in the Periodic Table Reading: Gray: (2-2) to (2-4) and (2-9) OGN: (3.1), (15.8) and (15.9)

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1 in the Periodic Table Reading: Gray: (2-2) to (2-4) and (2-9) OGN: (3.1), (15.8) and (15.9)

2 Now We Can Understand Arrangement of the Periodic Table of Elements Trends in Atomic Size Trends in Ionization Energy Trends in Electron Affinity Trends in Electronegativity Various Types of Chemical Bonds Combining Ratios of Oxides and Hydrides Shapes of Molecules

3 Dmitri Mendeleev St. Petersburg University Invented the periodic table in Also in that year, he published his book, "Principles of Chemistry." His book compared the atomic weights and the properties of elements that were not known back then. 1906: One vote away from winning a Nobel Prize Died in 1907

4 Solid-State Molar Volumes ( 3D ) Molar volume cm 3 mol ( ) Cs Rb K 20 0 H Li Na Ca Sr Ba Mg N O F B C Al Si P S Cl Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Lu Hf Ta W ReOs Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Be He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn In 1875, Lothar Meyer deduces a periodic trend

5 Energy of One Electron in a H atom * E(eV) (vacuum energy) 4s 4p 4d 4f 3s 3p 3d s 2p s * E = -k n 2 where k=13.6 ev; n is the principal quantum number

6 Multiple-Electron Atoms None of the e - eclipsed: Z eff = Z One e - eclipsed: Z eff = Z - 1 On Average, Z eff < Z How Much Less Z eff < Z Determines Atomic Properties

7 r 2 R 2 1s 2s z r 2 R 2 1s 2p x x

8 Shielding r 2 R 2 1s 2p 2s r 2 R 2 = probability of finding an electron on the sphere of radius r An electron in the 2p orbital penetrates somewhat into the 1s orbital r

9 Shielding r 2 R 2 1s 2p 2s r 2 R 2 = probability of finding an electron on the sphere of radius r But a 2s electron penetrates the 1s orbital better than a 2p electron r

10 r 2 R 2 Shielding 1s 3d 3p 3s Penetration: 3s > 3p > 3d A 3s electron penetrates the 1s orbital better than a 3p electron r

11 r 2 R 2 1s 4f Shielding 4d 4p 4s Penetration: 4s > 4p > 4d > 4f A 4s electron penetrates the 1s orbital better than a 4p electron r

12 Another View of 2s vs 2p Shielding 1s 2s 1s 2p shielded electron density 2s Penetrates More into 1s Than Does 2p 2s is Therefore Lower in E Than 2p

13 Energy of Multi-Electron Atoms 0 (e t c.) 5s 4s 4p 3d E 3s 2s 1s 3p 2p due to shielding, orbitals with the same principal quantum number(n) do NOT have the same energies

14 Mnemonic for Filling Order 1s 2s 2p hence the filling order is: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, etc. 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f

15 0 e t c. Valence Electrons 5s 4s 3p E 3s 1. H (1s) 1 2s 1s 4p 2p Valence Electrons: electrons in the outermost shell (in other words, the set 3d of electrons with highest principal quantum number) 2. He (1s) 2 3. Li (1s) 2 (2s) 1 4. Be (1s) 2 (2s) 2 5. B (1s) 2 (2s) 2 (2p) 1 6. C (1s) 2 (2s) 2 (2p) 2 7. N (1s) 2 (2s) 2 (2p) 3 8. O (1s) 2 (2s) 2 (2p) 4 9. F (1s) 2 (2s) 2 (2p) Ne (1s) 2 (2s) 2 (2p) 6 e t c. element shell electrons in shell valence electrons (underlined) 2p- orbital

16 Orbital Filling Energies Example: lowest energy for 3 electrons in p orbital energy increases when a second electron is put in same orbital energy also increases when spins are mixed in orbitals

17 Organization of Periodic Chart 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 3d 4d 5d 6d 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 1s 4f 5f

18 H Li Na Be Mg Exceptions to Filling Order 2s 3s 4s 3d 2p 3p 4p B Al C Si N P O S F Cl He Ne Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr 23. V (4s) 2 (3d) Cr (4s) 1 (3d) Mn (4s) 2 (3d) Zr (5s) 2 (4d) Nb (5s) 1 (4d) Mo (5s) 1 (4d) 5 Exceptions occur because electrons don t like to pair up in orbitals; so the highlighted atoms have lower energy. 4s 3d

19 Element Groups Alkali metals Inert or Noble gases H Alkali earths Halogens He Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar K Rb Cs Ca Sr Ba Sc Y La T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl Ge Sn Pb As Sb Bi Se Te Po Br I At Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No L r Lanthanides Actinides

20 Hydrogen: From Greek: Hydro-genes: Water forming Alkali metals Inert or Noble gases H Alkali earths Halogens He Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar K Rb Cs Ca Sr Ba Sc Y La T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl Ge Sn Pb As Sb Bi Se Te Po Br I At Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No L r Lanthanides Actinides

