# DNA for Defense Attorneys. Chapter 6

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 DNA for Defense Attorneys Chapter 6

2 Section 1: With Your Expert s Guidance, Interview the Lab Analyst Case File Curriculum Vitae Laboratory Protocols Understanding the information provided

3 Section 2: Interpretation of Results

4 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Partial Profile

5 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Partial Profile Partial Profile (degraded or low template samples) What are the laboratories protocols on interpretation of partial profile Is there a minimum number of genetic markers for interpretation Appropriate statistical calculations conducted

6 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Partial Profile

7 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Partial Profile

8 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Mixture Profile Partial Profile What are the laboratories protocols on interpretation of mixtures Intimate sample protocols (deducing profile) Deduction worksheets Appropriate statistical calculations conducted Major Deduction

9 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Contamination Implies the accidental transfer of DNA May occur at crime scene or in laboratory First responders Potential sources of contamination when performing DNA analysis (documented) Environment Between samples during preparation Amplified DNA from previous PCR reaction Protocols in place to prevent the above

10 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Source Some labs report that a particular individual was the source of a DNA profile recovered from the crime scene. This is typically based on the calculated match. Random Match Probability is more rare than 300 Billion or 10x the worlds population (Lab protocols will state how much)

11 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Partial Profile Match The term match is used when DNA profiles generated from casework evidence are compared and the DNA profile from one sample is the same as the DNA profile from another sample. Followed by random match probability results

12 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Expectation bias having a strong belief or mindset toward a particular outcome For example, knowing the allele types of a potential contributor prior to analyzing the evidence may influence how the analyst interprets the evidence sample.

13 Section 2: Interpretation of Results Inclusions and Exclusions guidelines for formulating conclusions when comparing single-source samples or mixtures with known reference samples. General categories of conclusions include, not limited to: Inclusion, or a match. Exclusion, or a nonmatch. Inconclusive or uninterpretable results. No results Inconclusive results are not the same as an exclusion.

14 Section 3: Technical Artifacts Artifacts are peaks on the electropherogram that are not attributed to the DNA sample Common artifacts Stutter Spikes Dye blobs Pull up Peak height imbalance Drop-out / Drop-in

15 Section 3: Technical Artifacts Stutter Stutter products have been documented since STRs were first described Caused by slipped-strand mispairing GATA ----GATA ---GATA CTAT ----CTAT - -CTAT---CTAT CTAT

16 Section 3: Technical Artifacts Stutter

17 Section 3: Technical Artifacts

18 Section 3: Technical Artifacts

19 Section 3: Technical Artifacts Drop-out

20 Section 3: Technical Artifacts Drop-in - occurs when alleles that do not originate from the actual sample appear in the electropherogram The source of drop-in is often undetermined but may be due to low-level contamination of the sample, sample container or reagents. Drop-in alleles are typically not reproducible upon subsequent reanalysis.

21 Section 3: Technical Artifacts

22 Section 3: Technical Artifacts

23

24 Section 4: What the DNA Does Not Show How or when DNA was placed on an item (Transfer) Consent Contamination Before the crime was committed (commingling of items). During the crime. During evidence collection. During improper storage of the evidence. During laboratory testing, most likely to be obvious and documented

25 Section 7: Types of Statistics What Do They Mean? DNA statistical database database of frequency values for alleles at each locus Labs may have their own databases, use FBI database or use other labs DNA databases DNA Database is a collection of DNA profile from a number of individual Typically 100 to 150 DNA profiles are collected from each population group For 150 individuals, two alleles at each locus, 300 alleles for each locus The frequency of each allele typed within these individuals are calculated

26 Section 7: Types of Statistics What Do They Mean? The allele 16 is observed at the genetic marker D3 15 times 150 profiles (300 alleles) in the database The percentage that allele is observed is 5 percent (15 out of 300 is 5 percent). The lab assigns the frequency of 5 percent (0.05) to the 16 allele This is conducted for alleles observed within all genetic markers typed

