1 Linear Programming. 1.1 Introduction. Problem description: motivate by min-cost flow. bit of history. everything is LP. NP and conp. P breakthrough.

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1 1 Linear Programming 1.1 Introduction Problem description: motivate by min-cost flow bit of history everything is LP NP and conp. P breakthrough. general form: variables constraints: linear equalities and inequalities x feasible if satisfies all constraints LP feasible if some feasible x x optimal if optimizes objective over feasible x LP is unbounded if have feasible x of arbitrary good objective value lemma: every lp is infeasible, has opt, or is unbounded (by compactness of R n and fact that polytopes are closed sets). Problem formulation: canonical form: min c T x, Ax b matrix representation, componentwise rows a i of A are constraints c is objective any LP has transformation to canonical: max/min objectives same move vars to left, consts to right negate to flip for replace = by two and constraints standard form: min c T x, Ax = b, x 0 slack variables splitting positive and negative parts x x + x Ax b often nicer for theory; Ax = b good for implementations. 1

2 point A. 20 minutes. Some steps towards efficient solution: What does answer look like? Can it be represented effectively? Easy to verify it is correct? Is there a small proof of no answer? Can answer, nonanswer be found efficiently? 1.2 Linear Equalities How solve? First review systems of linear equalities. Ax = b. when have solution? baby case: A is squre matrix with unique solution. solve using, eg, Gaussian elimination. discuss polynomiality, integer arithmetic later equivalent statements: A invertible A T invertible det(a) 0 A has linearly independent rows A has linearly independent columns Ax = b has unique solution for every b Ax = b has unique solution for some b. What if A isn t square? Ax = b has a witness for true: give x. How about a proof that there is no solution? note that Ax = b means columns of A span b. in general, set of points {Ax x R n } is a subspace claim: no solution iff for some y, ya = 0 but yb 0. proof: if Ax = b, then ya = 0 means yb = yax = 0. if no Ax = b, means columns of A don t span b set of points {Ax} is subspace not containing b 2

3 find part of b perpendicular to subspace, call it y then yb 0, but ya = 0, standard form LP asks for linear combo to, but requires that all coefficients of combo be nonnegative! Algorithmic? Solution means columns of A span b Use Gram-Schmidt to reduce A to maximum set of independent columns Now maybe more rows (n) than columns (m)? But certainly, first m rows of A span first m rows of b Solve square Ax = b problem We know solution is unique if exists So must be only solution for all m rows either works or doesn t. To talk formally about polynomial size/time, need to talk about size of problems. number n has size log n rational p/q has size size(p)+size(q) size(product) is sum(sizes). dimension n vector has size n plus size of number m n matrix similar: mn plus sizeof numbers size (matrix product) at most sum of matrix sizes our goal: polynomial time in size of input, measured this way Claim: if A is n n matrix, then det(a) is poly in size of A more precisely, twice the size proof by writing determinant as sum of permutation products. each product has size n times size of numbers n! products so size at most size of (n! times product) n log n + n size(largest entry). Corollary: inverse of matrix is poly size (write in terms of cofactors) solution to Ax = b is poly size (by inversion) 3

4 1.3 Geometry Polyhedra canonical form: Ax b is an intersection of (finitely many) halfspaces, a polyhedron standard form: Ax = b is an intersection of hyperplanes (thus a subspace), then x 0 intersects in some halfspace. Also a polyhedron, but not full dimensional. polyhedron is bounded if fits inside some box. either formulation defines a convex set: if x, y P, so is λx + (1 λ)y for λ 0, 1. that is, line from x to y stays in P. halfspaces define convex sets. Converse also true! let C be any convex set, z / C. then there is some a, b such that ax b for x C, but az < b. proof by picture. also true in higher dimensions (don t bother proving) deduce: every convex set is the intersection of the halfspaces containing it. 1.4 Basic Feasible Solutions Again, let s start by thinking about structure of optimal solution. Can optimum be in middle of polyhedron? Not really: if can move in all directions, can move to improve opt. Where can optimum be? At corners. vertex is point that is not a convex combination of two others extreme point is point that is unique optimum in some direction Basic solutions: A constraint ax b or ax = b is tight or active if ax = b for n-dim LP, point is basic if (i) all equality constraints are tight and (ii) n linearly independent constraints are tight. in other words, x is at intersection of boundaries of n linearly independent constraints 4

