AP Environmental Science

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1 AP Environmental Science Professional Development Workshop Materials Special Focus: connect to college success

2 The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning., and the Advanced Among its best-known programs are the SAT, the PSAT/NMSQT Placement Program (AP ). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Equity Policy Statement The College Board and the Advanced Placement Program encourage teachers, AP Coordinators, and school administrators to make equitable access a guiding principle for their AP programs. The College Board is committed to the principle that all students deserve an opportunity to participate in rigorous and academically challenging courses and programs. All students who are willing to accept the challenge of a rigorous academic curriculum should be considered for admission to AP courses. The Board encourages the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP courses for students from ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underrepresented in the AP Program. Schools should make every effort to ensure that their AP classes reflect the diversity of their student population. For more information about equity and access in principle and practice, contact the National Office in New York The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, AP Central, APCD, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, CollegeEd, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Admitted Class evaluation Service, connect to college success, MyRoad, SAT Professional Development, SAT Readiness Program, Setting the Cornerstones, and The Official SAT Teacher s Guide are trademarks owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: Visit the College Board on the Web: AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program and Pre-AP: apcentral.collegeboard.com. ii

3 Table of Contents Special Focus: Introduction David Hong... 3 Electric Power from Sun and Wind Fred Loxsom... 4 Understanding Climate Change and Our Rivers and Lakes: Systems Thinking Alan W. McIntosh Energy Balance as a Basis for the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Thomas B. Cobb Personal Energy Audit Pamela J. Shlachtman An Energy Primer for the AP Environmental Science Student Thomas B. Cobb Contributors Contact Us Important Note: The following set of materials is organized around a particular theme, or special focus, that reflects important topics in the AP Environmental Science course. The materials are intended to provide teachers with resources and classroom ideas relating to these topics. The special focus, as well as the specific content of the materials, cannot and should not be taken as an indication that a particular topic will appear on the AP Exam.

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5 Introduction David Hong Diamond Bar High School Diamond Bar, California An AP Environmental Science course includes the scientific study of topics that have daily relevance in the lives of students. Newspapers and magazines frequently report on the same environmental issues that AP Environmental Science students are discussing in class. An AP Environmental Science course should provide students with the scientific and intellectual tools required to critically evaluate the reports about the environment they encounter in the media. It is important that an AP Environmental Science course be dynamic changing to reflect the most recent findings of the science that composes its curriculum. One environmental issue which has been the subject of much recent attention in the media is global climate change. The considerations above, along with the magnitude of the problem, contributed to the choice of energy and climate change as the theme of these materials. The objective is to provide AP Environmental Science teachers with resources they can use to supplement the units they teach on energy and climate change. The articles include activities that students can use to evaluate their personal energy consumption, to compare alternative energy sources, to analyze and make connections using a systems-thinking approach to understanding climate change, to increase their understanding of the greenhouse effect, and to practice successfully converting between various energy and power units. Moreover, the materials contain thought-provoking passages that may be used to initiate class discussions on all these topics. The importance of educating an informed citizenry alone would validate the selection of energy and climate change for special focus. The weight of these topics in the Topic Outline of the AP Environmental Science Course Description provides a more practical rationale. Preparing students to answer questions about energy resources and global climate change is a critical task for AP Environmental Science teachers. Over the years, the AP Environmental Science Exam has included free-response questions that tested student knowledge of nuclear and coal-fired power plants, home heating, electric vehicles, and alternate sources of energy. Furthermore, explanations of the mechanism of global warming and its consequences are often point-worthy responses to questions on the AP Exam that require students to describe or discuss the environmental consequences of a human activity. Future sets of themed materials will continue to assist teachers as they prepare their students for a lifetime of learning about the environment.