27 Section 7: Types of Statistics What Do They Mean? Database must meet Hardy-Weinberg and Linkage Equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg (HW) refers to the statistical independence of alleles within a locus Linkage equilibrium (LE) addresses statistical independence of the different loci HW proportions are attained in a single generation of random mating LE is attained gradually. For pairs of unlinked loci, the departure from LE is halved each generation. database must be examined by a statistician or a population geneticist

28 Section 7: Types of Statistics What Do They Mean? The product rule - multiplication of the allele frequencies both within and across loci is called the product rule. Homozygotes p 2 +p(1-p)θ conservative value of θ for US population is 0.01 small isolated populations 0.03 Theta value is used as a correction factor for the underestimation of the homozygosity of a population Heterozygotes 2p i p j

29 Section 7: Types of Statistics What Do They Mean? Random match and random man probability Uses the product rule to provide a statistical probability of selecting an unrelated individual at random from the population that would also match the DNA profile obtained

30 Section 7: Types of Statistics What Do They Mean? Combined probability of Exclusion (CPE) and Inclusion (CPI) for mixture statistical calculations Probability of Exclusion, PE = Q 2 +θq(1-q)+2q(1-q)(1-θ) CPE combines the PE for each locus CPE = 1/CPI CPE calculates the probability of individuals not contributing to the mixture Makes no assumptions on the number of contributors or identity

31 Partial Profile

32 Section 7: Types of Statistics What Do They Mean? Likelihood ratio (LR) - calculation presenting information on two different questions: What is the probability of the DNA results, assuming that the evidence came from the suspect? (the prosecution s theory of the case) What is the probability of the DNA results, assuming that the evidence did not come from the suspect? (the defense s theory of the case) Likelihood Ratio = Prosecution Theory Defense Theory

33 Section 7: Types of Statistics What Do They Mean? Counting Method The counting method involves counting how many times a profile is seen in the lab s own database. This method is used largely in Y-STR and mtdna cases and is reported as follows: The Y-STR profile was seen three times in the database, The Y-STR profile was not seen in the database.

34 Thank you

### Procedure for Statistical Calculations

Procedure for Statistical Calculations 1.0 Purpose This document provides the procedure for calculating statistical data on single source, predominant profiles and mixed DNA samples. 2.0 Scope This procedure

### Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods. Validation Guidelines for DNA Analysis Methods. Table of Contents

Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods Validation Guidelines for DNA Analysis Methods Table of Contents Introduction.2 1. Definitions. 2 2. General Considerations 3 3. Developmental Validation..5

### Mixture Interpretation: Defining the Relevant Features for Guidelines for the Assessment of Mixed DNA Profiles in Forensic Casework*

J Forensic Sci, July 2009, Vol. 54, No. 4 doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01046.x Available online at: www.blackwell-synergy.com Bruce Budowle, 1 Ph.D.; Anthony J. Onorato, 1 M.S.F.S., M.C.I.M.; Thomas F.

### Nancy W. Peterson Forensic Biology Consultants, LLC July 7, 2011

Nancy W. Peterson Forensic Biology Consultants, LLC July 7, 2011 My Qualifications 20 years : Forensic Serology and DNA cases at the FDLE 30+ years: Training Forensic DNA Technologists & DNA Analysts 30+

### Computer with GeneMapper ID (version 3.2.1 or most current) software Microsoft Excel, Word Print2PDF software

Procedure for GeneMapper ID for Casework 1.0 Purpose-This procedure specifies the steps for performing analysis on DNA samples amplified with AmpFlSTR Identifiler Plus using the GeneMapper ID (GMID) software.

### Popstats Unplugged. 14 th International Symposium on Human Identification. John V. Planz, Ph.D. UNT Health Science Center at Fort Worth

Popstats Unplugged 14 th International Symposium on Human Identification John V. Planz, Ph.D. UNT Health Science Center at Fort Worth Forensic Statistics From the ground up Why so much attention to statistics?

