1. Introduction. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12

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1 1. Introduction

2 Topics History Characteristics of satellite communications Frequencies Application 1

3 History Arthur C. Clark suggested in Earth coverage with 3 geostationary satellites. On 4th of October 1957., SSSR launched Sputnik 1 as the first satellite USA launches SCORE, the first communication satellite on 18th December It transmitted Christmas message from president Eisenhower. First NASA satellite launched in 1960: Explorer 08. SCORE 2

4 History 1962, Echo 1, first satellite for telephone & TV broadcast. 1964, first geostationary satellite Syncom , first European satellite ESRO 2B. 1974, First direct broadcasting satellite ATS , first satellite repaired in orbit by Space shuttle: SMM. Syncom 3 ESRO 2B 3

5 Characteristics of satellite communications Very large distance between transmitter and receiver Problem of sending satellites into orbit around Earth Coverage of very large areas Large time delay Large antennas Weak signal strength Rain causes problems LOS (line of sight propagation) 4

6 Characteristics of satellite communications Limited energy Sun collectors Influence of Sun, Moon and ellipsoidal Earth Interference from Earth services Expensive materials Special modulation techniques, coding and multiple access Terrain limitation on Earth satellite station 5

7 Name Frequency Wavelength Application Spreading range Extremely low frequency (ELF) Hz km Navigation, ship communication Ionosphere reflecting Very low frequency (VLF) 3 30 khz km Navigation, communication on large distances Groundwave Low frequency (LF) khz 1-10 km Navigation, ship communication Groundwave Medium frequency (MF) khz m AM radio, navigation Groundwave, Skywave High frequency (HF) 3-30 MHz m Broadcasting, point to point around Earth Ionosphere reflection Very high frequency (VHF) MHz 1-10 m Radio and TV broadcasting, mobile services Diffraction Ultra high frequency (UHF) MHz cm Mobile telephony, satellites, radar Building shadow Super high frequency (SHF) 3 30 GHz 1-10 cm Microwave links, satellite communications Rain attenuation Extremely high frequency (EHF) GHz 1-10 mm LOS (small distance or satellites) Rain attenuation 6

8 Satellite broadcasting (TVRO TV receive only) L band S band Ku band K band Ka band ( MHz) (2,310 2,360 GHz; 2,520 2,655 GHz) (11,7 12,7 GHz) (17,3 17,8 GHz; 21,4 22 GHz) (40,5 42,5 GHz) TVRO TV receive only 7

9 300 MHz 3 GHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz ,6-4,2 4,5-4,8 5,15-5,25 5,85-7,075 7,25-7,75 7,9-8,4 10,7-12,2 12,7-13,25 13,75-14,5 15,43-15,63 17,3-21,2 24,75-25,25 27,5-30 Fixed satellite links (US) , ,5-45,5 47,2-50,2 50,4-51, , ,

10 30 MHz 300 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz ,05 399,9-400,05 400, , , , ,25-7,75 7,9-8, ,5 19,7-21,2 29, , , ,4-51, , , Mobile satellite links (US) 9

11 30 MHz 300 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz , , ,6-5,65 7,75-7,85 8,175-8,215 9,3-9,5 9,975-10,025 33,4-34,5 Metrology instrumentation/radar/satellites (US) 10

12 30 MHz 300 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 30,0-37, Active satellite sensors (EU) 30 MHz 300 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz , ,650 5,725 5,830 5,850 10,45 10, , ,2 75,5 81,5 122, Radio amateurs (EU) 11

13 3 GHz 30 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz 3,4-4,2 4,5-4,8 5,15-5,25 5,725-7,075 7,25-7,75 7,9-8,4 10,7-11,7 12,5-13,25 13,75-14,5 15,43-15,63 17,3-21,2 27, ,5-40,5 42,5-45,5 47,2-50,2 50,4-51, , , Fixed satellite links (EU) 30 MHz 300 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz ,05 400, Satellites in LEO orbits (EU) 3 GHz 30 GHz 12,5-12, ,50 VSAT (EU) 12

14 30 MHz 300 MHz Weather satellites (EU) 300 MHz 3 GHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz , , ,45-7,55 7,75-7,85 8,175-8,215 18,1-18,3 35, MHz 3 GHz 1479, Satellite digital audio broadcasting (S-DAB) (EU) 3 GHz 30 GHz 11,7-12,5 21,4-22 Satellite TV (EU) 13

15 30 MHz 300 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz 121,45-121, ,05 242,95-243,05 399,9-400,05 400, , , , ,25-7,375 7,9-8,025 10,7-11, ,50 19,7-21,2 29, ,5-40,5 43, ,4-51, , , Mobile satellite links (EU) 14

16 300 MHz 3 GHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz ,2-4,4 4,8-4,99 6,425-7,25 10,6-10,7 13, ,35-15,4 18,6-18,8 21,2-21,4 22,21-22,5 23, ,3-31, ,2-50,4 52,6-59, ,25 148,5-158, ,8-191, , Passive sensors (EU) 15

17 Application Satellite TV Telephony (fixed and mobile) Satellite navigation Satellite radio Broadband multimedia services Internet Weather satellites, storm prediction Remote sensing Space station - ISS ISS 16

18 Application Disaster recovery Air traffic control Radio astronomy Solar power satellites Earth magnetic field research Inter satellite links Space exploration Military satellites Geological exploration Sun exploration Mapping Connecting remote areas 17

19 Application WildBlue has Ka-band (20/30 GHz) communications system aboard WildBlue-1 satellite and Telesat s Anik F2 satellite, covering U.S. with 66 spot beams. Satellites are in geostationary orbit at West Longitude. 18

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