6 Electric Power from Sun and Wind Fred Loxsom Eastern Connecticut State University Willimantic, Connecticut Many environmental problems are related to energy consumption. A college-level environmental science survey course should include the following energy-related topics: acid mine drainage, oil spills, acid rain, global warming, nuclear waste disposal, and catastrophic flooding due to failure of water retention dams. These are just examples and one could generate a much longer list. Approximately 85 percent of the energy used by our society is generated by burning fossil fuels, and energy experts think that energy-related environmental impacts could be reduced by switching to renewable energy resources such as wind power and solar energy. In this module, we will explore the feasibility of using the sun and wind to generate a significant amount of global electric energy. This quantitative module describes the electric energy generated by wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays. The efficiency and cost of these technologies are compared and their abilities to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are estimated. Electric Power About a third of the energy consumed globally is used to generate electricity. Annual consumption of electric energy equals approximately 16 trillion kwh ( kwh) globally, and approximately one-quarter of that energy (4.0 trillion kwh) is consumed in the United States. On average each of the 6.5 billion people on earth consumes approximately 2,500 kwh of electric energy each year. Divide this amount by the number of hours in a year (8,760) to calculate the average per capita global electric power consumption: 285 watts (roughly three 100-watt light bulbs). Exercise 1 develops rough estimates of these figures using data from typical U.S. electric utility bills. This exercise produces good estimates if the electric bill of a four-person family is assumed to equal $150/month and electricity costs 10 cents per kilowatt-hour. This exercise will help students understand the difference between energy (expressed in kilowatt-hours) and power, the rate of consuming energy (expressed in watts): power = energy / time.

7 Over the next 20 years, global annual electric energy consumption is projected to increase by 10 trillion kwh, and U.S. annual consumption is projected to increase by 1.5 trillion kwh. Although it is expected that most of this increased demand for electric energy will be supplied by consuming fossil fuel resources, some of this electric energy will likely be supplied by renewable energy resources. Renewable Energy Most electric energy is produced by fossil fuel power plants (mostly coal-burning plants) and by nuclear power plants. Approximately 17 percent of global electric power is produced by renewable energy, mostly by hydroelectric power plants. A tiny fraction (about percent) of global electric energy is produced by other forms of renewable energy such as wind power and solar power. In the following sections, we will consider the feasibility and cost of using the sun and wind to produce electricity. Electricity from the Wind Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into electric power. The overall efficiency of this conversion process is around 35 percent. Wind farms are located in areas with strong persistent winds such as the American Midwest, coastal zones, and mountain passes. A typical utility-scale wind turbine is rated at 1.5 MW, although turbines rated at 3.5 MW have become common. The rating of a turbine means that with sufficiently high wind speed, the power generated by the turbine will equal the rated power. A 1.5 MW turbine running at its rated power for 24 hours a day for a full year would produce 13 million kwh of electric energy. Because winds are variable, wind turbines run at their rated power only a fraction of the time. This fraction is called the turbine s capacity factor; this factor depends upon the location of the wind turbine. Exercise 2 estimates the cost of using wind turbines to supply 10 percent of the projected 1.5 trillion kwh increase in U.S. electric energy demand over the next 20 years. Although many environmentalists would argue that the most cost-effective and environmentally responsible approach to this project would be to reduce demand through more efficient use of electricity, the $45 billion cost of the turbines spread over 20 years seems quite modest. This exercise introduces the concept of payback time, the time it takes for the benefits of a project to equal its cost. This concept is important to students understanding of the economic viability of an investment. The payback time estimated in this exercise indicates that wind power is economically practical.

8 Students should be introduced to the controversies involving the large-scale application of wind power technology. For example, Cape Wind, the offshore wind park proposed for the shallow water between Cape Cod and Nantucket, has supporters and opponents among environmental groups. Some groups are concerned that the project will interfere with migrating birds and harm marine ecosystems; other groups think the environmental advantages of using clean renewable energy will greatly outweigh its negative impacts. Electricity from the Sun Solar cells are semiconductor materials that convert sunlight directly into electricity. Practical electricity-generating devices made from solar cells are usually called photovoltaic (PV) panels. Arrays of PV panels are currently providing electricity for signal lights, remote power needs, residences, and electric utilities. Exercise 3 estimates the cost and payback of using residential rooftop PV systems to supply 10 percent of the projected 1.5 trillion kwh increase in U.S. electric energy demand over the next 20 years. The results of exercise 3 are interesting because they indicate that the solar energy resource is adequate to produce a substantial amount of electricity using a fraction of existing residential rooftops. On the other hand, these results also illustrate the high cost of photovoltaic power systems. Many analysts believe that substantial decreases in the cost of PV systems are needed before these systems will be used to generate significant amounts of electric energy. 6