21 Iodine: violet crystals From Greek iodes : violet Alkali metals Inert or Noble gases H Alkali earths Halogens He Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar K Rb Cs Ca Sr Ba Sc Y La T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl Ge Sn Pb As Sb Bi Se Te Po Br I At Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No L r Lanthanides Actinides

22 Carbon From Latin carbo : charcoal Alkali metals Inert or Noble gases H Alkali earths Halogens He Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar K Rb Cs Ca Sr Ba Sc Y La T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl Ge Sn Pb As Sb Bi Se Te Po Br I At Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No L r Lanthanides Actinides

23 Calcium From Latin calx : limestone Alkali metals Inert or Noble gases H Alkali earths Halogens He Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar K Rb Cs Ca Sr Ba Sc Y La T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl Ge Sn Pb As Sb Bi Se Te Po Br I At Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No L r Lanthanides Actinides

24 Iron: Fe From Latin iron : ferrum Alkali metals Inert or Noble gases H Alkali earths Halogens He Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar K Rb Cs Ca Sr Ba Sc Y La T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl Ge Sn Pb As Sb Bi Se Te Po Br I At Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No L r Lanthanides Actinides

25 Gold: Au From Latin aurum : shining dawn Alkali metals Inert or Noble gases H Alkali earths Halogens He Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar K Rb Cs Ca Sr Ba Sc Y La T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl Ge Sn Pb As Sb Bi Se Te Po Br I At Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No L r Lanthanides Actinides

26 Lead: Pb From Latin plumbum : heavy Alkali metals Inert or Noble gases H Alkali earths Halogens He Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar K Rb Cs Ca Sr Ba Sc Y La T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl Ge Sn Pb As Sb Bi Se Te Po Br I At Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No L r Lanthanides Actinides

27 Cobalt: Co From German kobold : goblin or evil spirits Unwanted metal in what were thought to be copper ores Alkali metals Inert or Noble gases H Alkali earths Halogens He Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar K Rb Cs Ca Sr Ba Sc Y La T i Z r Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl Ge Sn Pb As Sb Bi Se Te Po Br I At Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Lanthanides Actinides

28 Effective Nuclear Charge e - p (Z eff = 1.0) p e - e - H H - (Z eff 0.7) (Z eff = 1.0) e - H p e - p p e - (Z eff 1.8) He

29 Atomic Size and Ionization Energy e - (Z eff = 1.0) e - p p Bigger e - H H - (Z eff 0.7) (Z eff = 1.0) e - p e - p p e - Smaller H He (Z ef f 1.8)

30 Trends in Z eff e - p 1s e - p p e - 1s Smaller H (Z eff =1.0) He (Z eff 1.8) 1s e - p p p e - e - Bigger 2s e - 1s p p e - p p e - e - Smaller Again 2s Li (Z eff 1.2 in n=2) Be (Z eff 2.0 in n=2)

31 Bigger Atomic Sizes H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Ac Bigger Z=4 Z=11 Z=3 Li Be Z eff 1.2 (n=2) Z eff 2.0 (n=2) Na Z eff 1.0 (n=3)

32 Solid-State Molar Volumes ( 3D ) Molar volume cm 3 mol ( ) Cs Rb K 20 0 H Li Na Ca Sr Ba Mg N O F B C Al Si P S Cl Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Lu Hf Ta W ReOs Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Be He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn

33 H Atomic Radius: A Closer Look He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Ac Closed 2s shell; r Smaller than expected 2p more fully screened than 2s r Bigger than Expected (relative atomic sizes) (expected size) H He Li Be B C 2p: 2s: 1s:

34 H Exceptions to Atomic Radius Trend He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Ac Half-filled p Shell r Smaller Than Expected Extra Repulsion in 2p set r Bigger Than Expected B C N O F Ne (relative atomic sizes) (expected sizes) 2p: 2s: 1s:

35 Larger Ionization Energies H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm B k Cf Es Fm Md No Lr e - p Larger 1s 0 E H Smaller r Higher I.E. e - p p e - 1s H (Z eff =1.0) He (Z eff 1.8) He Smaller Atoms Harder to Remove Electrons

36 First Ionization Energy ( 3D ) st IE ( ) kj mol

37 Details of Ionization Energies 2500 He Ionization Energy (kj/mol) H 2p vs 2s shielding N Be C O F Ne 500 Li B 2p pairing penalty Atomic Number Smaller r = Higher I.E.

38 3 Ionic Radii Ionic Radius Å Be 2+ N Rb + Cs + Na K + Li + Ti 4+ Zr 4+ Hf 4+ Al P3- As3- Sb Atomic Number Radius decreases for isoelectronic atoms as Positive charge increases ( ) Discontinuity at K + due to d-orbitals (increased Z eff )

39 Lanthanide Contraction Ionic Radius Å Series La 1 Ce 2 Pr 3 Nd 4 Pm 5 Sm 6 Eu 7 Gd 8 Tb 9 10 Dy Ho 11 Er 12 Tm Yb Lu 15 (M 3+ ) All are 5s 2 5p 6 4f n-1 Responsible for many features of TM s that follow Lanthanides in periodic table

40 Electron Affinity Energy Released By Addition of an Electron to the Element e - p + e - E.A.of H e - p e - H E = 77 kj/mol H - E.A. = 77 kj/mol By Definition, E.A is Positive when Energy is Released (Opposite the thermodynamic definition!)

