CSCI Computer Networking: Physical Layer Transmission Media George Blankenship. Physical Layer Transmission Media. George Blankenship 1

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1 CSCI 6431 Computer Networking: George Blankenship George Blankenship 1

2 Lecture Outline Guided wire Unguided wireless George Blankenship 2

3 Design Factors Key concerns are data rate and distance Higher bandwidth gives higher data rate Transmission impairments increase with distance (decrease data rate) Number of receivers More receivers (multi-point) i )introduce more attenuation Characteristics and quality Determined by medium and signal For guided, the medium is more important For unguided, the bandwidth produced by the antenna is more important George Blankenship 3

4 Electromagnetic Spectrum George Blankenship 4

5 Guided Twisted Pair Coaxial cable Optical fiber George Blankenship 5

6 Twisted Pair George Blankenship 6

7 Twisted Pair - Applications Most common medium Telephone network Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop) Within buildings To private branch exchange (PBX) For local area networks (LAN) 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps George Blankenship 7

8 Twisted Pair - Pros and Cons Cheap Easytoworkwith with Low data rate Short range George Blankenship 8

9 Twisted Pair - Transmission Characteristics Analog Amplifiers every 5km to 6km Digital Use either analog or digital signals repeater every 2km or 3km Limited distance Limited bandwidth (1 MHz) Limited data rate (100 MHz) Susceptible to interference and noise George Blankenship 9

10 Near End Crosstalk Coupling of signal from one pair to another Coupling takes place when transmit signal entering the link couples back to receiving pair Near transmitted signal is picked up by near receiving pair George Blankenship 10

11 Unshielded and Shielded TP Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ordinary telephone wire Cheapest Easiest to install Suffers from external EM interference Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Metal lbraid or sheathing hi that reduces interference More expensive Harder to handle (thick, heavy) George Blankenship 11

12 UTP Categories Cat 3 (16 MHz) Voice grade found in most offices Twist length of 7.5 cm to 10 cm Cat 4 (20 MHz) up to 20 MHz Cat 5 (100 MHz) up to 100MHz Commonly pre-installed in new office buildings Twistlength06cmto085cm 0.6 to 0.85 Cat 6 (200 MHz) Cat 7 (600 MHz) George Blankenship 12

13 Coaxial Cable George Blankenship 13

14 Coaxial Cable Applications Most versatile medium Television distribution Ariel to TV Cable TV Long distance telephone transmission Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously Being replaced by fiber optic Short distance computer systems links Local area networks George Blankenship 14

15 Coaxial Cable - Transmission Analog Characteristics Amplifiers every few km Closer if higher frequency Up to 500 MHz Digital Repeater every 1km Closer for higher data rates George Blankenship 15

16 Optical Fiber George Blankenship 16

17 Optical Fiber - Benefits Greater capacity Data rates of hundreds of Gbps Smaller size & weight Lower attenuationation Electromagnetic isolation Greater repeater spacing 10s of km at least George Blankenship 17

18 Optical Fiber - Applications Long-haul trunks Metropolitan trunks Rural exchange trunks Subscriber loops LANs George Blankenship 18

19 Wireless Transmission 30 MHz to 1 GHz Omnidirectional Broadcast radio 2 GHz to 40 GHz Microwave Highly directional Point to point Satellite 3 x to 2 x Infrared Local Frequencies George Blankenship 19

20 Antennas Electrical conductor (or system of..) used to radiate electromagnetic energy or collect electromagnetic energy Transmission Radio frequency energy from transmitter Converted to electromagnetic energy Radiated into surrounding environment Reception Electromagnetic energy impinging on antenna Converted to radio frequency electrical energy Fed to receiver Same antenna often used for both George Blankenship 20

21 Radiation Pattern Power radiated in all directions Not same performance in all directions Isotropic antenna is (theoretical) point in space Radiates in all directions equally Gives spherical radiation i pattern Power loss increases with distance George Blankenship 21

22 Parabolic Reflective Antenna Used for terrestrial and satellite microwave Parabola is locus of point equidistant from a line and a point not on that line Fixed point is focus Line is directrix Revolve parabola about axis to get paraboloid Cross section parallel l to axis gives parabola Cross section perpendicular to axis gives circle Source placed at focus will produce waves reflected from parabola in parallel to axis Creates (theoretical) parallel beam of light/sound/radio On reception, signal is concentrated at focus, where detector is placed George Blankenship 22

23 Parabolic Reflective Antenna George Blankenship 23

24 Antenna Gain Measure of directionality of antenna Power output in particular direction compared with that produced by isotropic antenna Measured in decibels (db) Results in loss in power in another direction Effective area relates to size and shape Related to gain George Blankenship 24

25 Terrestrial Microwave Parabolic dish Focused beam Line of sight Long haul telecommunications i Higher frequencies give higher data rates George Blankenship 25

26 Satellite Microwave Satellite is relay station Satellite receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency Requires geo-stationary orbit Height of 35,784km Television Long distance telephone Private business networks George Blankenship 26

27 Satellite Point to Point Link George Blankenship 27

28 Satellite Broadcast Link George Blankenship 28

29 Broadcast Radio Omnidirectional FM radio UHF and VHF television Line of sight Suffers from multipath interference Reflections George Blankenship 29

30 Infrared Modulate noncoherent infrared light Line of sight (or reflection) Blocked by walls TV remote control, IRD port George Blankenship 30

31 Wireless Propagation Signal travels along three routes Ground wave Follows contour of earth Up to 2 MHz AM radio Sky wave Amateur radio, BBC world service, Voice of America Signal reflected from ionosphere layer of upper atmosphere (Actually refracted) Line of sight Above 30 MHz May be further than optical line of sight due to refraction George Blankenship 31

32 Ground Wave Propagation George Blankenship 32

33 Sky Wave Propagation George Blankenship 33

34 Line of Sight Propagation George Blankenship 34

35 Refraction Velocity of electromagnetic wave is a function of density of material ~3 x 10 8 m/s in vacuum, less in anything else As wave moves from one medium to another, its speed changes Causes bending of direction of wave at boundary Towards more dense medium Index of refraction (refractive index) is Sin(angle of incidence)/sin(angle of refraction) Varies with wavelength May cause sudden change of direction at transition between media May cause gradual bending if medium density is varying Density of atmosphere decreases with height Results in bending towards earth of radio waves George Blankenship 35

36 Line of Sight Transmission Free space loss Signal disperses with distance Greater for lower frequencies (longer wavelengths) Atmospheric Absorption Water vapour and oxygen absorb radio signals Water greatest at 22 GHz, less below 15 GHz Oxygen greater at 60 GHz, less below 30 GHz Rain and fog scatter radio waves Multipath Better to get line of sight if possible Signal can be reflected causing multiple copies to be received May be no direct signal at all May reinforce or cancel direct signal Refraction May result in partial or total t loss of signal at receiver George Blankenship 36

37 Multipath Interference George Blankenship 37

38 Suggested Reading Stallings Chapter 4 George Blankenship 38

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