9 Exercise 1: Electric Energy Consumption 1. What is your average monthly household electric bill? ($/month) 2. How much do you pay for electric power? ($/kwh) 3. Calculate the corresponding average monthly energy use for your household. (kwh/month) 4. How many people are there in your household? 5. Calculate the per capita monthly residential electric energy use for members of your household. (kwh/month/person) 6. Calculate the annual per capita residential electric energy use for members of your household. (kwh/year/person) 7. In the U.S., residential electric energy consumption is about one-third of overall electric energy consumption. Calculate the annual per capita total electric energy consumption by members of your household. (kwh/year/person) 8. Assuming this per capita energy use is average, calculate the U.S. annual total electric energy consumption. (trillion kwh/year) 9. The U.S. consumes about 25 percent of global electric power. Estimate global annual total electric energy consumption. (trillion kwh /year) 10. Calculate the global annual per capita total electric energy consumption. (kwh/year/person) 11. Compare your calculated global annual per capita total electric energy consumption value to your calculated U.S. annual per capita total electric energy consumption value. 7

10 Exercise 2: Windpower Consider a wind turbine that is rated at 1.5 MW. This means that with sufficiently high winds, it will produce 1.5 MW or 1,500 kw of power. The installed cost of this turbine is $1.5 million. 1. If this turbine runs at its rated power 100 percent of the time for a full year, how much energy would it produce in a year? (million kwh/year) 2. This wind turbine has a capacity factor equal to This means that over a year, it will produce only 38 percent of its theoretical maximum energy production. How much energy does this turbine actually produce in a year? (million kwh/year) 3. Over the next 20 years, U.S. annual electric energy consumption is projected to increase by 1.5 trillion kwh/year. How many 1.5 MW wind turbines would be needed to supply 10 percent of this additional energy? 4. Calculate the cost of installing these wind turbines. ($) 5. Assuming the electric energy produced by these turbines is worth 5 cents per kilowatt-hour, these turbines would generate electric energy worth $7.5 billion per year. Calculate the simple payback period for these turbines. (Payback period is the time it takes for a system s net benefits to equal its cost.) (years)

11 Exercise 3: Photovoltaic Power A grid-connected residential PV system is placed on the roof of a 2,000-square-foot suburban house. The PV array with an area equal to 50 square meters (about 500 square feet) covers half of the south-facing part of the roof. The power rating of this PV system is 5.0 kw, meaning that it will produce 5.0 kw under peak sunlight conditions. The installed cost of this system is $50, The PV system is operating in a location where the annual average daily incident solar energy (the insolation) on the array equals 5.0 kwh/m 2 /day. Calculate the average amount of solar energy incident on the PV array each day. (kwh/day) 2. The efficiency of the PV system equals 10 percent (that is, 10 percent of the solar energy incident on the array is transformed into useful electric power). Calculate the daily average electric energy produced by this system. (kwh/day) 3. Calculate the average amount of electric energy produced by this system each year. (kwh/year) 4. Over the next 20 years, U.S. annual electric energy consumption is projected to increase by 1.5 trillion kwh/year. How many rooftop PV systems would be needed to supply 10 percent of this additional energy? 5. Calculate the cost of installing these residential PV systems. ($) 6. Assuming the electric energy produced by these PV systems is worth 10 cents per kilowatt-hour, these residential systems would generate electric energy worth $15 billion/year. Calculate the simple payback period for these PV systems. (Payback period is the time it takes for a system s net benefits to equal its cost.) (years)

12 Key to Exercise 1: Electric Energy Consumption Sample answers (based on an electric bill of $150/month) appear in bold. 1. What is your average monthly household electric bill? $ How much do you pay for electric power? $0.10/kWh 3. Calculate the corresponding average monthly energy use for your household. $150 / $0.10/kWh = 1,500 kwh 4. How many people are there in your household? 4 5. Calculate the per capita monthly residential electric energy use for members of your household. 1,500 kwh / 4 = 375 kwh/month/person 6. Calculate the annual per capita residential electric energy use for members of your household: kwh = 4,500 kwh/year/person 7. In the U.S., residential electric energy consumption is about one-third of overall electric energy consumption. Calculate the annual per capita total electric energy consumption by members of your household. 3 4,500 kwh = 13,500 kwh/year/person 8. Assuming this per capita energy use is average, calculate the U.S. annual total electric energy consumption. 298 million 13,500 kwh = 4.0 trillion kwh/year 9. The U.S. consumes about one-fourth of global electric power. Estimate global annual total electric energy consumption trillion kwh = 16 trillion kwh/year 10. Calculate the global annual per capita total electric energy consumption. 16 trillion kwh / 6.5 billion = 2,500 kwh/year/person 11. Compare your calculated global annual per capita total electric energy consumption value to your calculated U.S. annual per capita total electric energy consumption value. U.S.: 13,500 kwh/year/person 13,500 kwh / 8,760 h = 1,540 W/person Global: 2,500 kwh/year/person 2,500 kwh / 8,760 h = 285 W/person Global value is about one-fifth the U.S. value. 10