### Forensic DNA Testing Terminology

Forensic DNA Testing Terminology ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer a capillary electrophoresis instrument used by forensic DNA laboratories to separate short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the basis of their size.

### BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. Thesis CHARACTERIZATION OF ERROR TRADEOFFS IN HUMAN IDENTITY COMPARISONS: DETERMINING A COMPLEXITY

BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Thesis CHARACTERIZATION OF ERROR TRADEOFFS IN HUMAN IDENTITY COMPARISONS: DETERMINING A COMPLEXITY THRESHOLD FOR DNA MIXTURE INTERPRETATION By JACOB SAMUEL GORDON A.B.,

### SWGDAM Interpretation Guidelines for Autosomal STR Typing by Forensic DNA Testing Laboratories

SWGDAM Interpretation Guidelines for Autosomal STR Typing by Forensic DNA Testing Laboratories Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) The Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods,

### Forensic Statistics. From the ground up. 15 th International Symposium on Human Identification

Forensic Statistics 15 th International Symposium on Human Identification From the ground up UNTHSC John V. Planz, Ph.D. UNT Health Science Center at Fort Worth Why so much attention to statistics? Exclusions

### Package forensic. February 19, 2015

Type Package Title Statistical Methods in Forensic Genetics Version 0.2 Date 2007-06-10 Package forensic February 19, 2015 Author Miriam Marusiakova (Centre of Biomedical Informatics, Institute of Computer

### Forensic Science International: Genetics

Forensic Science International: Genetics 4 (2009) 1 10 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Forensic Science International: Genetics journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/fsig Interpreting low

### Introduction to Post PCR Cleanup

Matt Kramer Introduction to Post PCR Cleanup Overview Why post PCR amplification cleanup? Enhancing human identity testing Introduction to QIAGEN MinElute post PCR cleanup technologies MinElute as a tool

### Breeding Value versus Genetic Value

Breeding Value versus Genetic Value Gene351 (not( Gene251) Lecture 6 Key terms Breeding value Genetic value Average effect of alleles Reading: Prescribed None Suggested Falconer & McKay, 1996 Revision

### Technical Focus. Being Direct: Development and Optimization of a Direct Amplification Workflow for Single-Source Samples

Technical Focus Being Direct: Development and Optimization of a Direct Amplification Workflow for Single-Source Samples Forensic News 2012 Nicola Oldroyd, Jeff Sailus, Jennifer Schroeder, Lori Hennessy,

### Y Chromosome Markers

Y Chromosome Markers Lineage Markers Autosomal chromosomes recombine with each meiosis Y and Mitochondrial DNA does not This means that the Y and mtdna remains constant from generation to generation Except

### Paternity Testing. Chapter 23

Paternity Testing Chapter 23 Kinship and Paternity DNA analysis can also be used for: Kinship testing determining whether individuals are related Paternity testing determining the father of a child Missing

### Two-locus population genetics

Two-locus population genetics Introduction So far in this course we ve dealt only with variation at a single locus. There are obviously many traits that are governed by more than a single locus in whose

### PAUL JOHNSON CRIMINAL DISTRICT ATTORNEY 1450 E. MCKINNEY, STE 3100 P. 0. BOX 2344 DENTON, TEXAS 76202 HOT CHECKS 940-349-2700 www.dentoncounty.

MAIN NUMBER 940-349-2600 MAIN FAX 940-349-2601 9.. PAUL JOHNSON CRIMINAL DISTRICT ATTORNEY 1450 E. MCKINNEY, STE 3100 P. 0. BOX 2344 DENTON, TEXAS 76202 HOT CHECKS 940-349-2700 www.dentoncounty.com ***NOTICE

### forensim: a free software for DNA evidence interpretation and forensic genetics simulations

forensim: a free software for DNA evidence interpretation and forensic genetics simulations Hinda Haned Biometry and Evolutionary Biology, University of Lyon, France European DNA Profiling Group; Edinburgh

