Chapter 13: The Rise of Rome Lesson 3: Rome Becomes an Empire p Main Ideas Government: Government: Government:

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1 Name Hour Date Chapter 13: The Rise of Rome Lesson 3: Rome Becomes an Empire p Main Ideas Government: Angry, poor people, power- hungry generals, and ambitious politicians threatened the Roman Republic. Government: Julius Caesar gained absolute control of the republic but did not rule long. Government: After Caesar was assassinated, Augustus founded an empire that enjoyed peace and prosperity for about 200 years. Vocabulary Term Definition Other Representation (Icon, Picture, Example, Sentence, etc.) Application: What learning target does this term connect to? Why? civil war Julius Caesar Cicero Augustus Pax Romana civic 1

2 Conflicts at Home p Expansion brought change to Roman society. Expansion also changed the balance of power in Rome s republican government. What did these changes lead to? The changes led to the overthrow of the republic 2. As Rome expanded, what led to conflict in Rome? 3. Who tried to relieve the problems of the uprisings? What happened? How did they try to fix things? 4. How did the wealthy landowners in the Senate feel? What did they do? 5. Generals who had conquered other lands became for power at home. They hired to serve under them as. The soldiers shifted their from the to their general. The generals desire for power. 6. A civil war broke out. Who fought in the civil war? What were they fighting over? Generals who supported the cause of the plebeians fought against generals fighting / supporting WHO in the war (plebeians vs. Julius Caesar p After Sulla died, Julius Caesar rose to power. Who was Julius Caesar? 2

3 (Julius Caesar continued p ) 8. Julius Caesar was a military leader. Where did he have his first military action? First Asia Minor, 9. After he proved himself to be a great general in Asia Minor, where did he go? What happened? - He went to Gaul (modern day France) 10. In addition to his military skills, Caesar was also a good politician. Why? He gained a reputation as a reformer who supported the common people. This made him popular with the plebeians. 11. Caesar had military fame and he was well liked by the plebeians. He also had enemies. Who was one of his greatest opponents? Describe why he disliked Caesar so much. Cicero a key Roman consul; one of the greatest speakers in Roman history. He was a supporter of the republic. He did not TRUST Caesar s desire for great power. 12. When the Senate ordered Caesar to break up his army, what did Caesar do? Caesar led his soldiers into Italy and began fighting for control of Rome. After several years, Caesar was victorious. 13. In 46 B.C. when Julius Caesar returned to Rome, who supported him? What happened? Caesar had the support of the people and the army. That same year, he returned to Rome and was APPOINTED the SOLE ruler of ROME! Caesar was named dictator for life as opposed to the usual six months. 14. What did Caesar do to reform Rome? - Caesar had absolute authority and he started a few reforms. - He expanded the Senate by including supporters from Italy and other regions - He enforced laws against crime and created jobs for the poor. 15. Why was Caesar killed? 3

4 Some people felt he was too powerful Emperors Rule Rome p What happened to Rome after Caesar s death? - Several Roman leaders struggled to gain power. - Julius Caesar s great- nephew (and adopted son) Octavian took over - one means person of great rank and authorit 17. Who rebuilt Rome and became the first emperor of Rome? 18. What did Augustus do to rebuild Rome? 19. The reign of Augustus brought a long period of peace and stability. What was the Pax Romana? What is the translation? When did it happen? How long did it last? How big of an area did it cover? 20. Agriculture and trade helped the Roman empire prosper. Farming remained the basis of the Roman economy and industry grew. What items did they trade? wine, olive oil and other food products Where did they trade? Who did they trade with? What items did they trade for? 4

5 (Emperors Rule Rome continued p ) 21. Trade relied on the quality of the. It also relied on the provided by the Roman. 22. What are three things you learned about the currency in ancient Rome? 23. Who benefitted from Rome s expanding economy? What happened because of this? 24. Complete the timeline by looking in the lesson for events that match the date on the timeline. Add a description of the event under the proper place on the timeline. 100 B.C. 44 B.C. 27 B.C A.D.14 Julius Caesar is Lesson Summary The results of Roman expansion produced social conflict and civil war. Julius Caesar gained power and became a dictator but was then assassinated. The reign of Augustus began a long period of imperial rule and peace in the Roman Empire Why it matters now... Rome faced the problems of how to maintain peace, law and order. Modern governments face similar problems. 5

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