13 Key to Exercise 2: Windpower (Answers appear in bold.) 1. If this turbine runs at its rated power 100 percent of the time for a full year, how much energy would it produce in a year? 1,500 kw 8,760 h/year = 13 million kwh/year 2. This wind turbine has a capacity factor equal to This means that over a year, it will produce only 38 percent of its theoretical maximum energy production. How much energy does this turbine actually produce in a year? million kwh/year = 5.0 million kwh/year 3. Over the next 20 years, U.S. annual electric energy consumption is projected to increase by 1.5 trillion kwh/year. How many 1.5 MW wind turbines would be needed to supply 10 percent of this additional energy? trillion kwh/year / 5.0 million kwh/year/turbine = 30,000 turbines 4. Calculate the cost of installing these wind turbines. 30,000 turbines $1.5 million/turbine = $45 billion 5. Assuming the electric energy produced by these turbines is worth 5 cents per kilowatt-hour, these turbines would generate electric energy worth $7.5 billion per year. Calculate the simple payback period for these turbines. (Payback period is the time it takes for a system s net benefits to equal its cost.) $45 billion / $7.5 billion/year = 6 years 11

14 Key to Exercise 3: Photovoltaic Power (Answers appear in bold.) 1. The PV system is operating in a location where the annual average daily incident solar energy (the insolation) on the array equals 5.0 kwh/m 2 /day. Calculate the average amount of solar energy incident on the PV array each day. 50 m kwh/m 2 /day = 250 kwh/day 2. The efficiency of the PV system equals 10 percent (that is, 10 percent of the solar energy incident on the array is transformed into useful electric power). Calculate the daily average electric energy produced by this system kwh/day = 25 kwh/day 3. Calculate the average amount of electric energy produced by this system each year. 365 days/year 25 kwh/day = 9,125 kwh/year 4. Over the next 20 years, U.S. annual electric energy consumption is projected to increase by 1.5 trillion kwh/year. How many rooftop PV systems would be needed to supply 10 percent of this additional energy? trillion kwh/year / 9,125 kwh/year = 16 million 5. Calculate the cost of installing these residential PV systems. 16 million $50,000 = $800 billion 6. Assuming the electric energy produced by these PV systems is worth 10 cents per kwh, these residential systems would generate electric energy worth produce $15 billion/year. Calculate the simple payback period for these PV systems. (Payback period is the time it takes for a system s net benefits to equal its cost.) $800 billion / $15 billion/year = 50 years 12

15 Understanding Climate Change and Our Rivers and Lakes: Systems Thinking Alan W. McIntosh University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont Note to Teachers The following exercise on global climate change should help your students think about the big picture, how a phenomenon that affects an ecosystem in a particular way may trigger a series of events that impacts many other parts of the ecosystem. Some environmental issues are properly thought of in a more limited context; for example, the effects of a sewage discharge on a small lake may be mostly confined to that ecosystem. Global climate change, however, will not only affect many different portions of ecosystems: an impact on one component may ripple through the entire system. In this example, students will learn how a changing climate have many different direct and indirect effects on both terrestrial and aquatic parts of ecosystems. Once the students have worked through this exercise, you might encourage them to examine other environmental issues such as acidic deposition and ozone depletion to identify the connections and examine the big picture. Exploring Causes and Effects in Environmental Science In many issues environmental scientists face, it s all about the connections how events in one place end up causing problems in places far away. Systems thinking requires us to consider the big picture. For example, we now know that the impacts of acid deposition on sensitive ecosystems may result from actions many kilometers upwind. Gases released into the atmosphere from midwestern smokestacks cause part of the northeast s acid deposition problem. In this case, the system extends from the smokestack in Ohio to the lake in the Adirondacks ultimately acidified by atmospheric inputs. There are few better examples of environmental complexity and the need for a systems approach than climate change. Because of the connections between the landscape and water, our rivers and lakes are particularly vulnerable in a changing climate. 13