### DNA and Forensic Science

DNA and Forensic Science Micah A. Luftig * Stephen Richey ** I. INTRODUCTION This paper represents a discussion of the fundamental principles of DNA technology as it applies to forensic testing. A brief

### for Lawyers and Investigating Officers

Guide to DNA for Lawyers and Investigating Officers This booklet is designed to give lawyers and investigating officers a basic understanding of DNA analysis and interpretation. It aims to assist them

### Development of two Novel DNA Analysis methods to Improve Workflow Efficiency for Challenging Forensic Samples

Development of two Novel DNA Analysis methods to Improve Workflow Efficiency for Challenging Forensic Samples Sudhir K. Sinha, Ph.D.*, Anne H. Montgomery, M.S., Gina Pineda, M.S., and Hiromi Brown, Ph.D.

### LRmix tutorial, version 4.1

LRmix tutorial, version 4.1 Hinda Haned Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague, The Netherlands May 2013 Contents 1 What is LRmix? 1 2 Installation 1 2.1 Install the R software...........................

### Artifacts in Genotyping STRs

Biology of STRs Artifacts in Genotyping STRs A number of artifacts are possible: Stuttering Non-template additions Microvariants Three peaks Allele dropouts Mutations All interfere with reading a DNA profile

### Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Lineage Markers Lineage markers are passed down from generation to generation without changing Except for rare mutation events They can help determine the lineage (family tree)

### The author(s) shown below used Federal funds provided by the U.S. Department of Justice and prepared the following final report:

The author(s) shown below used Federal funds provided by the U.S. Department of Justice and prepared the following final report: Document Title: Author: Rapid STR Prescreening of Forensic Samples at the

### Evaluating Forensic DNA Evidence: Essential Elements of a Competent Defense Review

Evaluating Forensic DNA Evidence: Essential Elements of a Competent Defense Review William C. Thompson, Simon Ford, Travis Doom, Michael Raymer and Dan Krane Introduction I get a sinking feeling when I

### Are DNA tests infallible?

International Congress Series 1239 (2003) 873 877 Are DNA tests infallible? G. Penacino *, A. Sala, D. Corach Servicio de Huellas Digitales Genéticas and Cátedra de Genética y Biología Molecular, Fac.

### Basic Principles of Forensic Molecular Biology and Genetics. Population Genetics

Basic Principles of Forensic Molecular Biology and Genetics Population Genetics Significance of a Match What is the significance of: a fiber match? a hair match? a glass match? a DNA match? Meaning of

### Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15

Allele Frequencies: Changing Chapter 15 Changing Allele Frequencies 1. Mutation introduces new alleles into population 2. Natural Selection specific alleles are more likely to be passed down because they

### The Facts About Forensic DNA Analysis and DNA Databases. dnasaves.org

dnasaves.org The Facts About Forensic DNA Analysis and DNA Databases A guide to scientific methodologies, laws and regulations for forensic DNA sample analysis. The shared local, state and national forensic

### Collecting a Buccal Swab An Art or a Cinch? By Chantel Marie Giamanco, Forensic Scientist Human Identification Technologies, Inc.

Collecting a Buccal Swab An Art or a Cinch? By Chantel Marie Giamanco, Forensic Scientist Human Identification Technologies, Inc. An increasing number of cases tried in the courtroom involve DNA evidence.

### Commonly Used STR Markers

Commonly Used STR Markers Repeats Satellites 100 to 1000 bases repeated Minisatellites VNTR variable number tandem repeat 10 to 100 bases repeated Microsatellites STR short tandem repeat 2 to 6 bases repeated

### Population Genetics. Macrophage

Population Genetics CCR5 CCR5-Δ32 Macrophage 1 What accounts for this variation? Random? Past epidemics (plague, smallpox)? What will happen to this variation in the future? Will Δ32 allele increase in