5 note x is therefore the unique intersection of these boundaries. a basic feasible solution is a solution that is basic and satisfies all constraints. In fact, vertex, extreme point, bfs are equivalent. Proof left somewhat to reader. Any standard form lp min cx, Ax = b, x 0 with opt has one at a BFS. Suppose opt x is not at BFS Then less than n tight constraints So at least one degree of freedom i.e, there is a (linear) subspace on which all those constraints are tight. In particular, some line through x for which all these constraints are tight. Write as x + ɛd for some vector direction d Since x is feasible and other constraints not tight, x + ɛd is feasible for small enough ɛ. Consider moving along line. Objective value is cx + ɛcd. So for either positive or negative ɛ, objective is nonincreasing, i.e. doesn t get worse. Since started at opt, must be no change at all i.e., cd = 0. So can move in either direction. In at least one direction, some x i is decreasing. Keep going till new constraint becomes tight (some x i = 0). Argument can be repeated until n tight constraints, i.e. bfs Conclude: every standard form LP with an optimum has one at a bfs. Note convenience of using standard form: ensures bounded, so can reach bfs canonical form has oddities: e.g. max y y 1. but any bounded, feasible LP has BFS optimum Other characterizations of corner: vertex is point that is not a convex combination of two others extreme point is point that is unique optimum in some direction 5

6 Previous proof shows extreme point is BFS (because if cannot move to any other opt, must have n tight constraints). Also shows BFS is vertex: if point is convex combo (not vertex), consider line through it all points on it feasible so don t have n tight constraints conversely, if less than n tight constraints, they define feasible subspace containing line through point so point is convex combo of points on line. To show BFS is extreme point, show point is unique opt for objective that is sum of normals to tight constraints. Yields first algorithm for LP: try all bfs. How many are there? just choose n tight constraints out of m, check feasibility and objective Upper bound ( ) m n Also shows output is polynomial size: Let A and correspoinding b be n tight constraints (rows) at opt Then opt is (unique) solution to A x = b We saw last time that such an inverse is represented in polynomial size in input (So, at least weakly polynomial algorithms seem possible) Corollary: Actually showed, if x feasible, exists BFS with no worse objective. Note that in canconical form, might not have opt at vertex (optimize x 1 over (x 1, x 2 ) such that 0 x 1 1). But this only happens if LP is unbounded In particular, if opt is unique, it is a bfs. OK, this is an exponential method for finding the optimum. Maybe we can do better if we just try to verify the optimum. Let s look for a way to prove that a given solution x is optimal. Quest for nonexponential algorithm: start at an easier place: how decide if a solution is optimal? decision version of LP: is there a solution with opt> k? this is in NP, since can exhibit a solution (we showed poly size output) is it in conp? Ie, can we prove there is no solution with opt> k? (this would give an optimality test) 6

7 2 Duality What about optimality? Intro duality, strongest result of LP give proof of optimality gives max-flow mincut, prices for mincost flow, game theory, lots other stuff. Motivation: find a lower bound on z = min{cx Ax = b, x 0}. Standard approach: try adding up combos of existing equations try multiplying a i x = b i by some y i. Get yax = yb If find y s.t. ya = c, then yb = yax = cx and we know opt (we inverted Ax = b) looser: if require ya c, then yb = yax cx is lower bound since x j 0 so to get best lower bound, want to solve w = max{yb ya c}. this is a new linear program, dual of original. just saw that dual is less than primal (weak duality) Note: dual of dual is primal: max{yb : ya c} = max{by A T y c} = min{ by A T y + Is = c, s 0} = min{ by + + by A T y + ( A T )y + Is = c, y +, y, s 0} = max{cz za T b, z( A T ) b, Iz 0} = min{cx Ax = b, x 0} (x = z) Weak duality: if P (min, opt z) and D (max, opt w) feasible, z w w = yb and z = cx for some primal/dual feasible y, x x primal feasible (Ax = b, x 0) y dual feasible (ya c) then yb = yax cx Note corollary: (restatement:) if P, D both feasible, then both bounded. if P feasible and unbounded, D not feasible if P feasible, D either infeasible or bounded 7