16 The casual observer, when asked how climate change will affect lakes and rivers in the future, might reply, Well, they ll warm up a bit and maybe they ll dry up. In fact, while one outcome of a warmer climate may be lower water levels in our lakes and rivers, the story is much more complicated than that. Let s think about the system and the connections. Suppose you ve been hired by your state s environmental protection agency, and your first assignment is to evaluate what climate change is going to do to one of the state s premier brook trout streams, Johnson s Run. The stream originates in the foothills and travels through pristine forests before discharging into Joe s Pond, a small lake that supports a population of rainbow trout. Your first reaction is to breathe a sigh of relief: what an easy first task! You go to the library and discover that the upper temperature limit for both trout species is about 25 C. Data from the state agency indicate that the temperature of Johnson s Run never rises above 18 C in the summer and that of Joe s Pond, never above 19 C. Even with the predicted 2 C increase in water temperature expected in your state by 2100, you conclude that the trout should be fine; they ll be well within their temperature tolerance limit. You tell this to your boss, but she isn t satisfied. She starts yelling, You re forgetting about the connections! Yes, you got the most obvious direct effect but think like a watershed, think about the connections. She sits you down and goes over a few of the basics of streams and lakes. She tells you to think of streams as water highways. Coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) like leaves and other vegetation is carried into the stream during wet weather. After being broken down in the stream, this material serves as the energy source for the stream s food web. If something disrupts this flow of matter, the entire food web of the stream, including the benthic invertebrates and the fish, may suffer. Also remember the stream s role as a conduit. Johnson s Run is an artery for transferring materials from the watershed into Joe s Pond. Anything that disrupts the stream s energy dynamics may, in turn, affect the pond. While state regulators usually try to reduce the amount of limiting nutrients like phosphorus released into systems like Joe s Pond from streams like Johnson s Run, remember that vital elements like calcium and carbon also move into the pond in this manner. Altering the normal flow of these elements may have serious consequences downstream. 14

17 If streams are nature s highways, lakes and ponds are its sinks. What enters a lake from the atmosphere and, more importantly for most lakes, from its tributaries has a substantial effect on the lake and may determine whether it has good or bad water quality. Some systems, like Lake Tahoe in California and Nevada, are very deep and tend to trap entering materials for very long periods, while others shallow reservoirs, for example may flush entering materials out very quickly. So the exact role of any molecule of a nutrient entering a lake will depend on the characteristics of that lake. What s key to remember are the connections: watershed to stream and stream to lake. It s all one unit. If climate change affects any part of the system, it may affect everything else. Now let s take a harder look at some of the challenges that those trout may face in future decades. Brook Trout in Johnson s Run 1. Food: Even if the adult trout are able to survive in a warmer Johnson s Run and can successfully spawn during the expected warmer winters and springs, what are those trout going to eat? Can the benthic macroinvertebrates like immature stoneflies and mayflies they rely on for food also survive as the temperatures increase? Will the numbers of other, less desirable, species increase and crowd out the favored species in the trouts diet? Also, with climate change, there may be less rainfall throughout the watershed. Less rainfall means less CPOM washing into the stream to support those benthic macroinvertebrates so important to the trout. Remember that if one part of the stream s food web is compromised, harmful effects may reverberate throughout the web. 2. Stream conditions: Many small streams rely on groundwater recharge to maintain minimum flows during dry summer months. With climate change, there may be less recharge occurring during those crucial dry periods and some streams may dry up, threatening all stream life, including the trout. Another factor to ponder is the fate of those tall leafy trees that shade the stream from the hot summer sun. As these canopy species decline or disappear with the warming climate, the water in the stream may be heated further from greater exposure to the sun. 15