### Dye-Blob message: Example: Generally, this is due to incomplete excess dye removal of the cycle sequence reaction.

When sequence data is uploaded to ilab, an email is sent notifying the user that data is ready. The staff of the DNA facility has the ability to edit this message to include specific remarks about how

### Chapter 23. (Mendelian) Population. Gene Pool. Genetic Variation. Population Genetics

30 25 Chapter 23 Population Genetics Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D F Grade = 57 Avg = 79.5 % (Mendelian) Population A group of interbreeding, sexually reproducing organisms that share a common set of

### Gene Mapping Techniques

Gene Mapping Techniques OBJECTIVES By the end of this session the student should be able to: Define genetic linkage and recombinant frequency State how genetic distance may be estimated State how restriction

### Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Additional Markers 13 core STR loci Obtain further information from additional markers: Y STRs Separating male samples Mitochondrial DNA Working with extremely degraded

### DNA. STR Data Analysis & Interpretation for Forensic Analysts

STR Data Analysis & Interpretation for Forensic Analysts This course is provided free of charge and is part of a series designed to teach about DNA and forensic DNA use and analysis. Find this course live,

### Population Genetics INTRODUCT ION:

Population Genetics INTRODUCT ION: An understanding of evolution depends upon knowledge of population genetics. If you have ever asked questions such as the ones that follow, you begin to see why studying

### Population and Community Dynamics

Population and Community Dynamics Part 1. Genetic Diversity in Populations Pages 676 to 701 Part 2. Population Growth and Interactions Pages 702 to 745 Review Evolution by Natural Selection new variants

### Chapter 4. The analysis of Segregation

Chapter 4. The analysis of Segregation 1 The law of segregation (Mendel s rst law) There are two alleles in the two homologous chromosomes at a certain marker. One of the two alleles received from one

### Supreme Court of the United States

No. 10-8505 IN THE Supreme Court of the United States SANDY WILLIAMS, v. Petitioner, PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS, Respondent. On Writ of Certiorari to the Supreme Court of Illinois BRIEF OF AMICI CURIAE

### Ch.16-17 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Ch.16-17 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following statements describe what all members of a population

### Chapter 25: Population Genetics

Chapter 25: Population Genetics Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the concept of a population and polymorphism in populations. 2. Apply the

### Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods. Interpretation Guidelines for Y-Chromosome STR Typing. Table Of Contents

Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods Interpretation Guidelines for Y-Chromosome STR Typing Table Of Contents Introduction... 2 Background... 3 1. Application of Y-STR Typing... 4 2. Preliminary

### The Potential for Error in Forensic DNA Testing (and How That Complicates the Use of DNA Databases for Criminal Identification)

The Potential for Error in Forensic DNA Testing (and How That Complicates the Use of DNA Databases for Criminal Identification) William C. Thompson Department of Criminology, Law & Society University of

### Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve

Title Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Population Genetics A population is all of the members of a single species

### Objective DNA Mixture Information in the Courtroom: Relevance, Reliability and Acceptance

Objective DNA Mixture Information in the Courtroom: Relevance, Reliability and Acceptance Mark W. Perlin, PhD, MD, PhD Cybergenetics, Pittsburgh, PA September 30, 2015 Presented in Arlington, Virginia

### DNA as a Biometric. Biometric Consortium Conference 2011 Tampa, FL

DNA as a Biometric Biometric Consortium Conference 2011 Tampa, FL September 27, 2011 Dr. Peter M. Vallone Biochemical Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899

### Rational bias in forensic science

Law, Probability and Risk (2010) 9, 69 90 Advance Access publication on January 18, 2010 doi:10.1093/lpr/mgp028 Rational bias in forensic science GLEN WHITMAN Associate Professor of Economics, Department

### Forensic Science International: Genetics

Forensic Science International: Genetics 6 (2012) 679 688 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Forensic Science International: Genetics jou r nal h o mep ag e: w ww.elsevier.co m /loc ate/fs

### CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION THROUGH DNA TRACES USING BAYESIAN NETWORKS

CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION THROUGH DNA TRACES USING BAYESIAN NETWORKS ANDRADE Marina, (PT), FERREIRA Manuel Alberto M., (PT) Abstract. The use of biological information in crime scene identification problems

### C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles.

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. The prevalence of an allele within the gene pool is described

### procedure, I just know that she was disciplined for not following policy, and that's the reason why she was terminated.

procedure, I just know that she was disciplined for not following policy, and that's the reason why she was terminated. So I really don't have all the details of what was involved. MR. HOCHGLAUBE: I'll

### The comparison of the software program Bonaparte with the Missing Persons/DVImodule. Dr.Ir. C.P. (Kees) van der Beek MBA Custodian Dutch DNA-database

The comparison of the software program Bonaparte with the Missing Persons/DVImodule of CODIS 7 Dr.Ir. C.P. (Kees) van der Beek MBA Custodian Dutch DNA-database Linköping 24 april 2012 Content of the presentation

### Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1

Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1 Review and Introduction Mendel presented the first successful theory of the inheritance of biological variation. He viewed

### Applications in population genetics. Hanan Hamamy Department of Genetic Medicine and Development Geneva University

Applications in population genetics Hanan Hamamy Department of Genetic Medicine and Development Geneva University Training Course in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2013 Population genetics

### The Blairsville Slaying and the Dawn of DNA Computing

The Blairsville Slaying and the Dawn of DNA Computing Mark W. Perlin, PhD, MD, PhD Cybergenetics, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 28 January 2013 Cybergenetics 2012-2013 To appear as a chapter in the forthcoming

### LS4 Problem Set 2, Population Genetics. Corresponding Quiz: November (Along with positional cloning)

LS4 Problem Set 2, 2010 Population Genetics Corresponding Lectures: November 5, 8 and 10 Corresponding Reading: Hartwell et al., 757-773 Corresponding Quiz: November 15-19 (Along with positional cloning)

### Development and Internal Validation of a Chelex DNA Extraction Protocol for Reference Oral Swabs

Development and Internal Validation of a Chelex DNA Extraction Protocol for Reference Oral Swabs Choon Sung Kambara, BS 1, Rebecca Boissaye, MSFS 2, Joshua Stewart, MSFS 1, Pamela Staton, PhD 1 1 Marshall

### HLA data analysis in anthropology: basic theory and practice

HLA data analysis in anthropology: basic theory and practice Alicia Sanchez-Mazas and José Manuel Nunes Laboratory of Anthropology, Genetics and Peopling history (AGP), Department of Anthropology and Ecology,

### FIVS 316 BIOTECHNOLOGY & FORENSICS Syllabus - Lecture followed by Laboratory

FIVS 316 BIOTECHNOLOGY & FORENSICS Syllabus - Lecture followed by Laboratory Instructor Information: Name: Dr. Craig J. Coates Email: ccoates@tamu.edu Office location: 319 Heep Center Office hours: By

### Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems 1. The frequency of two alleles in a gene pool is 0.19 (A) and 0.81(a). Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (a) Calculate the percentage of

### Prof. Arjumand S. Warsy Department of Biochemistry College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh

GENOTYPE, PHENOTYPE AND GENE FREQUENCIES Prof. Arjumand S. Warsy Department of Biochemistry College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh Introduction Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual

### CAP BIOINFORMATICS Su-Shing Chen CISE. 10/5/2005 Su-Shing Chen, CISE 1

CAP 5510-8 BIOINFORMATICS Su-Shing Chen CISE 10/5/2005 Su-Shing Chen, CISE 1 Genomic Mapping & Mapping Databases High resolution, genome-wide maps of DNA markers. Integrated maps, genome catalogs and comprehensive

### FORENSIC BIOLOGY PROTOCOLS FOR FORENSIC STR ANALYSIS Approving Authority: Eugene Y. Lien, Technical Leader Nuclear DNA Operations