8 in fact, only 4 possibilities. both feasible, both infeasible, or one infeasible and one unbounded. notation: P unbounded means D infeasible; write solution. D unbounded means P infeasilbe, write solution. 3 Strong Duality Strong duality: if P or D is feasible then z = w includes D infeasible via w = ) Proof by picture: min{yb ya c} (note: flipped sign) suppose b points straight up. imagine ball that falls down (minimize height) stops at opt y (no local minima) stops because in physical equilibrium equilibrium exterted by forces normal to floors that is, aligned with the A i (columns) but those floors need to cancel gravity b thus b = A i x i for some nonnegative force coeffs x i. in other words, x feasible for min{cx Ax = b, x 0} also, only floors touching ball can exert any force on it thus, x i = 0 if ya i > c i that is, (c i ya i )x i = 0 thus, cx = (ya i )x i = yb so x is dual optimal. Let s formalize. Consider optimum y WLOG, ignore all loose constraints (won t need them) And if any are redundant, drop them So at most n tight constraints remain 8

9 and all linearly independent. and since those constraints are tight, ya = c Claim: Exists x, Ax = b Suppose not? Then duality for linear equalities proves exists z, za = 0 but zb <> 0. WLOG zb < 0 (else negate it) So consider y + z. A(y + z) = Ay + Az = Ay, so feasible b(y + z) = by + bz < by, so better than opt! Contra. Claim: yb = cx Just said Ax = b in dual In primal, all (remaining) constraints are tight, so ya = c So yb = yax = cx Claim: x 0 Suppose not. Then some x i < 0 Let c = c + e i In other words, moving i th constraint ya i c i upwards Consider solution to y A = c Exists solution (since A is full rank) And c c, so y A = c is feasible for original constraints ya c Value of objective is y b = y Ax = c x We assumed x i < 0, and increased c i So c x < cx So got better value than opt. Contradiction! Intuition: x i is telling us how much opt will change if we tighten i th constraint Neat corollary: Feasibility or optimality: which harder? given optimizer, can check feasiblity by optimizing arbitrary func. Given feasibility algorithm, can optimize by combining primal and dual. Interesting note: knowing dual solution may be useless for finding optimum (more formally: if your alg runs in time T to find primal solution given dual, can adapt to alg that runs in time O(T ) to solve primal without dual). 9

10 3.1 Rules for duals General dual formulation: primal is A 11 x 1 + A 12 x 2 + A 13 x 3 = b 1 A 21 x 1 + A 22 x 2 + A 23 x 3 b 2 A 31 x 1 + A 32 x 2 + A 33 x 3 b 3 x 1 0 z = min c 1 x 1 + c 2 x 2 + c 3 x 3 x 2 0 x 3 (UIS emphasizes unrestricted in sign) means dual is y 1 A 11 + y 2 A 21 + y 3 A 31 c 1 y 1 A 12 + y 2 A 22 + y 3 A 32 c 2 UIS y 1 A 13 + y 2 A 23 + y 3 A 33 = c 3 y 1 UIS y 2 0 w = max y 1 b 1 + y 2 b 2 + y 3 b 3 y 3 0 In general, variable corresponds to constraint (and vice versa): Derivation: PRIMAL minimize maximize DUAL b i 0 constraints b i 0 variables = b i free 0 c j variables 0 c j constraints free = c j remember lower bounding plan: use yb = yax cx relation. If constraint is in natural direction, dual variable is positive. We saw A 11 and x 1 case. x 1 0 ensured yax 1 c 1 x 1 for any y 10

11 If some x 2 0 constraint, we want ya 12 c 2 to maintain rule that y 1 A 12 x 2 c 2 x 2 If x 3 unconstrained, we are only safe if ya 13 = c 3. if instead have A 21 x 1 b 2, any old y won t do for lower bound via c 1 x 1 y 2 A 21 x 1 y 2 b 2. Only works if y 2 0. and so on (good exercise). This gives weak duality derivation. Easiest way to derive strong duality is to transform to standard form, take dual and map back to original problem dual (also good exercise). Note: tighter the primal, looser the dual (equality constraint leads to unrestricted var) adding primal constraints creates a new dual variable: more dual flexibility 3.2 Shortest Paths A dual example: shortest path is a dual (max) problem: w = max d t d s d j d i c ij constraints matrix A has ij rows, i columns, ±1 entries (draw) what is primal? unconstrained vars, give equality constraints, dual upper bounds mean vars must be positive. z = min y ij c ij y ij 0 thus y ji y ij = 1(i = s), 1(i = t), 0 ow j It s the minimum cost to send one unit of flow from s to t! 11