41 Electron Affinity vs. Ionization Energy e - p e - E.A.of H + e - p I.E. of H - H e - H - = (+) Electron Affinity of Element X (+) Ionization Energy of Anion X -

42 Larger Electron Affinity H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na K Rb Cs Fr Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra La Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm B k Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Sc Y Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Al Si Cu Zn Ga Ge Ag Cd In Sn P S Cl Ar As Se Br Kr Sb Te I Xe Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Larger O F Ne EA kj/mol

43 Electron Affinity ( 3D ) E.A. ( kj ) mol Note: Black elements have negative EA s

44 Electron Affinity vs. Ionization Energy Electron Affinity Can be either + or - in sign No atom has a positive 2 nd E.A. Ionization Energy Always Positive 2 nd I.E.s are always > 1 st I.E. s

45 Electronegativity Larger EN = I.E. + E.A. 2 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm B k Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Larger Electronegativity Generally Follows I.E. Trend

46 Electronegativity ( 3D ) (Arbitrary Pauling units)

47 Electronegativity, I.E., and E.A. In a bond, the distribution of electrons is determined by how much each atom pulls on its own as well as the other atom s electrons. So electronegativity = I.E. + E.A. Example: Na Na has low E.A. and I.E. Cl has high E.A. and I.E. EN Electronegativity = (I.E. + E.A.)/2 Cl is more electronegative than Na. small e Cl Table Salt big EN

48 Larger Some Representative Electronegativities H Li Na K Rb Cs Be Mg Ca Sr Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Sc Y Lu Ti Zr Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg B Al Ga In Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm B k Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Larger Electronegativities: Be = 1.6 C = 2.6 Na = 0.9 As = 2.2 Fr = 0.7 F = 4.0 Fluorine has the highest electronegativity, Francium has the lowest E.N.

49 Types of Chemical Bonds Ionic Bonding Na + Cl [Na] + [Cl] - Na has Low I.E., low E.A. Lower EN; loses e - Cl has High I.E., high E.A. Higher EN; gains e - Li + H [Li] + [ H] - Li has Low I.E., low E.A. loses e - H has High I.E., high E.A. e - Lower EN; Higher EN; gains

50 Types of Chemical Bonds Covalent Bonding Cl + Cl Cl Cl = Cl Cl H + Br H Br = H Br Electrons Shared Equally Hydrogen Bonding: Cl H... OH 2 Van der Waals Bonding: Ar... HCl

51 Now We Can Understand Arrangement of the Periodic Table of Elements Trends in Atomic Size Trends in Ionization Energy Trends in Electron Affinity Trends in Electronegativity Various Types of Chemical Bonds Combining Ratios of Oxides and Hydrides Shapes of Molecules

52 Periodic Trends in Bonding Stoichiometry of Binary Hydrides LiH BeH 2 BH 3 CH 4 NH 3 H 2 O HF NaH MgH 2 AlH 3 SiH 4 PH 3 H 2 S HCl H H - H + He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

53 Periodic Trends in Bonding Stoichiometry of Binary Oxides Li 2 O BeO Na 2 O MgO B 2 O 3 CO 2 N 2 O 5 O 2 OF 2 Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 P 2 O 5 SO 3 OCl 2 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr H a X b for Hydrides; O a/2 X b (Usually) for Oxides

54 H.M.S. Sheffield Falklands War of 1982 Al normally inert due to formation of tough surface coating of Al 2 O 3 Al metal burns in air and if hot enough, will form Al 2 O 3 continuously from H 2 O

55 Acid/Base Properties of Oxides Basic Na 2 O(s) + H 2 O 2 Na + (aq) + 2 OH - (aq) BaO(s) + H 2 O Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 OH - (aq) Basic MnO(s) + 2H + NiO(s) + 2H + Mn 2+ (aq) + H 2 O Ni 2+ (aq) + H 2 O Acidic SO 3 (s) + H 2 O H + (aq) + HSO 4- (aq) P 4 O 10 (s) + 6H 2 O 4 H + (aq) + 4H 2 O PO 3- (aq) Basic oxides have pushed too much electron density Onto O, and it loses it by reacting with H 2 O (liberating OH - ) Acidic oxides have less electron density than they can accomodate, and so grab more O from H 2 O (liberating H + )

56 Acid/Base Properties of Oxides Li 2 O BeO Na 2 O MgO B 2 O 3 CO 2 N 2 O 5 O 2 OF 2 Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 P 2 O 5 SO 3 OCl 2 Basic H Li Be B C N O F He Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Acidity increases going up and to right

57 End in the Periodic Table Reading: Gray: (2-2) to (2-4) and (2-9) OGN: (3.1), (15.8) and (15.9)

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