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1 Krešimir Malarić EMI Protection for Communication Systems CD-ROM INCLUDED

2 Contents Preface xiii CHAPTER 1 Communications Systems Components of Communications Systems Transmitter Systems Transmitter Randomization Encryption Encoder Interleaving Modulation Mixer (Upconverter) Filter Receiver Systems Filter Mixer (Downconverter) Demodulator Deinterleaver Decoder Decryptor Derandomizer Demultiplexer Received Power User Interface Graphical User Interface (GUI) Voice User Interface (VOI) Antenna Systems Duplexer Antenna Power Supplies Power Supply Types Power Amplifier 23 v

3 vi Contents 1.7 Considerations for Voice Versus Data Text Images Voice Video 24 Selected Bibliography 24 CHAPTER 2 Electromagnetic Spectrum Used for Communications Electromagnetic Spectrum Extra Low Frequency (ELF) Super Low Frequency (SLF) Ultra Low Frequencies (ULF) Very Low Frequency (VLF) Low Frequency (LF) Medium Frequency (MF) High Frequency (HF) Very High Frequency (VHF) Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Super High Frequency (SHF) Extra High Frequency (EHF) Infrared (IR) Visible Spectrum Division 30 Selected Bibliography 33 CHAPTER 3 Electromagnetic Properties of Communications Systems Fundamental Communications System Electromagnetics Smith Chart Snell s Law of Reflection and Refraction Wave Generation and Propagation in Free Space Maxwell s Equations Wave Propagation Wave Polarization Fresnel Knife-Edge Diffraction Path Loss Prediction Wave Generation and Propagation in the Terrestrial Atmosphere Absorption and Scattering Wave Propagation in the Atmosphere 54 Selected Bibliography 55 CHAPTER 4 Electromagnetic Interference Electromagnetic Interference with Wave Propagation and Reception Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) 57

4 Contents vii Thermal Noise Shot Noise Flicker (1/f ) Noise Burst Noise Noise Spectral Density Effective Input Noise Temperature Natural Sources of Electromagnetic Interference Lightning and Electrostatic Discharge Multipath Effects Caused by Surface Feature Diffraction and Attenuation Attenuation by Atmospheric Water Attenuation by Atmospheric Pollutants Sunspot Activity Manmade Sources of Electromagnetic Interference Commercial Radio and Telephone Communications Military Radio and Telephone Communications Commercial Radar Systems Industrial Sources Intentional Interference 76 Selected Bibliography 77 CHAPTER 5 Filter Interference Control Filters Lowpass Filter Highpass Filter Bandpass Filter Bandstop Filter Resonator Analog Filters Butterworth Filter Chebyshev Filters Bessel Filters Elliptic Filters Passive Filters Active Filters Digital Filters FIR Filters IIR Filters Microwave Filters Lumped-Element Filters Waveguide Cavity Filters Dielectric Resonator 100 Selected Bibliography 101

5 viii Contents CHAPTER 6 Modulation Techniques Signal Processing and Detection Modulation and Demodulation Analog Modulations Digital Modulation Control of System Drift 120 Selected Bibliography 120 CHAPTER 7 Electromagnetic Field Coupling to Wire Field-to-Wire Coupling Skin Effect Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ferrite Filter Electric Field Coupling to Wires Magnetic Field Coupling to Wires Cable Shielding Tri-Axial Cable Cable Termination Shielded Twisted Pair Cables 134 Selected Bibliography 136 CHAPTER 8 Electromagnetic Field-to-Aperture Coupling Field-to-Aperture Coupling Shielding Effectiveness (SE) Multiple Apertures Waveguides Below Cutoff Reflection and Transmission Electric Field Magnetic Field Equipment Shielding Gasketing PCB Protection Magnetic Shield 149 Selected Bibliography 151 CHAPTER 9 Electrical Grounding and Bonding Grounding for Safety Shock Control Fault Protection Grounding for Voltage Reference Control Floating Ground Single Point Ground 157

6 Contents ix Multipoint Ground Equipotential Plane Bonding for Current Control Bonding Classes Strap Bond for Class R Resistance Requirements Types of Electrical Bonds Welding and Brazing Bolting Conductive Adhesive Galvanic (Dissimilar Metal) Corrosion Control 164 Selected Bibliography 166 CHAPTER 10 Emissions and Susceptibility Radiated and Conducted Control of Emissions and Susceptibility Radiated and Conducted Sources of Electromagnetic Interference Test Requirements for Emission and Susceptibility Standard Organizations Commercial Requirements Military Requirements Specific Conducted Emissions Requirements Mil-Std 461E Specific Conducted Susceptibility Requirements Mil-Std 461E Radiated Emissions Requirements Mil-Std 461E Radiated Susceptibility Requirements Mil-Std 461E 182 Selected Bibliography 182 CHAPTER 11 Measurement Facilities Full Anechoic and Semianechoic Chambers Absorbers Ferrite Tiles Open Area Test Site (OATS) Reverberation Chamber TEM Cell Characteristic Impedance Higher-Order Modes TEM Cell Construction Parameter Measurements GTEM Cell GTEM Cell Characteristics GTEM Cell Construction GTEM Cell Parameter Measurement Current Distribution at Septum 211 Selected Bibliography 212

7 x Contents CHAPTER 12 Typical Test Equipment LISN Line Impedance Stabilization Network Coupling Capacitor Coupling Transformer Parallel Plate for Susceptibility Test Coupling Clamps and Probes Capacitive Coupling Clamp Current Probe Injection Clamps and Probes Current Injection Probe EM Clamp Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Generator EMI Receiver Spectrum Analyzer Oscilloscopes 225 Selected Bibliography 225 CHAPTER 13 Control of Measurement Uncertainty Evaluation of Standard Uncertainty Type A Evaluation of Standard Uncertainty Type B Evaluation of Standard Uncertainty Distributions Normal (Gaussian) Distribution Rectangular Distribution U-Shaped Distribution Combined Standard Uncertainty Expanded Uncertainty Sources of Error Stability Environment Calibration Data Resolution Device Positioning RF Mismatch Error Definitions 232 Selected Bibliography 232 Appendix A Communication Frequency Allocations 235 A.1 Frequency Allocation in the United States 235 A.2 International Frequency Allocation 245

8 Contents xi Appendix B List of EMC Standards Regarding Emission and Susceptibility 255 B.1 Cenelec 255 B.2 Australian Standards 256 B.3 Canadian Standards 256 B.4 European Standards 258 B.5 Other Standards 259 Acronyms and Abbreviations 261 Glossary 265 About the Author 267 Index 269

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