12 4 Complementary Slackness Leads to another idea: complementary slackness: given feasible solutions x and y, cx yb 0 is duality gap. optimal iff gap 0 (good way to measure how far off Go back to original primal and dual forms rewrite dual: ya + s = c for some s 0 (that is, s j = c j ya j ) The following are equivalent for feasible x, y: x and y are optimal sx = 0 x j s j = 0 for all j s j > 0 implies x j = 0 We saw this in duality analysis: only tight constraints push on opt, giving nonzero dual variables. proof: cx = by iff (ya + s)x = y(ax), iff sx = 0 if sx = 0, then since s, x 0 have s j x j = 0 (converse easy) so s j > 0 forces x j = 0 (converse easy) basic idea: opt cannot have a variable x j and corresponding dual constraint s j slack at same time: one must be tight. Generalize to arbitrary form LPs: feasible points optimal if: y i (a i x b i ) = 0 i (c j ya j )x j = 0 j proof: note in definition of dual, constraint in primal (min) corresponds to nonnegative y i. thus, feasiblity means y i (a i x b i ) 0. similarly, constraint in dual corresponds to nonnegative x j in primal so feasibility means (c j ya j )x j 0. 12

13 Also, yi (a i x b i ) + (c j ya j )x j = yax yb + cx yax = cx yb = 0 at opt. But since just argued all terms are nonnegative, all must be 0 conversely, if all are 0, then cx = by, so we are optimal Let s take some duals. Max-Flow min-cut theorem: modify to circulation to simplify primal problem: create infinite capacity (t, s) arc P = max w x vw x wv = 0 w x vw u vw x vw 0 x ts dual problem: vars z v dual to balance constraints, y vw dual to capacity constraints. Think of y vw as lengths D = min vw y vw 0 z v z w + y vw 0 z t z s + y ts 1 y vw u vw note y ts = 0 since otherwise dual infinite. so z t z s 1. rewrite as z w z v + y vw. deduce y vw are edge lengths, z v are distances In particular, can substract z s from everything without changing feasibility (subs cancel) Now z v is upper bound on distance from source to v. So, are trying to maximize source-sink distance 13

14 Good justification for shortest aug path, blocking flows sanity check: mincut: assign length 1 to each mincut edge unfortunately, might have noninteger dual optimum. let S = v z v < 1 (so s S, t / S) use complementary slackness: if (v, w) leaves S, then y vw z w z v > 0, so x vw = u vw, (tight) i.e. (v, w) saturated. if (v, w) enters S, then z v > z w. Also know y vw 0; add equations and get z v + y vw > z w i.e. slack. so x wv = 0 in other words: all leaving edges saturated, all coming edges empty. now just observe that value of flow equals value crossing cut equals value of cut. Min cost circulation: change the objective function associated with max-flow. primal: z = min c vw x vw x vw x wv = 0 w x vw u vw x vw 0 as before, dual: variable y vw for capacity constraint on f vw, z v for balance. Change to primal min problem flips sign constraint on y vw What does change in primal objective mean for dual? Different constraint bounds! z v z w + y vw c vw y vw 0 z v max y vw u vw UIS rewrite dual: p v = z v y vw 0 max yvwuvw y vw c vw + p v p w = c (p) vw 14

15 Note: y vw 0 says the objective function is the sum of the negative parts of the reduced costs (positive ones get truncated to 0) Note: optimum 0 since of course can set y = 0. Since since zero circulation is primal feasible. complementary slackness. Suppose f vw < u vw. Then dual variable y vw = 0 So c (p) ij 0 Thus c (p) ij < 0 implies f ij = u ij that is, all negative reduced cost arcs saturated. on the other hand, suppose c (p) ij > 0 then constraint on z ij is slack so f ij = 0 that is, all positive reduced arcs are empty. 5 Algorithms 5.1 Simplex vertices in standard form/bases: Without loss of generality make A have full row rank (define): find basis in rows of A, say a 1,..., a k any other a l is linear combo of those. so a l x = λ i a i x so better have b l = λ i a i if any solution. if so, anything feasible for a 1,..., a l feasible for all. m constraints Ax = b all tight/active given this, need n m of the x i 0 constraints also, need them to form a basis with the a i. write matrix of tight constraints, first m rows then identity matrix need linearly independent rows equiv, need linearly independent columns but columns are linearly independent iff m columns of A including all corresp to nonzero x are linearly independent 15

