# LINEAR PROGRAMMING. Vazirani Chapter 12 Introduction to LP-Duality. George Alexandridis(NTUA)

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1 LINEAR PROGRAMMING Vazirani Chapter 12 Introduction to LP-Duality George Alexandridis(NTUA) 1

2 LINEAR PROGRAMMING What is it? A tool for optimal allocation of scarce resources, among a number of competing activities. Powerful and general problem-solving method that encompasses: shortest path, network flow, MST, matching Ax = b, 2-person zero sum games Definition Linear Programming is the problem of optimizing (i.eminimizing or maximizing) a linear function subject to linear inequality constraints. The function being optimized is called the objective function Example minimize 7x 1 + x 2 + 5x 3 (the objective function) subject to (the constraints) x 1 -x 2 + 3x x 1 + 2x 2-5x 3 6 x 1, x 2, x 3 0 Any setting for the variables in this linear program that satisfies all the constraints is said to be a feasible solution 2

3 History 1939, Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich Soviet Mathematician and Economist He came up with the technique of Linear Programming after having been assigned to the task of optimizing production in a plywood industry He was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1975 for contributions to the theory of the optimum allocation of resources 1947, George Bernard Dantzig American Mathematician He developed the simplex algorithm for solving linear programming problems One of the first LPs to be solved by hand using the simplex method was the Berlin Airlift linear program 1947, John von Neumann Developed the theory of Linear Programming Duality 1979, Leonid Genrikhovich Khachiyan Armenian Mathematician Developed the Ellipsoid Algorithm, which was the first to solve LP in polynomial time 1984, Narendra K. Karmarkar Indian Mathematician Developed the Karmarkar Algorithm, which also solves LP in polynomial time 3

4 Applications Telecommunication Network design, Internet routing Computer science Compiler register allocation, data mining. Electrical engineering VLSI design, optimal clocking. Energy Blending petroleum products. Economics. Equilibrium theory, two-person zero-sum games. Logistics Supply-chain management. 4

5 Example: Profit maximization Dasgupta-Papadimitriou-Vazirani: Algorithms, Chapter 7 A boutique chocolatierproduces two types of chocolate: Pyramide(\$1 profit apiece) and PyramideNuit(\$6 profit apiece). How much of each should it produce to maximize profit, given the fact that The daily demand for these chocolates is limited to at most 200 boxes of Pyramideand 300 boxes of PyramideNuit The current workforce can produce a total of at most 400 boxes of chocolate Let s assume that the current daily production is x 1 boxes of Pyramide x 2 boxes of PyramideNuit 5

6 Profit Maximization as a Linear Objective Function max x 1 + 6x 2 Constraints x x x 1 + x x 1, x 2 0 Program 6

7 The simplex algorithm Let vbe any vertex of the feasible region While there is a neighbor v of v with better objective value: Set v= v This localtest implies global optimality 7

8 Introduction to Duality Simplexoutputs (x 1, x 2 ) = (100, 300) as the optimum solution, with an objective value of Can this answer be verified? Multiply the second inequality by six and add it to the first inequality x 1 + 6x The objective function cannot have a value of more than 2000! An even lower bound can be achieved if the second inequality is multiplied by 5 and then added to the third x 1 + 6x Therefore, the multipliers (0, 5, 1) constitute a certificate of optimality for our solution! Do such certificates exist for other LP programs as well? If they do, is there any systematic way of obtaining them? 8

9 The Dual Let s define the multipliers y 1, y 2, y 3 for the three constraints of our problem They must be non-negative in order to maintain the direction of the inequalities After the multiplication and the addition steps, the following bound is obtained (y 1 + y 3 )x1 + (y 2 + y 3 )x 2 200y y y 3 The left hand-side of the inequality must resemble the objective function. Therefore x1 + 6x 2 200y y y 3, if y 1, y 2, y 3 0 y 1 + y 3 1 y 2 + y 3 6 Finding the set of multipliers that give the best upper bound on the original LP is equivalent to solving a new LP! min 200y y y 3, subject to y 1, y 2, y 3 0 y 1 + y 3 1 y 2 + y 3 6 9