18 3. Unwelcome invaders: With warmer temperatures, new species may appear in Johnson s Run. Invasive fish species will move north as streams become warm enough to support them, and they may outcompete the trout, threatening them with extinction. Also, fungal and bacterial diseases will become an increasing risk to the trout population as stream temperatures warm and become more hospitable to the growth of some pathogens. Rainbow Trout in Joe s Pond As messy as the situation is in Johnson s Run, it s even more challenging in Joe s Pond. Consider these possibilities. 1. Physical conditions: As the pond s waters warm during the summer, the upper layer, or epilimnion, will extend deeper into the lake and force the rainbow trout into the ever-shrinking cool bottom layer, the hypolimnion. Since warmer pond temperatures may increase bacterial decomposition of organic matter in these deeper waters, reduced levels of dissolved oxygen may pose an additional threat to the trout, and they may disappear as they literally run out of room to survive. In addition, if there is a reduced volume of water coming into the lake from Johnson s Run, fewer materials such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from decomposing vegetation will be carried into the lake. DOC is responsible for filtering out ultraviolet (UV) radiation in lakes. With less DOC, the trout will be exposed to higher levels of UV radiation, particularly given the phenomenon of ozone thinning that you ve learned about. Their reproductive capacity may be reduced, and they might even be at higher risk of developing skin tumors. 2. Food web problems: As Joe s Pond warms up, the circulation of its waters, a critical mechanism for distributing key nutrients throughout the water column, will probably be reduced, resulting in fewer nutrients being made available to the base of the pond s food web and a subsequent reduced productivity of the phyto- and zooplankton populations. Fewer plankton means less food, particularly for the young rainbow trout. With less energy available to the trout population, less reproduction and reduced growth rates may be expected in any surviving fish. 3. Toxic substances: Warmer temperatures may even change the dynamics of toxic substances like mercury in Joe s Pond. While there are no point-source discharges of this highly toxic element into the pond, transport from distant sources like fossil 16

19 fuel burning power plants and deposition onto the pond and its watershed may result in elevated concentrations in the pond s sediments. The increased bacterial activity that will accompany warmer lake temperatures may convert more inorganic mercury in the pond s sediments to methylmercury, a highly bioavailable and toxic form, posing an additional threat to the trout. As if all this isn t enough to ponder, consider this. You re going to have to look at each watershed in the state individually to determine the potential impacts of climate change. Factors that often vary among watersheds, like particle size and the nutrient content of soils, types of vegetation, and the role that groundwater plays in keeping streams running during dry periods, will play crucial roles in determining how much any particular stream or lake will be affected by climate change. What s more, you re probably going to have to reevaluate Johnson s Run because it will change from year to year. Remember, climate change may produce weather extremes; some years will be very wet and others very dry. What happens to the brook during drought conditions may be very different from what happens during wet years. For example, if flash flooding begins to increase in severity with heavier summer thunderstorms, you may have to worry about bank erosion moving substantial amounts of sediments downstream into Joe s Pond. This might cause a very different set of problems for those rainbows. The bottom line is that climate change will have a host of effects on our rivers and lakes and that these effects will likely be highly variable and perhaps difficult to predict. Some of the changes will be direct, but many will occur because of events occurring elsewhere in the watershed. The trick is to understand the connections that link all our rivers and lakes to the landscapes around them. Note to Teachers Below are some exercises and questions that I use with my students when teaching this systems thinking lesson. Additional Exercises 1. Imagine you have a similar job on the Great Lakes. Considering all the connections, list the possible impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes ecosystem. Give specific examples of likely impacts. Be sure to include at least the perspectives of 17

20 the following people: a fisheries manager, a water supply superintendent, and a public health official. 2. One of the crucial steps in combating climate change is a reduction in the release of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. There is a lot of talk now about how much CO 2 is released by both traditional energy sources (coal, oil, nuclear) and renewable sources like wind and solar. For example, advocates of nuclear power correctly claim that its operation releases no CO 2. But that s only part of the story. What about the mining of the uranium? The transport of waste material? A life-cycle assessment can be used to evaluate the entire process, from the beginning of the cycle, when a fuel is mined or a wind turbine manufactured, to the end of the cycle, when the plant is torn down and disposed of. Do a life-cycle comparison for nuclear, coal, and wind power in terms of carbon dioxide. Be sure to list all the steps in the cycle that might lead to the release of CO 2 and affect how much of the gas is released. What do you conclude from your life-cycle assessment? Questions 1. Why is it important to consider the connections when assessing the potential effects of climate change on watersheds? Give a specific example. 2. How might humans living in the watershed be affected by some of the potential changes we identified for Johnson s Run and Joe s Pond? 3. Identify one specific effect that climate change might have on the food web of Johnson s Run. Do the same for Joe s Pond. 4. How do the differences in the physical properties of Johnson s Run and Joe s Pond influence the impact that climate change might have on each system? List at least two examples for each system. 5. Why is it likely to be difficult to predict the effects that climate change might have on a particular watershed? 6. Which system, Johnson s Run or Joe s Pond, do you think will suffer most from climate change? Why? What additional information might make it easier for you to answer this question? 7. What s the possible connection between climate change and the behavior of mercury in lakes? 18

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