16 gives other way to define a vertex: x is vertex if Ax = b m linearly independent columns of A include all x j 0 This set of m columns is called a basis. x j of columns called basic set B, others nonbasic set N given bases, can compute x: A B is basis columns, m m and full rank. solve A B x B = b, set other x N = 0. note can have many bases for same vertex (choice of 0 x j ) Summary: x is vertex of P if for some basis B, x N = 0 A B nonsingular A 1 B b 0 Simplex method: start with a basic feasible soluion try to improve it rewrite LP: min c B x B + c N x N, A B x B + A N x N = b, x 0 B is basis for bfs since A B x B = b A N x N, so x B = A 1 B (b A N x N ), know that cx = c B x B + c N x N = c B A 1 B (b A Nx N ) + c N x N = c B A 1 B b + (c N c B A 1 B A N )x N reduced cost c N = c N c B A 1 B A N if no c j < 0, then increasing any x j increases cost (may violate feasiblity for x B, but who cares?), so are at optimum! if some c j < 0, can increase x j to decrease cost but since x B is func of x N, will have to stop when x B hits a constraint. this happens when some x i, i B hits 0. 16

17 we bring j into basis, take i out of basis. Notes: we ve moved to an adjacent basis. called a pivot show picture Need initial vertex. How find? maybe some x i B already 0, so can t increase x j, just pivot to same obj function. could lead to cycle in pivoting, infinite loop. can prove exist noncycling pivots (eg, lexicographically first j and i) no known pivot better than exponential time note traverse path of edges over polytope. Unknown what shortest such path is Hirsh conjecture: path of m d pivots exists. even if true, simplex might be bad because path might not be monotone in objective function. certain recent work has shown n log n bound on path length 5.2 Simplex and Duality defined reduced costs of nonbasic vars N by c N = c N c B A 1 B A N and argued that when all c N 0, had optimum. Define y = c B A 1 B (so of course c B = ya B ) nonegative reduced costs means c N ya N put together, see ya c so y is dual feasible but, yb = c B A 1 B b = c Bx B = cx (since x N = 0) so y is dual optimum. more generally, y measures duality gap for current solution! another way to prove duality theorem: prove there is a terminating (non cycling) simplex algorithm. 17

18 5.3 Polynomial Time Bounds We know a lot about structure. And we ve seen how to verify optimality in polynomial time. Now turn to question: can we solve in polynomial time? Yes, sort of (Khachiyan 1979): polynomial algorithms exist strongly polynomial unknown. Claim: all vertices of LP have polynomial size. vertex is bfs bfs is intersection of n constraints A B x = b invert matrix. Now can prove that feasible alg can optimize a different way: use binary search on value z of optimum add constraint cx z know opt vertex has poly number of bits so binary search takes poly (not logarithmic!) time not as elegant as other way, but one big advantage: feasiblity test over basically same polytope as before. Might have fast feasible test for this case. 6 Ellipsoid Lion hunting in the desert. bolzano wierstrauss theorem proves certain sequence has a subsequence with a limit by repeated subdividing of intervals to get a point in the Define an ellipsoid generalizes ellipse write some D = BB T radius center z point set {(x z) T D 1 (x z) 1} note this is just a basis change of the unit sphere x 2 1. under transform x Bx + z 18

19 Outline of algorithm: goal: find a feasible point for P = {Ax b} start with ellipse containing P, center z check if z P if not, use separating hyperplane to get 1/2 of ellipse containing P find a smaller ellipse containing this 1/2 of original ellipse until center of ellipse is in P. Consider sphere case, separating hyperplane x 1 = 0 try center at (a, 0, 0,...) Draw picture to see constraints requirements: d 1 1 (x 1 a) 2 + i>1 d 1 i x 2 i 1 constraint at (1, 0, 0): d 1 1 (x a)2 = 1 so d 1 = (1 a) 2 constraint at (0, 1, 0): a 2 /(1 a) 2 +d 1 2 = 1 so d 1 2 = 1 a 2 /(1 a) 2 1 a 2 What is volume? about (1 a)/(1 a 2 ) n/2 set a about 1/n, get (1 1/n) volume ratio. Shrinking Lemma: Let E = (z, D) define an n-dimensional ellipsoid consider separating hyperplane ax az Define E = (z, D ) ellipsoid: then z = z 1 Da T n + 1 ada T D = n 2 n 2 1 (D 2 Da T ad n + 1 ada T ) E {x ax ez} E vol(e ) e 1/(2n+1) vol(e) 19