10 Primal Dual Any feasible value of this duallp is an upper bound on the original primallp (the reverse also holds) If a pair of primal and dual feasible values are equal, then they are both optimal In our example both (x 1, x 2 ) = (100, 300) and (y 1, y 2, y 3 ) = (0, 5, 1) have value 1900 and therefore certify each other s optimality 10

11 Formal Definition of the Primal and Dual Problem Here, the primal problem is a minimization problem. 11

12 LP Duality Theorem The LP-duality is a min-max relation Corollary 1 LP is well characterized Corollary 2 LP is in NP co-np Feasible solutions to the primal (dual) provide Yes (No) certificates to the question: Is the optimum value less than or equal to α? 12

13 Weak Duality Theorem LP Duality Theorem The basis of several Exact Algorithms Weak Duality Theorem Approximation Algorithms 13

14 Complementary Slackness Conditions 14

15 MAX FLOW as LP: Primal Problem Introduce a fictitious arc from sink tto source s: f ts flow is now converted to circulation maximize flow on this arc The second set of inequalities implies flow conservation at each node If this inequality holds at each node, then, in fact, it must be replaced by an equality at each node This tricky notation is used so as to have a LP in standard form 15

16 MAX FLOW as LP: Dual Problem The variables d ij and p i correspond to the two types of inequalities in the primal d ij : distance labels on arcs p i : potentials on nodes 16

17 MAX FLOW as LP: Transformation of the Dual to an Integer Program The integer program seeks 0/1 solutions If (d *,p * )is an optimal solution to IP, then the 2 nd inequality is satisfied only if p s* = 1 and p t* = 0, thus defining an s-t cut Sis the set of potential 1nodes and V / S the set of potential 0nodes If the nodes of an arc belong to the different sets ( ), then by the first inequality d ij* = 1 The distance label for each of the remaining arcs may be set to 0 or 1 without violation of the constraint it will be set to 0 in order to minimize the objective function Therefore the objective function will be equal to the capacity of the cut, thus defining a minimum s-t cut 17

18 MAX FLOW as LP: LP-relaxation The previous IP is a formulation of the minimum s-t cut problem! The dual program may be seen as a relaxation of the IP the integrality constraint is dropped 1 d ij 0, for every arc of the graph 1 p i 0, for every node of the graph the upper bound constraints on the variables are redundant Their omission cannot give a better solution The dual program is said to be an LP-Relaxationof the IP Any feasible solution to the dual problem is considered to be a fractional s-t cut Indeed, the distance labels on any s-t path add up to at least 1 The capacityof the fractional s-tcut is then defined to be the dual objective function value achieved by it 18

19 The max-flow min-cut theorem as a special case of LP-Duality A polyhedron defines the set of feasible solutions to the dual program A feasible solution is set to be an extreme point solution if it is a vertex of the polyhedron It cannot be expressed as a convex combination of two feasible solutions LP theory: there is an extreme point solution that is optimal It can be further proven that each extreme point solution of the polyhedron is integral with each coordinate being 0 or 1 The dual problem has always an integral optimal solution By the LP duality theory, maximum flow in G must equal the capacity of a minimum fractional s-t cut Since the latter equals the capacity of a minimum s-t cut, we get the max-flow min-cut theorem 19

20 Another consequence of the LP- Duality Theorem: The Farkas Lemma Ax = b, x 0 has a solution iffthere is no vector y 0 sa sfying A T y 0 and b T y> 0 Primal: min 0 T x Ax = b x 0 Dual: max b T y A T y 0 y 0 If the primal is feasible, it has an optimal point of cost 0 y = 0 is feasible in the dual and therefore it is either unbounded or has an optimal point First direction If Ax = b has an non-negative solution, then the primal is feasible and its optimal cost is 0. Therefore, the dual s optimal cost is 0 and there can be no vector y satisfying the dual s first constraint and b T y> 0 Second direction If there is no vector y satisfying A T y 0 and b T y> 0,then the dual is not unbounded. It has an optimal point. As a consequence the primal has an optimal point and therefore it is feasible 20