FORENSIC BIOLOGY PROTOCOLS FOR FORENSIC STR ANALYSIS Approving Authority: Eugene Y. Lien, Technical Leader Nuclear DNA Operations Working version as of 08/14/2015 Highlighted sections indicate a new revision

### HISTORY AND SCIENCE OF FORENSIC DNA TESTING. BY: Paul Couenhoven

HISTORY AND SCIENCE OF FORENSIC DNA TESTING BY: Paul Couenhoven SCIENTIFIC BASICS OF DNA What is DNA? DNA stands for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. It is the genetic material of a cell. The chromosomes inside

### Chapter 8: Recombinant DNA 2002 by W. H. Freeman and Company Chapter 8: Recombinant DNA 2002 by W. H. Freeman and Company

Genetic engineering: humans Gene replacement therapy or gene therapy Many technical and ethical issues implications for gene pool for germ-line gene therapy what traits constitute disease rather than just

### Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection

Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection Carl Correns 1900 Chapter 13 First suggests central role for chromosomes Rediscovery of Mendel s work Walter Sutton 1902 Chromosomal theory

### Assessment Schedule 2014 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) Evidence Statement

NCEA Level 2 Biology (91157) 2014 page 1 of 5 Assessment Schedule 2014 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) Evidence Statement NCEA Level 2 Biology (91157) 2014 page

### Welcome to the new era of genomics-based healthcare. Introducing TruGenome Clinical Sequencing Services from Illumina Clinical Services Laboratory

Welcome to the new era of genomics-based healthcare. Introducing TruGenome Clinical Sequencing Services from Illumina Clinical Services Laboratory Genomics-based healthcare is available now for you and

### Basic Premises of Population Genetics

Population genetics is concerned with the origin, amount and distribution of genetic variation present in populations of organisms, and the fate of this variation through space and time. The fate of genetic

### Guidelines for. Mass Fatality. DNA Identification. Operations

Contributors Amanda Sozer, PhD, SNA International Michael Baird, PhD, DNA Diagnostics Center Michelle Beckwith, BS, Paternity Testing Corporation Brian Harmon, PhD, California Department of Justice Demris

### Evolution of Populations

Evolution of Populations Evolution Q: How can populations evolve to form new species? 17.1 How do genes make evolution possible? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: There are different variations of the same gene.

### CAMPBELL BIOLOGY. Chapter 13

Lecture 10 Population Genetics CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Chapter 13 Hox Genes Control development Hox genes need to be highly regulated to get expressed at the right time and correct level to orchestrate mammalian

### The Techniques of Molecular Biology: Forensic DNA Fingerprinting

Revised Fall 2011 The Techniques of Molecular Biology: Forensic DNA Fingerprinting The techniques of molecular biology are used to manipulate the structure and function of molecules such as DNA and proteins

### ENCODED EVIDENCE: DNA IN FORENSIC ANALYSIS

ENCODED EVIDENCE: DNA IN FORENSIC ANALYSIS Mark A. Jobling* and Peter Gill Abstract Sherlock Holmes said it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important, but

### Simple Reporting of Complex DNA Evidence: Automated Computer Interpretation

Simple Reporting of Complex DNA Evidence: Automated Computer Interpretation Mark W. Perlin Cybergenetics, Pittsburgh, PA November 18, 2003 In the Proceedings of Promega's Fourteenth International Symposium

### Quantitative Genetics: II - Advanced Topics:

1999, 000 Gregory Carey Chapter 19: Advanced Topics - 1 Quantitative Genetics: II - Advanced Topics: In this section, mathematical models are developed for the computation of different types of genetic

### For a particular allele N, its frequency in a population is calculated using the formula:

Date: Calculating Allele Frequency Definitions: Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele in a population. Microevolution is defined as the change in the frequency of alleles

### Chapter 2. The interpretation of bioinformation

Chapter 2 The interpretation of bioinformation The interpretation of bioinformation Introduction 2.1 This chapter examines fingerprinting and the science underlying DNA profiling, and considers how they