20 for proof, first show works with D = I and z = 0. new ellipse: z = 1 n + 1 D n 2 = n 2 1 (I 2 n + 1 I 11) and volume ratio easy to compute directly. for general case, transform to coordinates where D = I (using new basis B), get new ellipse, transform back to old coordinates, get (z, D ) (note transformation don t affect volume ratios. So ellipsoid shrinks. Now prove 2 things: needn t start infinitely large can t get infinitely small Starting size: recall bounds on size of vertices (polynomial) so coords of vertices are exponential but no larger so can start with sphere with radius exceeding this exponential bound this only uses polynomial values in D matrix. if unbounded, no vertices of P, will get vertex of box. Ending size: convenient to assume that polytope full dimensional if so, it has n + 1 affinely indpendent vertices all the vertices have poly size coordinates so they contain a box whose volume is a poly-size number (computable as determinant of vertex coordinates) Put together: starting volume 2 no(1) ending volume 2 no(1) each iteration reduces volume by e 1/(2n+1) factor so 2n + 1 iters reduce by e so n O (1) reduce by e no(1) 20

21 at which point, ellipse doesn t contain P, contra must have hit a point in P before. Justifying full dimensional: take {Ax b}, replace with P = {Ax b + ɛ} for tiny ɛ any point of P is an interior of P, so P interior for full dimensional objects) full dimensional (only have P empty iff P is (because ɛ so small) can round a point of P to P. Infinite precision: built a new ellipsoid each time. maybe its bits got big? no. 6.1 Separation vs Optimization Notice in ellipsoid, were only using one constraint at a time. didn t matter how many there were. didn t need to see all of them at once. just needed each to be represented in polynomial size. so ellipsoid works, even if huge number of constraints, so long as have separation oracle: given point not in P, find separating hyperplane. of course, feasibility is same as optimize, so can optimize with sep oracle too. this is on a polytope by polytope basis. If can separate a particular polytope, can optimize over that polytope. This is very useful in many applications. e.g. network design. 7 Interior Point Ellipsoid has problems in practice (O(n 6 ) for one). So people developed a different approach that has been extremely successful. What goes wrong with simplex? follows edges of polytope 21

22 complex stucture there, run into walls, etc interior point algorithms stay away from the walls, where structure simpler. Karmarkar did the first one (1984); we ll descuss one by Ye 7.1 Potential Reduction Potential function: Idea: use a (nonlinear) potential function that is minimized at opt but also enforces feasibility use gradient descent to optimize the potential function. Recall standard primal {Ax = b, x 0} and dual ya + s = c, s 0. duality gap sx Use logarithmic barrier function G(x, s) = q ln xs ln x j ln s j and try to minimize it (pick q in a minute) first term forces duality gap to get small second and third enforce positivity note barrier prevents from ever hitting optimum, but as discussed above ok to just get close. Choose q so first term dominates, guarantees good G is good xs G(x, s) small should mean xs small xs large should mean G(x, s) large write G = ln(xs) q / x j s j xs > x j s j, so (xs) n > x j s j. So taking q > n makes top term dominate, G > ln xs How minimize potential function? Gradient descent. have current (x, s) point. take linear approx to potential function around (x, s) move to where linear approx smaller ( x G) deduce potential also went down. 22

23 crucial: can only move as far as linear approximation accurate Firs wants big q, second small q. Compromise at n + n, gives O(L n) iterations. Must stay feasible: Have gradient g = x G since potential not minimized, have reasonably large gradient, so a small step will improve potential a lot. picture want to move in direction of G, but want to stay feasilbe project G onto nullspace(a) to get d then A(x + d) = Ax = b also, for sufficiently small step, x 0 potential reduction proportional to length of d problem if d too small In that case, move s (actually y) by g d which will be big. so can either take big primal or big dual step why works? Well, d (perpendicular to A) has Ad = 0, so good primal move. converseley, part spanned by A has g d = wa, so can choose y = y+w and get s = c Ay = c Ay (g d) = s (g d). note dg/dx j = s j /(xs) 1/x j and dg/ds j = x j /(xs) 1/s j = (x j /s j )dg/dx j dg/dx j 23

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