so much may be available at regular wages, but more may be available at higher overtime rates. Suppose, as an illustration, that there are three cost levels for each input j. You can buy amounts u 1 j, u2 j and u3 j at costs c1 j, c2 j and c3 j, respectively. Since you naturally buy first at the lowest cost, then at the middle and then at the highest, the total cost f j (x j ) can be plotted as follows: f j x j x j u j 1 u j 1 +u j 2 u j 1 +u j 2 +u j 3 This is again a piecewise linear function. The entire input model becomes Minimize j=1 f j(x j ) j=1 a ijx j b i, i = 1,..., m 0 x j u 1 j + u2 j + u3 j, j = 1,..., n Again, we seek a way to transform the problem so that the objective is linear. The idea is to define a separate variable for each combination of input and cost level. In the example of 3 cost levels, the variables would be x 1 j, x2 j and x 3 j. They would have upper bounds u1 j, u2 j and u3 j, and would contribute terms c 1 j x1 j, c2 j x2 j and c3 j x3 j to the objective. The resulting linear program would be Minimize j=1 (c1 j x1 j + c2 j x2 j + c3 j x3 j ) j=1 a ij(x 1 j + x2 j + x3 j ) b i, i = 1,..., m 0 x 1 j u1 j, 0 x 2 j u2 j, 0 x 3 j u3 j, j = 1,..., n As in previous examples, it is necessary to confirm that solutions to this linear program are always sensible for the original (piecewise linear) objective function. Specifically, we must ask: Could it happen that, in an optimal solution, you buy some units of input j at price level 2 or 3, but you don t buy all of the

14 A 108 Optimization Models 8.4 u 1 j units available at price level 1? The answer is no; if you had found such a solution, you could switch some of the purchases from level 2 or 3 to level 1 and further reduce the objective, while still satisfying the constraints. More generally, the minimum cannot have x 2 j > 0 unless x1 j = u1 j, and cannot have x3 j > 0 unless x 1 j = u1 j and x2 j = u2 j. This property guarantees that we get the same result solving the linear program as we should get by minimizing the original piecewise linear objective. To state the problem more generally, let α j 1 represent the number of price levels for input j. Define a ij and b i as in Section 1, and c k j cost per unit of input j at level k, for j = 1,..., n and k = 1,..., α j u k j maximum units of input j that can be purchased at level k, for j = 1,..., n and k = 1,..., α j Cost levels are assumed to be progressively increasing; that is, c k j ck+1 j for all j = 1,..., n and k = 1,..., α j 1. Then the variables are x k j units input input j actually purchased at level k, for j = 1,..., n and k = 1,..., α j and the formulation of the linear program is ( n αj ) Minimize j=1 k=1 ck j xk j ( n j=1 a αj ) ij b i, k=1 xk j i = 1,..., m 0 x k j uk j, j = 1,..., n; k = 1,..., α j The number of demand constraints stays the same as in the ordinary input model, but the number of variables expands to j=1 α j, which is the total number of cost levels for all inputs. There are also circumstances under which cost levels decrease, due to volume discounts or economies of scale. Using the above notation, we have c k j > c k+1 j for some j and k; the total cost f j (x j ) is still piecewise linear, but its graph might look like one of the following: f j x j f j x j x j x j In a word, the cost function is no longer convex. In such a case there is no equivalent linear program like the one above; there is no way to set up a linear

15 Draft of August 26, 2005 A 109 objective so that more expensive inputs will be used up before cheaper ones. It may still be possible to solve the nonconvex model, but it will be substantially harder. 8.4 Finding a feasible solution Suppose that you want to find nonnegative values of some variables to satisfy some linear equations. For example, you want to solve j=1 a ijx j = b i, i = 1,..., m x j 0, j = 1,..., n The equations alone are easy enough to solve, by methods you have learned in studying linear algebra. However, the standard methods cannot guarantee a nonnegative solution, or determine that no nonnegative solution exists. One approach to finding a nonnegative solution often referred to as a feasible solution is to convert the problem to one of optimization. The trick is to maximize the sum of all the variables that are negative, subject to the equations being satisfied: Maximize j:x j <0 x j j=1 a ijx j = b i, i = 1,..., m For all feasible solutions to the equations, the objective function must be zero (since there are no negative variables to sum). For all solutions that are not feasible, however, the objective takes some negative value. Suppose that you have a method for finding values xj that achieve the maximum in this optimization problem. The maximum cannot be positive, since the objective value is never positive. Thus there are two cases. If the maximum is zero, then x j is a feasible solution as required. If the maximum is negative, then no feasible solutions can exist (since a feasible solution would have an objective value of zero, which would be greater than the maximum). As a clue to how the maximum might be found, the objective can be rewritten as a sum of n terms: { n 1 if xj < 0 x j = f j x j where f j = 0 if x j 0 j:x j <0 j=1 From this viewpoint, it s clear that each term in the objective is a piecewise linear function of x j : x j f j x j

16 A 110 Optimization Models 8.5 In this case the objective is to maximize a sum of terms that are concave (the slopes are decreasing from left to right), whereas the previous examples minimized terms that were convex. An equivalent linear program could be devised. However, it turns out that there is a more efficient approach to maximizing the sum of infeasibilities, which will be discussed in a later section. It is closely related to the method most often used for solving linear programs. 8.5 Piecewise linear programming You have seen that certain kinds of models involving piecewise linear objectives can be handled by applying the ideas of linear programming. In general, models that have this property can be written as Minimize j=1 f j(x j ) any linear constraints where each f j is a convex piecewise linear function of x j. Each f j is defined by a sequence of breakpoints, between which it is linear with some slopes; several examples have appeared in the graphs above. For f j to be convex, it is necessary and sufficient to require that the slopes are nondecreasing as x j increases. The same observations apply for maximization, except that the functions f j must be concave: the slopes must be nonincreasing as x j increases. We have presented some ideas for transforming piecewise linear programs of this kind to equivalent linear programs. There are also quite a few other approaches not mentioned here. An an alternative, it is possible to modify the methods for solving linear programs so that they can solve piecewise linear programs as well. However, all of these ideas are based on minimizing a nonconvex function (or maximizing a non-concave one); other cases are generally much harder.

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