### (1-p) 2. p(1-p) From the table, frequency of DpyUnc = ¼ (p^2) = #DpyUnc = p^2 = 0.0004 ¼(1-p)^2 + ½(1-p)p + ¼(p^2) #Dpy + #DpyUnc

Advanced genetics Kornfeld problem set_key 1A (5 points) Brenner employed 2-factor and 3-factor crosses with the mutants isolated from his screen, and visually assayed for recombination events between

### DNA Sequencing Troubleshooting Guide.

DNA Sequencing Troubleshooting Guide. There are a number of factors that can lead to less than perfect DNA sequencing results. In this guide, we explain some of the common problems encountered, and outline

### A Simplified Guide To DNA Evidence

A Simplified Guide To DNA Evidence Introduction The establishment of DNA analysis within the criminal justice system in the mid- 1980s revolutionized the field of forensic science. With subsequent refinement

### CHAPTER 23 THE EVOLUTIONS OF POPULATIONS. Section B: Causes of Microevolution

CHAPTER 23 THE EVOLUTIONS OF POPULATIONS Section B: Causes of Microevolution 1. Microevolution is generation-to-generation change in a population s allele frequencies 2. The two main causes of microevolution

### DNA Detection. Chapter 13

DNA Detection Chapter 13 Detecting DNA molecules Once you have your DNA separated by size Now you need to be able to visualize the DNA on the gel somehow Original techniques: Radioactive label, silver

### Workshop on Microevolution

Workshop on Microevolution by Dana Krempels I. Discuss the meaning of: a. species f. heritable traits (consider "nature vs. nurture") b. population g. lethal alleles c. gene pool h. adaptive, maladaptive,

### DNA Sequencing Troubleshooting Guide

DNA Sequencing Troubleshooting Guide Successful DNA Sequencing Read Peaks are well formed and separated with good quality scores. There is a small area at the beginning of the run before the chemistry

### Chapter 8 Population Genetics: How do Genes Move through Time and Space?

Chapter 8 Population Genetics: How do Genes Move through Time and Space? 4/29/2009 Chun-Yu Chuang How Do We Characterize Variation? Variation can be smooth or discontinuous. Two views of biology Naturalists

### Computer Automation of STR Scoring for Forensic Databases

Computer Automation of STR Scoring for Forensic Databases Mark W. Perlin * Cybergenetics, Pittsburgh, PA Abstract Forensic databases are becoming an increasingly valuable law enforcement tool for convicting

### Extraction from Buccal Epithelial Cells

Genomic DNA Extraction from Buccal Epithelial Cells The purpose of this lab is to collect a DNA sample from the cells that line the inside of your mouth and to use this sample to explore one of the most

### Chip-Off and JTAG Analysis

The magazine dedicated exclusively to the technology of evidence collection, processing, and preservation Volume 10, Number 3 May-June 2012 Chip-Off and JTAG Analysis TOPICS IN THIS ISSUE Synthetic Cannabinoid

### Biology: Foundation Edition Miller/Levine 2010

A Correlation of Biology: Foundation Edition Miller/Levine 2010 to the IDAHO CONTENT STANDARDS Science - Biology Grades 9-10 INTRODUCTION This document demonstrates how Prentice Hall s Biology: Foundation

### Appendix D: Pre-lab Assignments and Gel Electrophoresis Worksheet

Appendix D: Pre-lab Assignments and Gel Electrophoresis Worksheet PCR Pre-Lab (pg. 1-3) PCR Pre-Lab Answers (pg. 4-7) RNAi Pre-Lab (pg. 8) RNAi Pre-Lab Answers (pg. 9-10 Gel Electrophoresis Worksheet (pg.

### "Dealing with DNA" A Primer for Lawyers By Christine Funk

"Dealing with DNA" A Primer for Lawyers By Christine Funk I. Introduction A few months ago I got a call from an attorney in another state who was going to be arguing a DNA case in front of her Court of