21 LP Duality in 2-person zero sum games m t e 3-1 s -2 1 Non-symmetric game In this scenario, if Row announces a strategy x = (x 1, x 2 ),there is always a pure strategy that is optimal for Column m, with payoff 3x 1 2x 2 t, with payoff x 1 + x 2 Any mixed strategy yfor Column is a weighted average of the abovementioned pure strategy and therefore it cannot be better of them If Row is forced to announce her strategy, she wants to defensively pick an x that would maximize her payoff against Column s best response Pick (x1, x2) that maximizes the min{3x 1 2x 2, x 1 + x 2 }(which is the payoff from Column s best response to x 21

22 LP of the 2-person zero sum game If Row, announces her strategy first, she needs to pick x 1 and x 2 so that z= min{3x 1 2x 2, x 1 + x 2 } max z z 3x 1 2x 2 z x 1 + x 2 In LP form max z x 1 2x 2 + z 0 x 1 x 2 + z 0 x 1 + x 2 = 1 x 1, x 2 0 If Column, announces his strategy first, he needs to pick y 1 and y 2 so that w= max{3y 1 y 2, 2y 1 + y 2 } min w w 3y 1 y 2 w 2y 1 + y 2 In LP form min w 3y 1 y 2 + w 0-2y 1 + y 2 + w 0 y 1 + y 2 = 1 y 1, y 2 0 These two LPs are dual to each other They have the same optimum V 22

23 The min-max theorem of game theory By solving an LP, the maximizer(row) can determine a strategy for herself that guarantees an expected outcome of at least V no matter what Column does The minimizer, by solving the dual LP, can guarantee an expected outcome of at most V, no matter what Row does This is the uniquely defined optimal play and Vis the value of the game It wasn t a priori certain that such a play existed This example cat be generalized to arbitrary games It proves the existence of mixed strategies that are optimal for both players Both players achieve the same value V This is the min-max theoremof game theory 23

24 Linear Programming in Approximation Algorithms Many combinatorial optimization problems can be stated as integer problems The linear relaxation of this program then provides a lower bound on the cost of the optimal solution In NP-hard problems, the polyhedron defining the optimal solution does not have integer vertices In that case a near-optimal solution is sought Two basic techniques for obtaining approximation algorithms using LP LP-rounding Primal-Dual Schema LP-duality theory has been used in combinatoriallyobtained approximation algorithms Method of dual fitting (Chapter 13) 24

25 LP-Rounding and Primal-Dual Schema LP-Rounding Solve the LP Convert the fractional solution obtained into an integral solution Ensuring in the process that the cost does not increase much Primal-Dual Schema Use the dual of the LP-relaxation (in which case becomes the primal) in the design of the algorithm An integral solution to the primal and a feasible solution to the duela are constructed iteratively Any feasible solution to the dual provides a lower bound for OPT These techniques are illustrated in the case of SET COVER, in Chapter 14 and 15 of the book 25

26 The integrality gap of an LP-relaxation Given an LP-relaxation of a minimizationproblem Π, let OPT f (I)be the optimal fractional solution to instance I The integrality gap is then defined to be The supremumof the ratio of the optimal integral and fractional solutions In case of a maximization problem, it would have been the infimum of this ratio If the cost of the solution found by the algorithm is compared directly with the cost of an optimal fractional solution, then the best approximation factor is the integrality gap of the relaxation 26

27 Running times of the two techniques LP-rounding needs to find an optimal solution to the linear programming relaxation LP is in P and therefore this can be done in polynomial time if the relaxation has polynomially many constraints. Even if the relaxation has exponentially many constraints, it may still be solved in polynomial time if a polynomial time separation oracle can be constructed A polynomial time algorithm that given a point in R n (n: the number of variables in the relaxation) either confirms that it is a feasible solution or outputs a violated constraint. The primal-dual schema may exploit the special combinatorial structure of individual problems and is able to yield algorithms having good running times Once a basic problem is solved, variants and generalizations of the basic problem can be solved too 27

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